Warners Bay Public School

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Warners Bay Public School


ENGLISH

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

201
4




The English Scope and Sequence document at
Warners Bay
P
ublic
School is based on:



NSW Curriculum

for Australian Schools

and is fully aligned with ACARA Australian Curriculum
-

English.


The ACARA Australian Curriculum


English Scope and Sequence:
Kindergarten to

Year 6 is included
as an overview. For further detailed explanations and expansions see
www.australiancurriculum.edu.au



T
he
Warners Bay

Public
School Scope and Sequence document is organised into three main sections:



Language

Language Variation and Change, Language for Interaction, Text Structure and Organisation, Expressing and
Developing Ideas, Sound and Letter Knowledge



Literature

Literature and Content, Responding to Literature, Examining Literature, Creating Literature



Writing

Texts in Context, Interacting with others, Interpreting/Analysing/Evaluating, Creating Texts

Appendices are provided for
:



Grammar



Achievement
Standards

(From ACARA
Australian Curriculum


English

TABLE OF OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES


CONTINUUM OF LEARNING



EARLY STAGE 1 outcomes

STAGE 1 outcomes

STAGE 2 outcomes

STAGE 3 outcomes

Objectives


Through responding to and
composing a wide range of
texts and
through the close study of texts , students
will develop knowledge, understanding
and skills in order to
:




A student:


A student:





A student:





A student:














A: communicates through speaking,
listening, reading, writing, viewing and
representing
*

*communicates with peers and
known adults in informal and
guided activities demonstrating
emerging skills of group
interaction

ENe
-
1A


*communicates with a range of
people in informal and guided
activities demonstrating
interaction skills and considers
how own communication is
adjusted in different situations

EN1
-
1A

*communicates in a range of
informal and formal contexts by
adopting a range of roles in
group, classroom, school and
community contexts

EN2
-
1A

*communicates in a range of
informal and formal contexts by
adopting a range of roles in
group, classroom, school and
community contexts

EN3
-
1A



*composes simple texts to
convey an idea or message

ENe
-
2A



*plans, composes and revie
ws a
small range of simple texts for a
variety of purposes on familiar
topics for known readers and
viewers

EN1
-
2A

*plans, composes and reviews a
range of texts that are more
demanding in terms of topic,
audience and language

EN2
-
2A



*
composes, edits and presents
well
-
structured and coherent
texts

EN3
-
2A


*produces most lower case and
upper case letters and uses
digital technologies to construct
texts

ENe
-
3A


*composes texts using letters
of
consistent size and slope and
uses digital technologies

EN1
-
3A



*uses effective handwriting and
publishes texts using digital
technologies

EN2
-
3A




*demonstrates developing skills
and strategies to read, view and
comprehend short, predictable
texts on familiar topics in
different media and
technologies

ENe
-
4A



*draws on an increasing range
of skills and strategies to
fluently read, view and
comprehend a range of texts on
less familiar topics in different
media and technologies

EN1
-
4A

*uses an increasing range of
skills, strategies and knowledge
to fluently read, view and
comprehend a range of texts on
increasingly challenging topics
in different med
ia and
technologies

EN2
-
4A

*uses an integrated range of
skills, strategies and knowledge
to read, view and comprehend a
wide range of texts in different
media and technologies

EN3
-
3A



*demonstrates developing skills
in using letters, simple sound
blends and some sight words to
represent known words when
spelling

ENe
-
5A

*uses a variety of strategies,
including knowledge of sight
words and letter

sound
correspondences, to spell
familiar words

EN1
-
5A

*uses a range of strategies,
including knowledge of letter

sound correspondences and
common letter patterns, to spell
familiar and some unfamiliar
words

EN2
-
5A

* draws on appropriate
strategies to accurately spell
familiar and unfamiliar words
when composing texts

EN3
-
4A








TABLE OF OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES


CONTINUUM OF LEARNING



EARLY STAGE 1 outcomes

STAGE 1 outcomes

STAGE 2 outcomes

STAGE 3 outcomes

Objectives


Through responding to and
composing a wide range of texts and
through the close

study of texts , students
will develop knowledge, understanding
and skills in order to
:




A student:


A student:





A student:





A student:













B Use language to shape and
make meaning according to
purpose, audience and context
*

*recognises that there are
different kinds of spoken texts
with specific language features
and shows an emerging
awareness of some purposes
for spoken language

ENe
-
6B


*recogn
ises a range of
purposes and audiences for
spoken language and
recognises organisational
patterns and features of
predictable spoken texts

EN1
-
6B


*identifies the effect

of purpose
and audience on spoken texts,
distinguishes between different
forms of English and identifies
organisational patterns and
features

EN2
-
6B


*discusses ways in which
spoken language differs from
written language and how
spoken language varies
according to different contexts.

