Chapter 11 Applied Linguistics

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Supplementary exercises

and reference keys


Chapter
11
Applied Linguistics


I. Definition of terms

1.

applied linguistics: 1) the study of second and foreign language learning and teaching; 2) the
study of language and linguistics in relation to practical pro
blems, such as LEXICOGRAPHY,
TRANSLATION, SPEECH PATHOLOGY, etc. Applied linguistics uses information from
sociology, psychology, anthropology and INFORMATION THEORY as well as from
linguistics in order to develop its own theoretical models of language and

language use, and
then uses this information and theory in practical areas such as syllabus design, SPEECH
THERAPY, LANGUAGE PLANNING, STYLISTICS, ETC.

2.

syllabus: also curriculum, a description of the contents of a course of instruction and the
order in wh
ich they are to be taught.
L
anguage
-
teaching syllabuses may be based on (a)
grammatical items and vocabulary, (b) the language needed for different types of situations,
(c) the meanings and communicative functions which the learner needs to express in the
TARGET LANGUAGE.

3.

holophrastic sentences: They are children’s one
-
word utterances. They are called holophrastic
sentences, because they can be used to express a concept or predication that would be
associated with an entire sentence in adult speech.

4.

telegr
aphic speech: They are the early multiword utterances of children which typically lack
inflectional morphemes and most minor lexical cate
gories. Some function words are
altogether missing. What occur in these multiword utterances are usually the “substant
ive” or
“content” words that carry the main message. Because of their resemblance to the style of
lan
guage found in telegrams, utterances at this acquisition stage are often called telegraphic
speech.

5.

second language acquisition: Second language acquisit
ion (SLA) is a general term which
refers to the acquisition of a second language (L2) , in contrast with first language acqui
sition
(FLA). SLA is also used as a general term to refer to the acquisition of a foreign or
subsequent language (such as a third
or fourth language). Thus, SLA is primarily the study of
how learners acquire or learn an addi
tional language after they have acquired their first
language (LI).

6.

error analysis: the study and analysis of the errors made by second language learners.
E
rror

analysis may be carried out in order to identify strategies which learners use in language
learning, to try to identify the causes of learner errors and to obtain information on common
difficulties in language learning, as an aid to teaching or in the pre
paration of teaching
materials.

7.

Input hypothesis: It is a hypothesis, proposed by Krashen, holds that language acquisition
takes place when a learner understands input that contains grammatical forms that are at “i +
1” (i.e. are a little more advanced tha
n the current state of the learner’s interlanguage). In
other words, language acquisition depends on comprehensible input.

8.

input: It is the samples of oral and written language a learner is exposed to while learning or
using a particular target language.

9.

v
alidity: (in testing) the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure, or
can be used successfully for the purposes for which it is intended.
A

number of different
statistical procedures can be applied to a test to estimate its validity.

10.

reliability: (in testing) a measure of the degree to which a test gives consistent results.
A

test
is said to be reliable if it gives the same results when it is given on different occasions or
when it is used by different people.

11.

interlanguage: It is a s
eries of internal representations that comprises the learner's interim
knowledge of the target language. This is the language that a learner constructs at a given
stage of SLA. Interlanguage consists of a series of interlocking and ap
proximate linguistic
systems in
-
between and yet distinct from the learner's native and target languages. It
represents the learner’s transitional compe
tence moving along a learning continuum
stretching from one’s LI compe
tence to the target language competence.

12.

interlingual

error: It is the error which can be traced to LI interference.

13.

intralingual error: It is the error committed by SL learners, regardless of their LI.

14.

fossilization: it is a process that sometimes occurs in second language learning in which
incorrect lingu
istic features become a permanent part of the way a person speaks or writes in
the target language.

15.

instrumental motivation: Adults are motivated to learn a second language in order to use it
functionally. In other words, the learners desire to learn a se
cond language because it is
useful for some functional, “instrumental” goals. This motivation is called instrumental
motivation.

16.

integrative motivation: Adults are motivated to learn a second language in order to use it
socially. In other words, the learn
ers learn a second language in order to communicate with
native speakers of the target language.

17.

a
cculturation: It is the process of adapting to the new culture of the L2 com
munity.

18.

teachability hypothesis: It predicts that instruction can only promote l
anguage acquisition if
the interlanguage is close to the point when the structures to be taught are acquired in the
natural setting so that sufficient processing requirements are developed.

