Chapter 3 - Managing the Information Systems Infrastructure and Services

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26 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 16 μέρες)

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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

1

C
ompanies
have to
plan
and manage
their infrastructure needs
to gain
the
greatest returns on their IS investments

Chapter
3

-

Managing the Information
Systems Infrastructure and
Services

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2

The IS Infrastructure

The IS Infrastructure


Describe how changes in business’ competitive landscape
influence changing IS infrastructure needs.

Issues Associated with Managing the IS Infrastructure

Discuss managerial issues associated with managing an organization’s IS infrastructure.

Cloud Computing

Describe cloud computing and other current trends that can help an organization address IS
infrastructure

related challenges.

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

3

The Is Infrastructure


Businesses rely on an
information
systems
infrastructure


Hardware


System software


Storage


Networking


Data Centers

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4

IS Infrastructure Components:

Hardware


Computer Types

Computer Type

Simultaneous
Users

Typical Use

Typical Cost (US$)

Supercomputer

One to Many

Scientific Research

$1m to $20m

Mainframe

1,000+

Transaction Processing,
Enterprise Applications

$500k to $10m

Server


10,000+

Providing

access to
databases, applications, and
files; Web site hosting

300 to $50k

Workstation

Typically one

Engineering,

Medical,
Graphical Design

$750 to $100k

Personal
Computer

One

Personal Productivity

$200 to $5000

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5

IS Infrastructure Components:

System Software


Controls computer hardware operations


Operating Systems


Examples: Windows, OS X, Linux


Manages hard drives and storage


Manages keyboard, mouse, monitor, & printers


Coordinates application access to computing
resources

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6

IS Infrastructure Components:

Networking

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7

IS Infrastructure Components
:

Servers, Clients, and Peers


Servers


Host (serve up) Data, Databases, Files,
Applications, Web Sites, Video, and other content
for access over the network


Clients


Consume hosted resources


Peers


Serve and Consume resources, both a Server and
a Client interacting with similar computers

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8

IS Infrastructure Components:

Types of Computer Networks

Type

Usage

Size

Private branch
exchange (PBX)

Telephone system serving a

Particular location

Within a business

Personal area
network (PAN)

Wireless communication between
devices (Bluetooth)

Under 10 meters

Local area
network (LAN)

Sharing of data, software

applications, other resources

Between several users

Typically a building

Campus area
network (CAN)

Connect multiple LANs, used by

single organization

Spanning multiple
buildings

Metropolitan area
network (MAN)

Connect multiple LANs

Larger than LAN or CAN,
such as the area of a city

Wide area
network (WAN)

Connect multiple LANs, distributed

ownership and management

Large physical distance,
up to worldwide

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9

The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW)


The Internet is one of several Global Networks


The Internet has standard protocols


The Internet is based on Internetworking, or
combining networks to form larger networks


The World Wide Web uses the Internet


The World
W
ide
W
eb is not the Internet


The World Wide Web is


WWW protocols (ex: HTML

& WWW URLs)


WWW Documents (e.g.: Web Pages)


WWW Domain Servers (translate URLs into IP addresses)


WWW Browsers

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

10

The Internet and the World Wide Web:

Web Domain Names and
Addresses


The Internet uses IP Addresses


IPV4: Old style, running out of addresses


IPV6: New style, huge address space


The WWW uses Domain Names


Ex:
www.google.com


Google is the host name


.com is the suffix


The WWW translates Domain Names into IP
Addresses


www.arizona.edu

translates to (IPV4) 128.196.134.37

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

11

The Internet and the World Wide Web:

World Wide Web Architecture


Components


Interconnected Web Servers


Utilize Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP
)


Communicate over the Internet


Clients request Web page hosted on server


Server break into packets


Packets stream over internet to Client


Client reassembles


Client can request retransmission of any missing packets


Web browser translate Web page into visible output

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12

Demand Fluctuations


Many companies face demand fluctuations


Seasonal Fluctuations (e.g., Christmas)


Monthly
Fluctuations
(Month
-
end spikes)


Demand
f
luctuations create inefficiencies


Some estimate up to 70% of IS capacity only used
20% of the time


IS infrastructure is typically not readily scalable


Changing internal capacity takes time


Cloud computing (next section) may be the answer

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

13

What Is Cloud Computing
?


Cloud Computing is a way to allocate
resources much like a utility sells power


Resources are used “on
-
demand”, as needed


Customers only pay for what they consume


Resources can be rapidly allocated and reallocated


Consumption becomes an operating expense


% Utilization and Efficiency increase dramatically


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14

Why Cloud
Computing
?


The efficiency benefits are tremendous


Different customers have different demand spikes


Large data centers have economies of scale


Purchasing, deploying, and managing technology


Implementing green cooling technologies


Flexibly reallocating resources


Customers can focus on core operations


Infrastructure can be consumed as needed


Scalability no longer a limiting factor


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

15

Cloud Computing

Service Models


Infrastructure
as a
Service
(IaaS)


Platform as a
Service
(PaaS)


Software as a
Service
(SaaS)

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16

Public and Private Clouds

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17

Advanced Cloud Applications


Grid Computing


Microprocessors


Networked computers


Large problems that can be decomposed


Edge Computing


Servers at the edges of networks


Close to clients


Enhanced performance

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18

Convergence of Computing and
Telecommunications

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19

Green Computing


Driving forces


Power Bills


Reputation


Culture


Approaches


Virtualizing servers


Cloud computing


Power management software


Reduced printing


Retiring obsolete hardware responsibly

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

20

Linux: Operating System


Linux
is developed collaboratively, meaning no
one company is solely responsible for its
development or ongoing support
.


This
spreading of development burden
amongst individuals and companies has
resulted in a large and efficient ecosystem and
unheralded software innovation
.


http://www.linux.com/learn/new
-
user
-
guides/376
-
linux
-
is
-
everywhere
-
an
-
overview
-
of
-
the
-
linux
-
operating
-
system

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

21

Linux: Where is it used?




















http
://www.linux.com/learn/new
-
user
-
guides/376
-
linux
-
is
-
everywhere
-
an
-
overview
-
of
-
the
-
linux
-
operating
-
system

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

22

Assembly Language

An assembly language is a low
-
level
programming language for a computer, or other
programmable
device.

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23

Middleware


A computer software that provides services to
software applications beyond those available
from the operating system. It can be described
as "software glue".[Middleware makes it
easier for software developers to perform
communication and input/output, so they can
focus on the specific purpose of their
application.

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

24

Data Buffer


A Data Buffer is a region of a physical memory
storage used to temporarily store data while it
is being moved from one place to another.

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25

Firewall


A

firewall

is a software or hardware
-
based
network security system that controls the
incoming and outgoing network traffic by
analyzing the data packets and determining
whether they should be allowed through or
not.


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26

IP Convergence


IP convergence

refers to the capability of the
Internet to act as a single foundation for various
functions. IP
convergence allows companies to
create a more mobile workforce
.


A VPN helps maintain corporate security by
separating business traffic from other Internet
traffic
--

Remote
employees can use the
Internet to access everything from corporate
files to voicemail messages
.


http
://computer.howstuffworks.com/ip
-
convergence1.htm