EN3
-
5B


*recognises some different
pur
poses for writing and that
own texts differ in various ways

ENe
-
7B


*identifies how language use in
their own writing differs
according to their purpose,
audience and subject m
atter

EN1
-
7B


*identifies and uses language
forms and features in their own
writing appropriate to a range of
purposes, audiences and
contexts

EN2
-
7B



*demonstrates emerging skills
and knowledge of texts to read
and view, and shows
developing awareness of
purpose, audience and subject
matter

ENe
-
8B


*recognises that there are
different kinds of texts when
reading and viewing and shows
an awareness of purpose,
audience and subject matter


EN1
-
8B


*identifies and compares
different kinds of texts when
reading and viewing and shows
an understanding of purpose,
audience and subject matter

EN2
-
8B



*demonstrates developing skills
and knowledge in grammar,
punctuation and vocabulary
when responding to and
composing texts

ENe
-
9B



*uses
basic grammatical
features, punctuation
conventions and vocabulary
appropriate to the type of text
when responding to and
composing texts

EN1
-
9B


*uses effective and accurate
s
entence structure, grammatical
features, punctuation
conventions and vocabulary
relevant to the type of text when
responding to and composing
texts

EN2
-
9B


*uses knowledge of s
entence
structure, grammar, punctuation
and vocabulary to respond to
and compose clear and
cohesive texts in different
media and technologies

EN3
-
6B










OBJECTIVES AND
OUTCOMES


CONTINUUM OF LEARNING



EARLY STAGE 1 outcomes

STAGE 1 outcomes

STAGE 2 outcomes

STAGE 3 outcomes

Objectives


Through responding to and
composing a wide range of texts and
through the close study of texts , students
will develop knowledge,
understanding
and skills in order to
:




A student:


A student:





A student:





A student:



C
:
Think in ways that are
imaginative, creative,
interpretive and critical

*thinks imaginatively and
creatively about familiar topics,
simple ideas and the
basic
features of texts when
responding to and composing
texts

ENe
-
10C

*thinks imaginatively and
creatively about familiar topics,
ideas and texts when
responding to and
composing
texts

EN1
-
10C


*thinks imaginatively, creatively
and interpretively about
information, ideas and texts
when responding to and
composing texts

EN2
-
10C


*thinks imaginatively, creatively,
interpretively and critically
about information and ideas and
identifies connections between
texts when responding to and
composing texts

EN3
-
7C



D:

Express themselves and
their relationships with others
and their world

*responds to and composes
simple texts about familiar
aspects of the world and their
own experiences

ENe
-
11D


*

responds to and composes a
range of texts about familiar
aspects of the world and their
own experiences

EN1
-
11D


*responds to and composes a
range of texts that express
viewpoints of the world similar
to and different from their own

EN2
-
11D


*

identifies and cons
iders how
different viewpoints of their
world, including aspects of
culture, are represented in texts

EN3
-
8D



E:

Learn and reflect on their
learning through their study of
English

*

demonstrates awareness of
how to reflect on aspects of
their own and others’ learning

ENe
-
12E


*

identifies and discusses
aspects of their own and others’
learning

EN1
-
12E


*

recognises and uses an
increasing range of strategies to
reflect on their own and others’
learning

EN2
-
12E


*

recognises, reflects on and
assesses their strengths as a
learner

EN3
-
9E






*Some
students with special education needs communicate through a variety of verbal or non
-
verbal communication systems or techniques.

It is important to take account of the individual communication strategies used by these students within the context of the E
ng
lish K
-
10 Syllabus
















Language

English Scope and Sequence:
Kindergarten


to Year 6

Sub
strand

Focus of thread within the
sub
-
strand

Kindergarten

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Language variation
and Change

Language variation and
change

How English varies according
to context and purpose
including cultural and historical
contexts

Understand that English is one
of many languages spoken in
Australia and that different
lan
We
guages may be spoken
by family, classmates and
community

Und
erstand that people use
different systems of
communication to cater to
different needs and purposes
and that many people may use
sign systems to communicate
with others

Understand that spoken, visual
and written forms of language
are different modes of
com
munication with different
features and their use varies
according to the audience,
purpose, context and cultural
background

Understand that languages
have different written and visual
communication systems,
different oral traditions and
different ways of c
onstructing
meaning

Understand that Standard
Australian English is one of
many social dialects used in
Australia and that while it
originated in England it has
been influenced by many other
languages