19.

language transfer: It may involve (1) positive transfer

the langua
ge transfer that facilitates
the acquisition of target language forms, (2) negative transfer, also called interference

the
language transfer that results in errors, (3) avoidance

it occurs when specific target
language features are under
-
represented in lea
rner production in comparison native
-
speaker
production, and (4) the overuse of some forms where some other form is preferred in
target
-
language use.

20.

UG: Universal Grammar.
A theory which claims to account for the grammatical competence
of every adult no m
atter what language he or she speaks.
I
t claims that every speaker knows a
set of principles which apply to all languages and also a set of PARAMETERs that can vary
from one language to another, but only within certain limits.
T
he theory was proposed by
No
am Chomsky and has been stated more specifically in his model of
GOVERNMENT/BINDING THEORY.
A
ccording to UG THEORU, acquiring a language
means applying the principles of UG grammar to a particular language, e.g. English, French
or German, and learning whic
h value is appropriate for each parameter.



I
I
.
B
lank
-
filling

1.

Krashen

s __________ is one of the most famous theories among different models of
language acquisition. (Input Hypothesis)

2.

In learning a second language, a learner will subconsciously use his k
nowledge. This process
is called language __________.

(
transfer
)

3.

The first language __________ refers to the development of a first or native language.
(
acquisition
)

4.

Such errors as “teached” and “womans” are caused by__________.

(
o
vergeneralization
)

5.

Althou
gh children are still acquiring aspect of their native language through the later years of
childhood, it is normally assumed that they have completed the greater part of the language
acquisition process by the age of ___________. (five)

6.


He no bite you


is

a negative utterance produced by children most probably ___________.
(in the late multiword stage)

7.

A caretaker speech, also called ___________ or ___________, is the type of modified speech
typically addressed to young children.
(
motherese
;

babytalk
)

8.

In s
econd language learning, instrumental motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is
functional, and __________ motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is social.
(
integrative
)

9.

__________ learning theory suggested that a child’s verbal behaviour was condit
ioned
through association between a stimulus and the following response.
(
B
ehaviorist
)

10.

__________ holds that where two languages are similar, positive transfer would occur; where
they are different, negative transfer, or interference, would result.

(
Contra
stive analysis
hypothesis
)

11.

_________ holds that learners do build variable systems by trying to map particular forms on
to particular functions.

(
Form
-
function mapping
)

12.

By the age of six, it is estimated, the number of basic words known by English school
c
hildren amount to some __________, including word stems and their inflectional derivatives.
(7,800)

13.

The development of linguistic skills involves the
acquisition

of __________ rules rather than
the mere memorization of words and sentences. (grammatical)

14.

__
________ has been found to occur usually in children

s pronunciation or reporting of the
truthfulness of utterances, rather than in the grammaticality of sentences. (reinforcement)

15.

According to Krashen, _________ refers to the gradual and subconscious
deve
lopment

of
ability in the first language by using it naturally in daily communicative situations.
(acquisition)

16.

__________ means how likely learners think a form of LI to be acceptable in another
language.

(
Perceived transferability
)

17.

__________ is a type o
f form
-
focused instruction that involves supplying the learners with
plentiful positive evidence of a specific linguistic feature.

(
Input flooding
)

18.

_________ aims to teach a specific linguistic feature by eliciting sentences containing it from
the learner.

(
Production
-
based instruction
)

19.

According to a __________ view of language acquisition, humans are quipped with the
neural prerequisites for language and language use, just as birds are biologically prewired to
learn the songs of their species.
(
nativist
)

20.

In general, the two
-
word stage begins roughly __________. (during the second year)



I
I
I. Multiple choice
s

1.

By

Language acquisition is primarily the acquisition of the grammatical system of language

,
linguists mean that _____________. (D)

A.

every specific

rule allowed by the grammatical system of a language must be acquired

B.

the phonological rules must be acquired

C.

the syntactic rules must be acquired

D.

the general principles that are fundamental to the grammaticality of speech must be
acquired

2.

_____
___
____, e
xcept those with mental or physical impairments, are better or worse first
language acquirers.
(B)

A. Some men B. Almost all men

C. No men D. Few men



3. It is suggested that children begin to develop the articulato
ry movements needed to produce the
phonemic distinctions of their language ____________. (B)


A. after they master the phonemic contrasts


B. before they master the phonemic contrasts


C. long before they master the phonemic contrasts


D. while the
y were mastering the phonemic contrasts

4.
Linguists have found that for the vast majority of children, language development occurs
____________.
(
B
)

A.

with much imitation

B.

with little conscious instruction

C.

with much correction from their parents

D.

with little linguistic input


5.

