Computers Are Your Future

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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Computers Are Your Future

Twelfth Edition

Chapter 9: Privacy, Crime, and Security







Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

1

Privacy in Cyberspace


Privacy

o
Individual’s ability to restrict or eliminate the
collection, use, and sale of confidential personal
information


Anonymity

o
Means to communicate without disclosing one’s
identity

o
More difficult with the use of computers and the
Internet


Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


Cookies

o
S
mall files written to your hard disk by Web sites
visited

o
Examples include:


Track your browsing habits


Gather personal information without your
consent

o
Can be disabled

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


Radio frequency identification
(RFID)

o
Uses radio waves to track a chip or tag

o
Used for inventory control in stores

o
Recognizes microchips in pets

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


United States

o
Federal and some State Laws:


Fair Credit Reporting Act

o
Credit Reporting Agencies


Experian, Equifax,
TransUnion

o
No comprehensive federal law governing the overall
privacy rights of U.S. citizens.

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


SPAM

o
Unsolicited messages sent in bulk
over electronic mailing systems

o
India has created the most spam

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


Protecting privacy online

o
Use free Web
-
based throwaway e
-
mail
addresses.

o
Don’t give out personal information.

o
Complete forms only if you see a privacy
statement.

o
Turn off cookies


Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

7

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


Do
not leave cell phones in public
places.


Turn off services not in use,
especially Bluetooth
.


Don’t leave personal info unattended
on monitors

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

8

The Problem: Collection of
Information Without Consent


Employee monitoring

o
Most U.S. employers observe employee phone calls,
e
-
mails, Web browsing habits, and computer files


Protecting privacy at work

o
Don’t make personal calls on a work phone

o
Avoid using company e
-
mail for personal purposes

o
Assume you are monitored

o
Be aware of
shoulder surfing


Stealing info and passwords

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime


Types of computer crime

o
Identify theft

criminal access to personal information in order
to impersonate someone

o
Dumpster diving

disgruntled employees or thieves go
through a company’s trash to find information they can steal

o
Phishing attacks

legitimate
-
looking e
-
mails or Web sites
created in an attempt to obtain confidential data about a person

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime


Types of computer crime (cont.)

o
Malware
(short for
malicious software
)

programs
that intentionally harm a computer system or allow
individuals to gain access without permission

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime


Types of computer crime (
con’t
.)

o
Spyware

software that gathers private information
and tracks Web use


Adware

form of spyware that generates
annoying pop
-
up and banner ads


Keyloggers

record keystrokes to provide
cybercriminals with confidential data

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

12

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime


Types of computer crime (
con’t
.)

o
Computer virus

code is attached to a program that can harm
or destroy files


Executable File Extensions

o

.bat .com .exe


Many spread through e
-
mail attachments

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

13

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14


Rogue programs

o
Logic bomb

hidden computer code that
sits dormant on a system until triggered

o
Time bomb

virus program that remains
dormant on a computer system until
activated

o
Trojan horse

normal
-
looking program that
includes concealed instructions to cause harm




Computer Crime and
Cybercrime

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

15


More rogue programs


Denial of service (DoS) attack

assaults an Internet
server with so many requests it can’t function

o
attack involves multiple computer systems


Controlled computers are called
zombies
.

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

16

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime


Fraud, theft, and piracy

o
Memory shaving

o
Software piracy


Cybergaming

crime


Salami shaving


stealing small amounts of money
from multiple bank accounts


Data diddling


Forgery

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

17

Computer Crime and
Cybercrime

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

18


Attackers

o
Hackers


Look for computer steps not in manuals

o
Crackers

attempt to enter highly secure computer
systems to destroy data or steal information

o
Swindlers perpetuate frauds:


Bogus work
-
at
-
home opportunities


Illegal pyramid schemes


Bogus franchises


Phony goods that won’t be delivered



Computer Crime and
Cybercrime


Cyberstalkers


o
Use the Internet, social networking sites, and e
-
mail
to harass or threaten

o
Most perpetrators are men

o
Most victims are college
-
age women


Cyberbullying


o
Sending threatening messages via e
-
mail or text
message

o
Usually involves minors

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

19

Security


Computer security
risk

o
Vacation hacking

tricking travelers into
using phony
WiFi

hot spots

evil twins

o
Company Insiders are a company’s highest
risk

o
War Driving


driving around with a notebook
to get access to wireless networks


Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20


Protecting your computer system

o
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

provides
additional power during outages or electrical current
fluctuations

o
Pop
-
up Blockers


prevents pop
-
ups

o
Create hard to guess passwords

Security

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21

Security


Protecting your computer system
(
con’t
.)

o
Biometric authentication

use of voice recognition,
retinal scans, and fingerprint scans for authentication

o
Firewalls
, hardware or software, to prevent
unauthorized access

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

22


Protect yourself

avoid scams

o
Do business with reputable companies.

o
Read documents carefully.

o
Do not post a user profile with personal info.

o
Be cautious if meeting someone you’ve contacted
online.

o
If you become uncomfortable or afraid, contact the
police

Security

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

23

The Encryption Debate


Cryptography

o
Study of transforming information into a
scrambled format


Encryption

o
Scrambling process that creates a message
unreadable by anyone other than the intended
recipient

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

24

Prosecuting Violators


Computer forensics

o
Legal evidence found in computers and digital
storage media

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

25