Understand that the
pronunciation, spelling and
meanings

of words have
histories and change over time

Understand that different social
and geographical dialects or
accents are used in Australia in
addition to Standard Australian
English

Language for interaction

Language for social
interactions

How language use
d for different
formal and informal social
interactions is influenced by the
purpose and audience


Explore how language is used
differently at home and school
depending on the relationships
between people

Understand that language is
used in combination
with other
means of communication, eg
facial expressions and gestures
to interact with others

Understand that there are
different ways of asking for
information, making offers and
giving commands

Understand that language
varies when people take on
differen
t roles in social and
classroom interactions and how
the use of key interpersonal
language resources varies
depending on context

Understand that successful
cooperation with others
depends on shared use of
social conventions, including
turn
-
taking patterns,

and forms
of address that vary according
to the degree of formality in
social situations

Understand that social
interactions influence the way
people engage with ideas and
respond to others eg when
exploring and clarifying the
ideas of others, summarising

students’ own views and
reporting them to a larger group

Understand that patterns of
language interaction vary
across social contexts and
types of texts and that they help
to signal social roles and
relationships

Understand that strategies for
interaction

become more
complex and demanding as
levels of formality and social
distance increase

Evaluative language

How language is used to
express opinions and make
evaluative judgements about
people, places, things and texts

Understand that language can
be used

to explore ways of
expressing needs, likes and
dislikes

Explore different ways of
expressing emotions, including
verbal, visual, body language
and facial expressions

Identify language that can be
used for appreciating texts and
the qualities of people and

things

Examine how evaluative
language can be varied to be
more or less forceful

Understand differences
between the language of
opinion and feeling and the
language of factual reporting or
recording

Understand how to move
beyond making bare assertions
and

take account of differing
perspectives and points of view

Understand the uses of
objective and subjective
language and bias

Text Structure and Organisation

Purpose audience and
structures of different types
of texts

How texts serve different
purposes and

how the
structures of types of texts vary
according to the text purpose

Understand that texts can take
many forms, can be very short
or quite long and that stories
and informative texts have
different purposes

Understand that the purposes
texts serve shap
e their structure
in predictable ways

Understand that different types
of texts have identifiable text
structures and language
features that help the text serve
its purpose

Understand how different types
of texts vary in use of language
choices, depending
on their
function and purpose, eg tense,
mood, and types of sentences

Understand how texts vary in
complexity and technicality
depending on the approach to
the topic, the purpose and the
intended audience

Understand how texts vary in
purpose, structure and

topic as
well as the degree of formality

Understand how authors often
innovate on text structures and
play with language features to
achieve particular aesthetic,
humorous and persuasive
purposes and effects

Text cohesion

How texts work as cohesive
whol
es through language
features which link the parts of
the text together, such as
paragraphs, connectives, nouns
and associated pronouns

Understand that some
language in written texts is
unlike everyday spoken
language

Understand patterns of
repetition and
contrast in simple
texts

Understand how texts are made
cohesive through resources, eg
word associations, synonyms
and antonyms

Understand that paragraphs are
a key organisational feature of
written texts

Understand how texts are made
cohesive through the
use of
linking devices including
pronoun reference and text
connectives

Understand that the starting
pointy of a sentence gives
prominence to the message in
the text and allows for
prediction of how the text will
unfold

Understand that cohesive links
can b
e made in texts by
omitting or replacing words

Punctuation

How punctuation works to
perform different functions in a
text

Understand that punctuation is
a feature of written text different
from letters; recognise how
capital letters are used for
names,
and that capital letters
and full stops signal the
beginning and end of sentences

Recognise that different types
of punctuation, including full
stops, question marks and
exclamation marks, signal
sentences that make
statements, ask questions,
express emoti
on or give
commands

Recognise that capital letters
signal proper nouns and
commas are used to separate
items in lists

Know that word contractions
are a feature of informal
language and that apostrophes
of contraction are used to signal
missing letters

Reco
gnise how quotation
marks are used in texts to
signal dialogue, titles and
reported speech

Understand how possession is
signalled through apostrophes
and how to use apostrophes of
possession for common and
proper nouns

Understand the uses of
commas to sepa
rate clauses

Concepts of print and screen

The different conventions that
apply to how text is presented
on a page or screen

Understand concepts about
print and screen, including how
books, film and simple digital
texts work and know some
features of
print, for example
directionality

Understand concepts about
print and screen, including how
different types of texts are
organised using page
numbering, tables of content,
headings and titles, navigation
buttons, bars and links

Know some features of text
o
rganisation including page and
screen layouts, alphabetical
order, and different types of
diagrams, eg timelines