______
_
____ modifications are not only successful, but have the added advantage of
providing learners with continued access to the very linguistic items they have yet to acquire.

(
A
)

A. Elaborative B. Lingui
stic

C. Conversational D. Discourse

6.
Beside the genetic predisposition for language acquisition, language __________ is necessary
for successful language acquisition.

(
D
)

A. instruction B. correction

C. imitation D. in
put and interaction

7
.
Intelligibility means that any human being can be both a producer and a ___________of
messages.

(
B
)

A. sender B. receiver C. medium D. none of above

8
.

Which of the following is not true?
(
D
)

A.

Interlang
uage is a product of communicative strategies of the learner.

B.

Interlanguage is a product of mother tongue interference.

C.

Interlanguage is a product of overgeneralization of the target language rules.

D. Interlanguage is the representation of learne
rs’ unsystematic L2 rules.

9
.
Negative words occur at the beginning of expressions in child language acquisition
___________. (C)


A. at some point during the late multiword stage


B. at some point after the multiword stage


C. when children

s langua
ge develops towards the early multiword stage


D. when the children

s language develops after the early multiword stage

10.
___________ is defined
by Krashen
as a conscious process of accumulating knowledge of
the

second language usually obtained in scho
ol settings.

(
C
)

A. Competence B. Performance C. Learning D. Acquisition

1
1
. The ___________, researchers take part in the activities they are studying.

(
A
)

A. participant observation B. non
-
participant observation

C. experim
ent


D. introspection

1
2
.
The formal instruction in second language acquisition ___________.
(
B
)

A.



has no effect at all

B.



has a powerful delayed effect

C.



has very little effect

D.



has unsatisfactory effect



1
3
.
___________ ar
e devised to reveal what a learner knows: the rules he is uses and the systems
and categories he is working with.

(
D
)

A.
E
xperiments B.
Q
uasi
-
experiments C.
T
ests D.
T
asks

14. Studies on the effects of formal instruction on SLA
show that formal instruction may help
learners perform some types of tasks EXCEPT____________. (D)


A. planned speech


B. writing


C. career
-
oriented exam


D. casual and spontaneous conversation

15
. ___________ sees errors as the result of the intr
usion of LI habits over which the

learner had
no control.

(
C
)

A.
E
rror analysis B.
P
erformance analysis

C. C
ontrastive analysis
D. D
iscourse analysis

1
6
.
Which of the following terms does not belong to the same category? (C)

A.

Care
taker speech B. Babytalk

C.

Mother tongue D. Motherese

D.

The learner’s lack of instrumental motivation



17.
It is a case of ___________ when a speaker produced two negative utterances in close
proximity to each other, in the sa
me context, while addressing the same person and with
similar amounts of planning time: No look my card. Don't look my card.

(
A
)

A. free variation B. systematic variation

C. linguistic variation D. context variation

18
.
The optimum

age for second language acquisition is __________.
(
A
)

A.

early teenage

B.

after puberty

C.

at puberty

D.

after the brain lateralization

1
9
.
According to the ___________, the acquisition of a second language involves, and is
dependent on, the acquisit
ion of the culture of the target language community.
(
A
)


A. acculturation view B. mentalist view


C. behaviourist view D. conceptualist view

2
0
. In general, a good second learner is an adolescent ____________.
(
D
)

A. who ha
s a strong and well
-
defined motivation to learn

B. who seeks out all chances to interact with the input

C. who is willing to identify himself with the culture of the target language community

D. all the above


I
V
. True or false

statements

1.

Language acqu
isition begins at about the same time as lateralization does and is normally
complete, as far as the essentials are concerned, by the time that the process of lateralization
comes to an end.
(
T
)

2.

The
number
of words is the salient feature of the utterances
at the multiword stage.
(
F
)

3.

Humans can be said to be predisposed and biologically programmed to acquire at least one
language.
(
T
)

4.

In language classrooms nowadays the grammar taught to students is basically descriptive, and
more attention is paid to develo
ping learners’ communicative skills.
(
T
)

5.

