Freight Capsule Control in an Underground Freight Pipeline System

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Freight Capsule Control

in an Underground Freight Pipeline System


G. Luo, M. Sir, and J
.
Noble

Center for Engineering Logistics and Distribution (
CELDi
)

Department
of Industrial & Mfg Systems Engineering

University of Missouri

Columbia,
MO


Henry Liu


Freight Pipeline Company

Columbia, Missouri


Funded in part by the National Science Foundation Industry/Uni versity
Cooperative Research Centers Program (IIP
-

0815195)

In Memory of Henry Liu
(1937


2010)



… an inventor who understood the power


of being passionate about his ideas



Ph. D. Colorado State University, specializing in fluid
mechanics



Founder and

President of Freight Pipeline Company.



MU Chaired Professor of Civil Engineering



Director of NSF Capsule Pipeline Research Center



President of the International Freight Pipeline Society



Holder of six patents



Published more than 100 technical papers



Author of two books:
Wind Engineering (1991) and
Pipeline Engineering (2003)



2009 winner of $100,000 “Purpose Prize” for his
successful second career as an inventor




What is Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline (PCP)?


PCP
is the transport of materials or freight by
capsules (i.e., containers or vehicles) propelled
by air moving through a
tube

--

pipeline
or
conduit.

The Technology

Linear Induction Motor (LIM)
Pump

Capsule
-
tunnel
cross
section





Telecom

Walkway

Power
r

Water

Tunnel

(4.5 m I.D.)

Conduit

ceiling

Conduit
wall

Concrete fill

L I M
Secondary

L I M

Primary

Capsule wheel

Rail

Container

Capsule
wall
-
floor
frame

Drain Pump

Drain

Outer tube

Inner tube

5

Countries Currently Considering

PCP
for Container
Transport



China:

Shanghai Port Expansion


6

Countries Currently Considering

PCP
for Container Transport


Australia
:


Sydney Freight Circle



Problem Domain


Logistics issues associated with freight tube system


Tube network design


I/O location, flow path


Dispatch/control of capsules according to freight shipment needs
(capacity and schedule)


Tracking of cargo in transit in the pipe and in storage room


Design of cargo loading and unloading process at freight pipeline
terminals


Capacity analysis



7

Vehicle

Technology

Vehicle
Rqmts

-

size and #

Operation

-

dispatching

-

routing

Network Design

-

flow path

-

# & location P/D

Information

-

ID (RFID)

8

Operation Optimization

Operation Optimization

Objective Function:


Minimize the Total Tardiness Squared

Subject to:


Constraint

1

ensures

that

the

start

time

of

each

task

is

not

earlier

than

its

release

time
.


Constraint

2

ensures

that

the

number

of

capsules

in

the

freight

pipe

line

does

not

exceed

the

maximum

capacity
.



Constraint

3

balances

the

number

of

capsule

leaving

and

entering

a

station
.



Constraint

4

specifies

the

tardiness

of

each

task
.


Constraint

5

ensures

that

the

total

number

of

capsules

assigned

to

stations

does

not

exceed

the

total

number

of

capsules

available

in

the

system

10

12 Job Solution Comparison

optimal vs. heuristic

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
0
1
3
4
5
2
7
6
11
8
9
10
Optimal solution TTS=157

Start time
Duration
End time
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
0
1
3
4
5
2
7
11
6
10
8
9
Scheduling heuristic TTS=165

Start time
Duration
End time
11

Network

configuration: 50
-
Job problem


A single loop pipeline with 4 stations and line fill capacity
10
;


Capsules travel clockwise with distance:


d
AB

= 2;
d
BC

= 2;
d
CD

= 3;
d
DA

= 2;

Station A

Station B

Station D

Station C

Single loop Pipeline

12

Schedule Solution
: 50
-
Job problem

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
24
20
21
27
25
30
26
28
22
40
9
23
49
48
14
47
29
34
46
43
36
37
16
17
31
39
44
11
15
33
19
45
35
32
38
13
41
12
42
18
TTS=483

Start time
Duration
End time

30

capsules are allocated to finish

all 50 jobs.

SIMIO Simulation:

Control Algorithm
Testbed


13

Summary


There are several large metro areas in the world that are
examining the feasibility of using underground pipelines
for transporting freight instead of using truck.


Dispatch and control of the freight capsules according to
freight shipment requirements is a key issue in the
implementation of these systems.


A mathematical model that captures the dispatching /
control problem and a problem specific heuristic that is
capable of obtaining solutions to realistic sized problems
has been developed


Performance results comparing
the solutions of
the
heuristic to several classic heuristics are promising.

14