Identify the features of online
texts that enhance navigation

Identify features of online texts
that enhance readability,
including text, navig
ation, links,
graphics and layout

Investigate how the
organisation of texts into
chapters, headings,
subheadings, home pages and
sub pages for online texts and
according to chronology or topic
can be used to predict content
and assist navigation

This
sequence ends at Year 5
level









Language

English Scope and Sequence:
Kindergarten


to Year 6

Sub
strand

Focus of thread within the
sub
-
strand

Kindergarten

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Expressing and developing ideas

Sentence and clause

level
grammar

What a clause is and how
simple, compound and complex
sentences are constructed
through one clause (simple) or
by combining clauses using
different types of conjunctions
(compound and complex)

Recognise that sentences are
key units for expre
ssing ideas

Identify the parts of a simple
sentences that represent
‘What’s happening?’, “Who or
what is doing or receiving the
action?” and the circumstances
surrounding the action

Understand that simple
connections can be made
between ideas by using a
co
mpound sentence with two or
more clauses and coordinating
conjunctions

Understa
nd that a clause is a
unit of m
eaning usually
containing a subject and a verb
and that these need to be in
agreement

Understand that the meaning of
sentences can be enriched
through the use of expanded
noun and verb groups and
phrases

Investigate how quoted (direct)
and reported (indirect) speech
work in different types of text

Understand the difference
between main and subordinate
clauses and how these can be
combined to crea
te complex
sentences through
subordinating conjunctions to
develop and expand ideas

Investigate how clauses can be
combined in a variety of ways
to elaborate, extend or explain
ideas

Word level grammar

The different classes of words
used In English
(nouns, verbs
etc) and the functions they
perform in sentences and when
they are combined in particular
recognisable groups such as p
phrases and noun groups


Recognise that texts are made
up of words and groups of
words that make meaning

Explore differenc
es in words
that represent people, places
and things (nouns and
pronouns), actions (verbs),
qualities (adjectives) and details
like when, where and how
(adverbs)

Understand that nouns
represent people, places, things
and ideas and can be, eg
common, proper
, concrete and
abstract and that noun groups
can be expanded using articles
and adjectives

Understand that verbs
represent different processes
(doing, thinking, saying and
relating) and that these
processes are anchored in time
through tense

Understand how

adverbials
(adverbs and prepositional
phrases) work in different ways
to provide circumstantial details
about an activity

Understand how noun and
adjective groups can be
expanded in a variety of ways
to provide a fuller description of
the person thing or
idea

Understand how ideas can be
expanded and sharpened
through careful choice of verbs,
elaborated tenses and a range
of adverbials

Visual

language

How images work in texts to
communicate meanings,
especially in conjunction with
other elements such as
print
and sound

Explore the different
contribution of words and
images to meaning in stories
and informative texts

Compare different kinds of
images in narrative and
informative texts and discuss
how they contribute to meaning

Identify visual representatio
ns
of characters’ actions,
reactions, speech and thought
processes in narratives, and
consider how these images add
to or contradict or multiply the
meaning of accompanying
words

Identify the effect on audiences
of techniques, eg shot size,
vertical camera

angle and
layout in picture books,
advertisements and film
segments

Explore the effect of choices
when framing an image,
placement of elements in the
image and salience on
composition of still and moving
images in a range of text types

Explain sequences o
f images in
print texts and compare these
to the ways hyperlinked digital
texts are organised, explaining
their effect on viewers’
interpretations

Identify and explain how
analytical images like figures,
tables, diagrams, maps and
graphs contribute to our
understanding of verbal
information in factual and
persuasive texts

Vocabulary

The meanings of words
including everyday and
specialist meanings and how
words take their meanings from
the context of the text

Understand the use of
vocabulary in familiar
contexts
related to everyday
experiences, personal interests
and topics being taught at
school

Understand the use of
vocabulary in everyday contexts
as well as a growing number of
school contexts, including
appropriate use of formal and
informal terms of a
ddress in
different contexts

Understand the use of
vocabulary about familiar and
new topics and experiment with
and begin to make conscious
choices of vocabulary to suit
audience and purpose

Learn extended and technical
vocabulary and ways of
expressing
opinion including
modal verbs and adverbs

Incorporate new vocabulary
from a range of sources into
students’ own texts including
vocabulary encountered in
research

Understand the use of
vocabulary to express greater
precision of meaning, and know
that words

can have different
meanings in different contexts

Investigate how vocabulary
choices, including evaluative
language can express shades
of meaning, feeling and opinion

Spelling

Knowledge for spelling
including knowledge about h ow
the sounds of words ar
e
represented by various letters
and knowledge of irregular
spellings and spelling rules

Know that spoken sounds and
words can be written down
using letters of the alphabet
and how to write some high
-
frequency sight words and
known words

Know how to use
onset and
rime to spell words

Know that regular one
-
syllable
words are made up of letters
and common letter clusters that
correspond to the sounds
heard, and how to use visual
memory to write high
-
frequency
words.