Personality

is not a factor that may influence SLA.

(
F
)


6.

Children follow a similar acquisition schedule of predictable stages along the route of
language development across cultures, though there is an idiosyncratic

variation in the amount
of time that takes individuals to master different aspects of the grammar.
(
T
)

7.

Topic avoidance occurs when the speaker simply does not talk about concepts for which the
vocabulary or other meaning structure is not known.
(
T
)

8.

In the
ory, researchers who embrace more qualitative methodologies would reject the use of
instruments to elicit data, favouring instead spontaneous or “natural” data, while researchers
preferring quantitative methods would choose to use instruments in their stud
ies.

(
T
)

9.

Language use is both systematic and non
-
systematic, subject to external as well as to internal
variation.

(
T
)


10.

Phonologically slower rate of delivery is an example of conversational modification.
(
F
)

11.

Learners with different first languages would l
earn a second language in different ways.
(
F
)

12.

Children who grow up in culture where caretaker speech is absent acquire their native
language more slowly than children who are exposed to caretaker speech.
(
F
)

13.

Children are learning to distinguish between the

sounds of their language and the sounds that
are not part of the language during the period that children

s babbling becomes more
similar

to the sound pattern of the language they are acquiring
.
(T)


14.

In linguistic study, linguists first work out a theory
about language structure, then, test it with
language facts.

(
F
)

15.

If language learners are provided with sufficient and the right kind of language exposure and
chances to interact with language input, they will acquire the native
-
like competence in the
targ
et language.

(
F
)

16.

Beginners were more willing to transfer marked items along with unmarked ones.
Intermediate students were more conservative about transferring marked uses. And advanced
learners once again became willing to assume transferability.

(
T
)

17.

Chil
dren’s grammar develops gradually until it becomes exactly the adult

s grammar.

(
F
)

18.

By the time children are going beyond the telegraphic stages, they begin to incorporate some
of the
inflectional

morphemes
.
(
T
)

19.

Observations of children in different langua
ge areas of the world reveal that the
developmental stages are similar, possibly universal, whatever the nature of the input.
(
T
)

20.

The prelinguistic stage belongs to the recognizable stage of language. (F)



V
. Questions

1
. Summarize the advantages and disa
dvantages of the seven methodologies: introspection,
participant observation, non
-
participant observation, focused description, pre
-
experiment,
quasi
-
experiment, and experiment.

In an introspective study, with guidance from the researcher, learners examine

their own
behaviour for insights into language acquisition. Its disadvantage may be its limitation to the study
of affective factors such as attitudes and motivation. The advantage is assumed to be the ability to
provide access
to learners’

conscious thou
ght processes.

In participant observation, researchers take part in the activities they are studying. In
non
-
participant observations researchers observe activities without engaging in them directly.
Both participant and non
-
participant observations have m
any positive qualities: (1) Researchers
using these methods provide us with a detailed and comprehensive description of subjects'
language acquisition behaviour. (2) Such descriptions are psycholinguistically coherent. There are,
however, limitations to th
ese research methodologies: (l) the possibility for data gathered to be
unnatural, due to the presence of an observer, and the restricted scope, (2) the long time required,
and (3) the inability to generalize from their findings, for it is impossible to so
rt out the typical
from the unique.

In a focused descriptive study, researchers narrow the scope of their study to a particular set
of variables, a particular system of language or to explore a particular issue. Its advantages are (1)
non
-
extended focus, (
2) the unchangeability of focus according to the fancies of the researchers.
The disadvantage is the ignorance of the fact that language acquisition is a multi
-
dimensional
phenomenon.

Pre
-
experimental methodology refers to the study which fails to meet the

both criteria
required for an experimental study: (1) there must be experimental and control groups, (2) subjects
must be randomly assigned to one of these groups; quasi
-
experimental the study meeting either of
the two criteria; experimental both. The exp
eriment is advantageous over the other two in that, (1)
there are two groups in the study, which may lead to a true cause
-
effect relationship. (2) Random
group assignment allows truly comparable groups. The disadvantages of an experiment are, (1) the
invol
vement of the researcher’s interest when the phenomenon under investigation is removed
from its real
-
world context, (2) the inappropriateness for studying human behaviour at times.
Quasi
-
experiments have grounds because of one of the conditions not met and

pre
-
experimental
designs are justifiable in that we don't know whether a hypothesis is true before we put it to
experiment test.


2
. How many kinds of setting may involve in a language acquisition research? What are the
differences between them?

There are

two kinds. One kind of setting is the instructed and the other naturalistic. The
differences may be in language processing and the type of input the learner receives. It is assumed
that instruction could alter natural language processing, however, there a
re researchers arguing
that instruction does not apparently suppress the natural process of language acquisition. The
difference in the type of input the learner receives would be that in the classroom setting, language
is organized according to the presen
tation of rules, with the precision of teacher feedback on errors
particularly for violations of rules in the linguistic code, while in the naturalistic setting, there is
no formal articulation of rules and emphasis is on communication of meaning. Error co
rrection, if
it occurs at all, tends to focus on meanings of messages communicated.


3
. How many types of data analysis have been employed in language acquisition research?
How are these types of data analysis significant in SLA research?

Four types of da
ta analysis have been employed. They are contrastive analysis, error analysis,
performance analysis, and discourse analysis.

Contrastive analysis (CA) systematically compares native languages and target languages to
find the interference of native language

when acquiring target languages. It has a close
relationship with behaviourism. Although contrastive analysis was faced with a downfall as
behaviorism was challenged, as a methodological option it was not abandoned.

Error analysis (EA) studies and analyze
s the errors made by L2 learners and suggests that
many learner errors are not due to the learner s mother tongue interference but reflect universal
learning strategies such as overgeneralization and simplification of rules. Error analysis also fell
into d
isfavour for (1) its narrowness

focusing on errors only and having difficulty in identifying
the unitary source of an error, and (2) its failure to account for all the areas of the SL in which
learners have difficulty. Nevertheless error analysis was not d
oomed to death rather incorporated
into performance analysis.

Performance analysis (PA) is an analysis of the learners


in
terlanguage
performance. It is
superior to error analysis in that it is not limited to analyzing the errors learners commit. Also like

it
s

predecessors, however, performance analysis was found to be limiting; it did not take the input
to the learner into consideration. And this limitation led to the emergence of discourse analysis.

Discourse analysis (DA) recognizes the need to examine n
ot only the learner’s performance
but also the input to the learner. Another quality of discourse analysis applied to SLA is that
researchers are concerned not only with how IL forms evolve, but how learners learn how to use
the forms appropriately for a p
articular discourse function as well.



4
.
Discuss the contrastive analysis in detail.

Contrastive Analysis was developed in order to identify and predict the areas of learning
difficulty. Given this approach, it was hypothesized that L2 errors were predo
minantly the re
sult
of negative transfer, or mother tongue interference and second language learning was believed to
be a matter of overcoming the differences between LI and L2 systems.

According to this view, the major task of second language teaching s
hould predominantly be:
first, contrast the native and the target language systems and make predictions about the lan
guage
items that would cause difficulty and the errors that learners were like
ly to make; then use these
predictions in deciding on the t
ype of language items that needed special treatment in teaching and
in material development and the type of intensive techniques that would be employed to overcome
learning difficulties created by the interference.

In practice, the Contrastive Analysis is

not effective because a large proportion of
grammatical errors could not be explained by mother tongue interference. Errors predicted by
contrastive analysis have often not occurred, whereas many actual errors, such as “goed” and
“foots”, come from overg
eneralization instead of nega
tive transfer.

Errors, according to the contrastive analysis approach, are negative and had to be overcome
or given up. In fact, errors produced in a learner’s second language utterance may very well be
developmental errors a
nd therefore, should not be looked upon simply as a failure to learn the
correct form, but as an indication of the actual acquisition process in action. Developmental errors
often result from the effort on the part of the learner to construct and test gene
ral rules of
communication in the target language.



5
. Identify the systematic variation and free variation from the following sentences and case.

(1) “No look my card” and “Don’t look my card” in the same context, while addressing the
same person and wi
th similar amounts of planning time.

(2) “George playing football” (= George played football all the time) and “In Peru, George
usually play football every day” (= In Peru, George usually played football every day).

(3)

”My daughter a real pain these days”

(in formal context) and “My daughter can be very
troublesome these days” (in informal context) .

(4)
M
ore correct use of past tense in the planned than in the unplanned narrative.

Sentences in (l) are the examples of free variation; sentences in (2) syste
matic variation according
to linguistic context; (3) systematic variation according to situational context, and the case of (4) is
an example of systematic variation according to psycholinguistic context
--
the amount of attention.