Recognise and know how to
use morphemes in

word
families eg ‘play’ in ‘played’

Understand how to use
digraphs, long vowels, blends
and silent letters to spell words
and use morphemes and
syllabification to break up
simple words and use visual
memory to write irregular words

Recognise common
prefixes
and suffixes and how they
change a word’s meaning

Understand how to use sound
-
letter relationships and
knowledge of spelling rules,
compound words, prefixes,
suffixes, morphemes and less
common letter combinations


Recognise common prefixes
and s
uffixes and how they
change a word’s meaning

Understand how to use
strategies for spelling words,
including spelling rules,
knowledge of morphemic word
families, spelling
generalisations, and letter
combinations including double
letters

Recognise homophone
s and
know how to use context to
identify correct spelling

Understand how to use banks
of known words as well as word
origins, prefixes, suffixes and
morphemes to learn and spell
new words

Recognise uncommon plurals,
eg ‘foci’

Understand how to use banks
o
f known words, word origins,
base words, suffixes and
prefixes, morphemes, spelling
patterns and generalisations to
learn and spell new words, eg
technical words and words
adopted from other languages

Sound and letter knowledge

Phonemic awareness

(sound
of language)

Basic knowledge of sounds of
language and how these are
combined in spoken words

Recognise rhymes, syllables
and sounds (phonemes) in
spoken words

Manipulate sounds in spoken
words including phoneme
deletion and substitution

Recognise most
sound
-
letter
matches including silent letters,
vowel/consonant digraphs and
many less common sound
-
letter
combinations

This sequence ends at Year 2 level

Alphabet knowledge

The written code of English (the
letters) and how these are
combined in words

Rec
ognise the letters of the
alphabet and know there are
lower case and upper case
letters

Recognise sound
-
letter
matches including common
vowel and consonant digraphs
and consonant blends


Understand the variability of
sound
-
letter matches

This sequence ends

at Year 1 level



Literature

English Scope and Sequence:
Kindergarten

to Year 6

Sub
strand

Focus of thread within the
sub
-
strand

Kindergarten

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Literature and
context

How texts reflect the context
of culture and
situation in
which they are created


Recognise that texts are
created by authors who tell
stories and share experiences
that may be similar or different
to students’ own experiences

Discuss how authors create
characters using language and
images

Discuss ho
w depictions of
characters in print, sound and
images reflect the contexts in
which they were created

Discuss texts in which
characters, events and settings
are portrayed in different ways,
and speculate on the authors’
reasons

Make connections between the

ways different authors may
represent similar storylines,
ideas and relationships

Identify aspects of literary texts
that convey details or
information about particular
social, cultural and historical
contexts

Make connections between
studentas’ own experi
ences
and those of characters and
events represented in texts
drawn from different historical,
social and cultural contexts

Responding to literature

Personal responses to the
ideas, characters and
viewpoints in texts

An individual response to the
ideas,
characters and
viewpoints in literary texts,
including relating texts to their
own experiences

Respond to texts, identifying
favourite stories, authors and
illustrators

Discuss characters and events
in a range of literary texts and
share personal responses

to
these texts, making connections
with students’ own experiences

Compare opinions about
characters, events and settings
in and between texts

Draw connections between
personal experiences and the
worlds of texts, and share
responses with others

Discuss li
terary experiences
with others, sharing responses
and expressing a point of view

Present a point of view about
particular literary texts using
appropriate metalanguage, and
reflecting on the viewpoints of
others

Analyse and evaluate
similarities and differ
ences in
texts on similar topics, themes
or plots

Expressing preferences and
evaluating texts

Expressing a personal
preference for different texts
and types of texts, and
identifying the features of texts
that influence personal
preference

Share feelings

and thoughts
about the events and
characters in texts

Express preferences for specific
texts and authors and listen to
the opinions of others

Identify aspects of different
types of literary texts that
entertain and give reasons for
personal preferences

De
velop criteria for establishing
personal preferences for
literature

Use metalanguage to describe
the effects of ideas, text
structures and language
features of literary texts

Use metalanguage to describe
the effects of ideas, text
structures and language
f
eatures on particular
audiences

Identify and explain how
choices in language, eg
modality, emphasis, repetition
and metaphor, influence
personal response to different
texts

Features of literary texts

The key features of literary
texts and how they work
to
construct a literary work, such
as plot, setting,
characterisation, mood and
theme