6
. What is the stylistic
continuum paradigm? What are the significance and problems?

It is a theory of interlanguage variation formulated by Tarone. The theory holds that at any
point in time a learner’s interrlanguage is really a continuum of speech style. At one end of the
conti
nuum is the careful style, and at the other end is the vernacular style. Tarone claims that new
target
-
language forms will first appear in the most careful style and gradually move to the
vernacular.

The theory is attractive in a number of ways. It explain
s why learne language is variable: the
careful style is more open to native
-
language and target
-
language influence, and as a result the
most variable while the vernacular style exhibits least variability. It also relates language use to
language learning.

However, the model also has a number of problems. First, later research has shown that
learners are not always most accurate in their careful style and least accurate in their vernacular
style. A second problem is that the role of social factors remains un
clear. Style
-
shifting among L2
learners don’t necessarily reflect the social group they belong to.


7
. Is there a definite order of L2 acquisition?

There is a disagreement on this matter. Some researchers believe that accuracy order
observed is the same as

the order of acquisition. But not all researchers are convinced there is a
universal “natural order”. Some have produced evidence to show that it cannot be concluded that
learners have acquired a structure simply because they can use it accurately. Other
researchers
have shown that the order does vary somewhat according to the learner s first language.


8
. What is the sequence of acquisition?

First the process involves transitional constructions, i.e. learners are likely to pass through
different stages. S
econd, acquisition follows a U
-
shaped course of development, that is, initially
learners may display a high level of accuracy only to apparently regress later before finally once
again performing in accordance with target
-
language norms. This occurs becaus
e learners
restructure

reorganize their existing knowledge in order to accommodate new knowledge.


9
. What are the different views of input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis on discourse’s
contribution to language acquisition?

Input hypothesis proposed

by Krashen, holds that language acquisition takes place when a
learner understands input that contains grammatical forms that are at “i + 1” (i.e. are a little more
advanced than the current state of the learner’s interlanguage). In other words, language
acquisition depends on comprehensible input. Interaction hypothesis by Michael Long, also
emphasizes the importance of comprehensible input but claims that it is most effective when it is
modified through the negotiation of meaning.


1
0
. What is meant by l
inguistic, conversational, interactional, and elaborative modifications?
Give an example of each. Why are elaborative modifications presumably better to use in
simplifying texts for language students than linguistic modifications?

These are all the adjustm
ents made to address language learners. Linguistic modifications
hold a focus on the input alone, while conversational modifications shift the focus from the input
alone to the structural characteristics of the conversation in which FT occurs. Respective e
xamples
for them are slower rate of delivery and more predictable/ narrower range of topics. Elaborative
modification is the same as interactional modification, and the term is used to make a contrast
to simplification
-

linguistic adjustments. Interacti
onal modification is part of conversational
modification undergoing negotiation of meaning between the speakers in a conversation. An
example for it may be more confirmation checks.

Both linguistic modifications and elaborative modifications have beneficia
l effects on
comprehension, however elaborative modifications are successful, and have the added advantage
of providing learners with continued access to the very linguistic items they have yet to acquire.


1
1
. What are the major stages that a child has t
o follow in first language development? What
are the features of the linguistic forms at each stage?

1) The prelinguistic stage: At the babbling stage, the sounds and syllables that children utter
are meaningless. Babbling, especially early babbling, is l
argely independent of the particular
language to which children are exposed. The sounds produced in this period seem to include a
large variety of sounds. Babbling does not seem to depend on the presence of acoustic, auditory
input.

When children are thro
ugh the tenth and eleventh months, they are capable of using their
vocalizations to express emotions and emphasis, and of attempting at the grand task of language
acquisition.

2) The one
-
word stage: This stage usually occurs in the late part of the first
year or the early
part of the second year. At this stage children learn that sounds are related to meanings. They
begin to use the same string of sounds of the native language to "mean" the same thing. Children’s
one
-
word utterances are also called holophr
astic sentences, because they can be used to express a
concept or predication that would be associated with an entire sentence in adult speech. One
-
word
utterances sometimes show an overextension or underextension of reference.

3) The two
-
word stage: Duri
ng the second year of life, child’s utterances gradually become
longer. Children are heard uttering two
-
word expressions in a variety of combinations. Children’s
two
-
word utterances can express a certain vari
ety of grammatical relations indicated by word
order, e.g.

Daddy hat.

Doggie bark.

Shoe mine.

Apple me.

Two
-
word expressions are absent of syntac
tic or morphological markers. Pronouns are rare.

4) The multiword stage: It occurs between two and three years old. The salient feature of the
utterance
s at this stage ceases to be the number of words, but the variation in strings of lexical
morphemes, e.g.

Daddy like this book.

He play little tune.

This shoe all wet.

No sit there.

The early multiword utterances typically lack inflectional morphemes
and most minor lexical
categories, therefore they are often called telegraphic speech. Although they lack grammatical
morphemes, telegraphic sentences are not simply words that are randomly strung together, but
follow the principles of sentence formation.
As this type of telegram
-
format speech increases, a
number of grammatical morphemes begin to appear in children’s speech. Simple prepo
sitions
begin to turn up in their speech.

By the age of five, with an operating vocabulary of more than 2,000 words, chi
ldren have
completed the greater part of the language acquisition process.


1
2
. How do the learner factors potentially influence the way in which a second language is
acquired?

1) The optimum age for second language acquisition: First language acquisition

is most
successful when it oc
curs during the early years of one’s life before puberty, but the optimum age
for SLA does not always accord with the maxim of “the younger the better”. The optimum age for
SLA is early teenage. This claim is justifiable beca
use this is the age when the learner’s flexibility
of the language acquisition faculty has not been com
pletely lost while one's cognitive skills have
developed considerably.

2)


Motivation: Motivation in language learning can be defined in terms of the l
earner’s
overall goal or orientation. Instrumental motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is functional,
and integrative motivation occurs when the learner's goal is social. If the target language functions
as a foreign language (used in a limited envir
onment such as in school), the learner is likely to
benefit from an integrative motivation; but if the target language functions as a second language
(used as a primary means of com
munication in the community of the learner), an instrumental
motivation is

more effective.

3)


Acculturation: The acculturation hypothesis focuses on the social and psychological
conditions un
der which L2 processing is most likely to take place successfully. It states simply
that the more a person aspires to acculturate to the

community of the target language, the further
he or she will progress along the developmental continuum.

4)


Personality: Intuitively, an outgoing per
sonality may contribute to language acquisition.
Research results, however, only partially support this

hypothesis. No significant relationship has
been found between talkativeness on the one hand and overall proficiency in a second language on
the other. But it is recog
nized that as a result of being frequently exposed to and interacting with
the target l
anguage, learners with an extroverted personality are likely to achieve better oral
fluency than otherwise.


In sum, A good second language learner is, among other things, an adolescent who has a
strong and well
-
de
fined motivation to learn. He is able t
o respond and adaptable to differ
ent
learning situations. He seeks out all opportunities and makes maxi
mum use of them to interact
with the input. He employs appropriate learning strategies. And he is willing to identify himself or
herself with the cultu
re of the target language community.



1
3
. What is the relationship between personality and the success in language acquisition?

Studies have indicated that personality exerts impact on language proficiency. For example,
extroversation has been observed

positively linked with language learning success; facilitating
anxiety has been identified to gear the learner emotionally for approval behavior, and debilitating
anxiety to flee the new learning task. Other personality variables, such as self
-
esteem, ris
k
-
taking,
sensitivity to rejection, empathy, inhibition, tolerance of ambiguity, etc. have also been touched.
The research indicates that some traits appear to have some bearing on success in language
acquisition. However, the results vis
-
sa
-
vis the other
variables have been inconclusive.


1
4
. What is the relationship between cognitive style and language proficiency? What are the
implications of such findings for instruction practice?

Five cognitive styles have been identified to affect language proficiency
: field independence
vs. independence, category width, instruction preferred (aural vs. visual), reflectivity vs.
impulsivity, and analytic vs. gestalt style.

There are studies indicating that students learn faster if they are in a class where the
methodol
ogy matches their cognitive style. Since it cannot be expected that students can be
streamed according to a particular cognitive style they employ, a reasonable alternative might be
to diversify language instruction as much as possible based upon the varie
ty of cognitive styles
represented among students.


1
5
. What do you know about learning strategies in relation to language acquisition?

Learning strategies are the particular approaches or techniques that learners employ to try to
learn a language. Differe
nt kinds of learning strategies have been identified: cognitive strategies,
metacognitive strategies, and social/affective strategies.