Identify some features of texts
including events and characters
and retell events from a text


Recognise some different types
of literary texts and identify
some characte
ristic features of
literary texts, for example
beginnings and endings of
traditional texts and rhyme in
poetry

Discuss features of plot,
character and setting in
different types of literature and
explore some features of
characters in different texts

Discuss the characters and
settings of different texts and
explore how language is used
to present these features in
different ways

Discuss how language Is used
to describe the settings in texts
and explore how the settings
shape the events and influence
t
he mood of the narrative

Discuss how authors and
illustrators make stories
exciting, moving and absorbing
and hold readers’ interest by
using various techniques, eg
character development and plot
tension

Recognise that ideas in literary
texts can be convey
ed from
different viewpoints, which can
lead to different kinds of
interpretations and responses

Identify, describe and discuss
similarities and differences
between texts, including those
by the same author or
illustrator, and evaluate
characteristics that

define an
author’s individual style

Examining
literature

Language devices in literary
texts (including figurative
language)


Replicate the rhythms and
sound patterns in stories,
rhymes, songs and poems from
a range of cultures

Listen to, recite and
perform
poems, chants, rhymes and
songs, imitating and inventing
sound patterns including
alliteration and rhyme

Identify, reproduce and
experiment with rhythmic,
sound and word patterns in
poems, chants, rhymes and
songs

Discuss the nature and effects
of

some language devices used
to enhance meaning and shape
the reader’s reaction, including
rhythm and onomatopoeia in
poetry and prose

Understand, interpret and
experiment with a range of
devices and deliberate word
play in poetry and other literary
texts,
eg nonsense words,
spoonerisms, neologisms and
puns

Understand, interpret and
experiment with sound devices
and imagery, including simile,
metaphor and personification,
in narratives, shape poetry,
songs, anthems and odes

Identify the relationship
between
words, sounds,
imagery and language patterns
in narratives and poetry such as
ballads, limericks and free
verse

Creating literature

Creating literary texts

Creating their own literary texts
based on the ideas, features
and structures of texts
experienced

Retell familiar literary texts
through performance, use of
illustrations and images

Recreate texts imaginatively
using drawing, writing,
performance and digital forms
of communication

Create events and characters
using different media that
develop key eve
nts and
characters from literary texts

Create imaginative texts based
on characters, settings and
events from a students’ own
and other cultures using visual
features, eg perspective,
distance and angle

Create literary texts that explore
students’ own
experiences and
imagining

Create literary texts using
realistic and fantasy settings
and characters that draw on the
worlds represented in texts
students have experienced

Create literary texts that adapt
or combine aspects of texts
students have experience
d in
innovative ways

Experimentation and
adaptation

Creating a variety of texts,
including multimodal texts,
adapting ideas and devices
from literary texts

This sequence starts at Year 3
level

Create texts that adapt
language features and patterns
encountered in literary texts, eg
characterisation, rhyme,
rhythm, mood, music, sound
effects and dialogue

Create literary texts by
developing storylines,
characters and settings

Create literary texts that
experiment with structures,
ideas and stylistic fe
atures of
selected authors

Experiment with text structures
and language features and their
effects in creating literary texts,
eg using imagery, sentence
variation, metaphor and word
choice







Literacy

English Scope and Sequence:
Kindergarten

to Year 6

Sub
strand

Focus of thread within the
sub
-
strand

Kindergarten

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Texts in context

Texts and the contexts in
which they are used

How texts relate to their
contexts and reflect the society
and culture in which they
were
created

Identify some familiar texts and
the contexts in which they are
used

Respond to texts drawn from a
range of cultures and
experiences

Discuss different texts on a
similar topic, identifying
similarities and differences
between the texts

Identify the point of view in a
text and suggest alternative
points of view

Identify and explain language
features of texts from earlier
times and compare with the
vocabulary, images, layout and
content of contemporary texts

Show how ideas and points of
view in texts are conveyed
through the use of vocabulary,
including idiomatic expressions,
objective and subjective
language, and that these can
change according to context

Compare texts including media
texts that represent ideas and
events in different wa
ys,
explaining the effects of the
different approaches

Interacting with others

Listening and speaking
interactions

The purposes and contexts
through which students engage
in listening and speaking
interactions

Listen to and respond orally to
texts and to
the communication
of others in informal and
structured classroom situations

Engage in conversations and
discussions, using active
listening behaviours, showing
interest and contributing ideas,
information and questions

Listen for specific purposes and
information, including
instructions and extend
students’ own and others’ ideas
in discussions

Listen to and contribute to
conversations and discussions
to share information and ideas
and negotiate in collaborative
situations