One of the main findings about which strategies are important for language acquisition is that
successful language learne
rs pay attention to both form and meaning. Another is that successful
learners use mote strategies than unsuccessful learners. Successful learners may also call on
different strategies at different stages of their development.



1
6
.

What are the representatives of the nativist theories for L2 acquisition?

One of the best known and most influential theories of SLA in this line is Krashen’s Monitor
Theory which claimed that two separate knowledge systems underlay SL performance, the
ac
quired system and the learned system. The “natural order” was the surface manifestation of the
acquired system; disturbed order was caused by Monitoring, intrusion of the learned system on
performance tasks which encourage its use. There are five major cla
ims modifying his model: the
Acquisition
-
Learning Hypothesis, the Natural Order Hypothesis, the Monitor Hypothesis, the
Input Hypothesis, and the Affective Filter Hypothesis.


17
. What’s the difference between acquisition and learning, according to Krashe
n?

According to Krashen, acquisition refers to the gradual and subcon
scious development of
ability in the first language by using it naturally in daily communicative situations. Learning,
however, is defined as a conscious process of accumulating knowled
ge of a second language usu
-
ally obtained in school settings. A second language, Krashen ar
gues, is more commonly learned
but to some degree may also be acquired, depending on the environmental setting and the input
received by the L2 learner. A rule can
be learned before it is internalized (i.e., acquired), but
having learned a rule does not necessarily prevent having to acquire it later. For example, an
English language learner may have learned a rule like the third person singular “
-
s”, but is unable
to

articulate the correct form in casual and spontaneous conversation because the rule has not yet
been acquired. This shows that conscious knowledge of rules does not ensure an immediate
guidance for actual performance.


1
8
. What is the view of the environm
entalist theories of language acquisition? What are the
representatives?

Environmentalist theories of learning hold that an organism s nurture, or experience, is of
more importance to development than its nature, or innate contributions. The best
-
known
exa
mples
are

the various forms of behaviourist and neo
-
behaviourist stimulus
-
response learning
theories.

Schumann’s pidginization hypothesis and acculturation model is among the current claims in
this line. Schumann proposed that pidginization in L2 acquisiti
on results when learners fail to
acculturate to the target
-
language group, which is due to social distance and psychological
distance.


19
. What is the role of input for SLA?

It is evident that SLA takes place only when the learner has access to L2 input
and the
opportunity to interact with the input. It appears that what learners need is not mere exposure to
L2 da
ta, but the kind of input data that are specially suited to their current stage of development.
There is, however, no agreement as to precisely

what con
stitutes optimum input. Some scholars
advise that access to comprehensible input is a necessary condition for acquisition to take place. It
is suggested that input can be made comprehensible by the use of learned structures and vocabu
-
lary, the l
inguistic and extralinguistic contexts of the input data, and the learner

s general
knowledge to interpret new language items. It is also sug
gested that interaction (i.e., taking part in
communicative ac
tivities) and intake (i.e., the input that is assim
ilated and fed into the
interlanguage system) are more important for SLA than input.




2
0
. What is the role of correction and reinforcement in first language acquisition?

According to Behaviorist learning theory, children are believed to gradually assum
e correct
forms of the language of their community when their "bad" speech gets corrected and when their
good speech gets positively reinforced.

Researchers have found that correction and reinforcement are not key factors in child
language development as
they were claimed to be. When adults do attempt to correct children s
grammatical errors and the correct form is repeated, their efforts seem to have little effect, or
simply doom to failure because children often do not know what the problem is and contin
ue to
use a personally constructed form. Children Reinforcement has been found to occur usually in
children’s pronun
ciation or reporting of the truthfulness of utterances, rather than in the
grammaticality of sentences.


2
1
. Discuss the biological basis o
f language acquisition.

Language acquisition is a genetically determined capacity that all hu
mans possess. Although
the development of a communicative system is not unique to human beings, the natural acquisition
of language as a system of highly abstrac
t rules and regulations for creative communication
distinguishes humans from all other animal species. In this sense, humans can be said to be
predisposed, that is, biologically programmed, to acquire at least one language. Language
development can thus be

regarded as analogous to other biological developments in human growth
and maturation, such as the growth and maturation of one’s limbs and organs. Humans are
equipped with the neural prerequisites for language and language use, just as birds are biologic
ally
“prewired” to learn the songs of their species.