Interpret ideas and information

in spoken texts and listen for
key points in order to carry out
tasks and use information to
share and extend ideas and
information

Clarify understanding of content
as it unfolds in formal and
informal situation, connecting
ideas to students’ own
experien
ces and present and
justify a point of view

Participate in a contribute to
discussions, clarifying and
interrogating ideas, developing
and supporting arguments,
sharing and evaluating
information, experiences and
opinions

Listening and speaking
interactions

The skills students use when
engaging in listening and
speaking interactions

Use interaction skills including
listening while others speak,
using appropriate voice levels,
articulation and body language
gestures and eye contact

Use interaction

skills including
turn
-
taking, recognising the
contributions of others,
speaking clearly and using
appropriate volume and pace

Use interaction skills including
initiating topics, making positive
statements and voicing
disagreement in a appropriate
manner,
speaking clearly and
varying tone, volume and pace
appropriately

Use interaction skills, including
active listening behaviours and
communicate in a clear,
coherent manner using a
variety of everyday and learned
vocabulary and appropriate
tone, pace, pitch
and volume

Use interaction skills such as
acknowledging another’s point
of view and linking students’
responses to the topic, using
familiar and new vocabulary
and a range of vocal effects
such as tone, pace, pitch and
volume to speak clearly and
coherentl
y

Use interaction skills eg
paraphrasing, questioning and
interpreting non
-
verbal cues
and choose vocabulary and
vocal effects appropriate for
different audiences and
purposes

Use interaction skills, varying
conventions of spoken
interactions such as voic
e
volume, tone, pitch and pace,
according to group size,
formality of interaction and
needs of expertise of the
audience

Oral presentations

The formal oral presentations
that students engage in
including presenting recounts
and information and presenting

and arguing a point of view

Deliver short oral presentation
to peers

Make short presentations using
some introduced text structures
and language, eg opening
statements

Rehearse and deliver short
presentation on familiar and
new topics

Plan and deliver
short
presentation, providing some
key details in logical sequence

Plan, rehearse and deliver
presentations incorporating
learned content and taking into
account the particular purposes
and audiences

Plan, rehearse and deliver
presentations for defined
aud
iences and purposes
incorporating accurate and
sequenced content and
multimodal elements

Plan, rehearse and deliver
presentations selecting and
sequencing appropriate content
and multimodal elements for
defined audiences and
purposes, making appropriate
choices for modality and
emphasis

































Literacy

English Scope and Sequence:
Kindergarten

to Year 6

Sub
strand

Focus of thread within the
sub
-
strand

Kindergarten

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Interpreting, analysing,

evaluating

Purpose and audience

Recognising and analysing
differences between different
types of texts

Identify some differences
between imaginative and
informative texts

Describe some differences
between imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts

Identify the audience of
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts

Identify the audience and
purpose of imaginative,
informative and persuasive
texts

Identify characteristic features
used in imaginative, informative
and persuasive texts to meet
the
purposes of the text

Identify and explain
characteristic text structures
and language features used in
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts to meet the
purposes of the text

Analyse how text structures and
language features work
together to meet th
e purpose of
a text

Reading processes

Strategies for using and
combining contextual,
semantic, grammatical and
phonic knowledge to decode
texts including predicting,
monitoring, cross
-
checking,
self
-
correcting, skimming and
scanning

Read predictable
texts,
practicing phrasing and fluency
and monitor meaning using
concepts about print and
emerging contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge

Read supportive texts using
developing phrasing, fluency,
contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic

knowledge and emerging text
processing strategies, eg
prediction, monitoring meaning
and rereading

Read less predictable texts with
phrasing and fluency by
combining contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge using test
processing strategies,
eg
monitoring meaning, predicting,
rereading and self correcting

Read an increasing range of
different types of texts by
combining contextual, semantic,
grammatical and phonic
knowledge, using text
processing strategies, eg
monitoring, predicting,
confirmi
ng, rereading, reading
on and self correcting

Read different types of texts by
combining contextual,
semantic, grammatical and
phonic knowledge using text
processing strategies eg
monitoring meaning, cross
checking and reviewing

Navigate and read texts for

specific purposed applying
appropriate text processing
strategies, eg predicting and
confirming, monitoring
meaning, skimming and
scanning

Select, navigate and read texts
for a range of purposes
applying appropriate text
processing strategies and
interpre
ting structural features,
eg table of contents, glossary,
chapters, headings and
subheadings

Comprehension strategies

Strategies of constructing
meaning from texts, including
literal and inferential meaning

Use comprehension strategies
to understand and
discuss texts
listened to, viewed or read
independently

Use comprehension strategies
to build literal and inferred
meaning about key events,
ideas and information in texts
listened to, viewed and read by
drawing on growing knowledge
of context, text struct
ures and
language features

Use comprehension strategies
to build literal and inferred
meaning and begin to analyse
texts by drawing on growing
knowledge of context ,
language and visual features in
print and multimodal text
structures

Use comprehension str
ategies
to build literal and inferred
meaning and begin to evaluate
texts by drawing on growing
knowledge of context, text
structures and language
features

Use comprehension strategies
to build literal and inferred
meaning to expand content
knowledge, inte
grating and
linking ideas and analysing and
evaluating texts

Use comprehension strategies
to interpret and analyse
information, integrating and
linking ideas from a variety of
print and digital sources

Use comprehension strategies
to interpret and analyse
information and ideas,
comparing content from a
variety of textual sources
including media and digital texts

Analysing and evaluating
texts

Analysis and evaluation of how
text structures and language
features construct meaning and
influence
readers/viewers

This sequence starts at this Year 6 level

Analyse strategies authors use
to influence readers

Creating texts

Creating texts

Creating different types of
spoken, written and multimodal
texts using knowledge of text
structures and language
features

Create short texts to explore,
record and report ideas and
events using familiar words and
phrases and beginning writing
knowledge

Create short imaginative and
information texts that show
emerging use of appropriate
text structure, sentence
-
level
grammar, word choice, spelling,
punctuation and appropriate
multimodal elements, eg
illustrations and diagrams

Create short imaginative,
information and persuasive
texts using growing knowledge
of text structures and language
features for familiar and some

less familiar audiences,
selecting print and multimodal
elements appropriate to the
audience and purpose

Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts demonstrating
increasing control over text
structures and language
features and
selecting print,
and multimodal elements
appropriate to the audience and
purpose

Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts containing key
information and supporting
details for a widening range of
audiences, demonstrating
increa
sing control over text
structures and language
features

Plan, draft and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive print and multimodal
texts, choosing text structures,
language features, images and
sound appropriate to purpose
and audience

Plan, draf
t and publish
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts, choosing and
experimenting with text
structures, language features,
images and digital resources
appropriate to purpose and
audience

Editing

Editing texts for meaning,
structure and grammatical

features

Participate in shared editing of
students’ own texts for
meaning, spelling capital letters
and full stops

Reread student’s own texts and
discuss possible changes to
improve meaning, spelling and
punctuation

Reread and edit text for
spelling, sent
ence
-
boundary
punctuation and text structure

Reread and edit texts for
meaning, appropriate structure,
grammatical choices and
punctuation

Reread and edit for meaning by
adding, deleting or moving
words or word groups to
improve content and structure

Re
read and edit student’s own
and others’ work using agreed
criteria for text structures and
language features

Reread and edit students’ own
and others’ work using agreed
criteria and explaining editing
choices

Handwriting

Developing a fluent, legible
hand
writing style, beginning
with unjoined letters and
moving to joined handwriting

Produce some lower case and
upper case letters using
learned letter formations

Write using unjoined lower case
and upper case letters

Write legibly and with growing
fluency usi
ng unjoined upper
case and lower case letters

Write using joined letters that
are clearly formed and
consistent in size

Write using clearly formed
joined letters and develop
increased fluency and
automaticity

Develop a handwriting style that
is becoming
legible, fluent and
automatic

Develop a handwriting style that
is legible, fluent and automatic
and varies according to
audience and purpose

Use of software

Using a range of software
applications to construct and
edit print and multimodal texts

Construct

texts using software
including word processing
programs

Construct texts that incorporate
supporting images using
software including word
processing programs

Construct texts featuring print,
visual and audio elements using
software, including word
processi
ng programs

Use software including word
processing programs with
growing speed and efficiency to
construct and edit texts
featuring visual, print and audio
elements

Use a range of software
including word processing
programs to construct, edit and
publish
written text, and select,
edit and place visual, print and
audio elements

Use a range of software
including word processing with
fluency to construct, edit and
publish written text and select,
edit and place visual, print and
audio elements

Use a range of
software,
including word processing
programs, learning new
functions as required to create
texts





ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS


EARLY STAGE 1

KINDERGARTEN

By the end of Early Stage 1 students respond to a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts from
familiar contexts. They demonstrate
active listening behaviours to follow simple instructions and ask relevant questions. Students mix and communicate informally

with peers,
teachers and known adults in informal and structured classroom settings. They comm
unicate clearly and purposefully when engaging in
pair, group and class discussions. Students demonstrate an emerging awareness of how people use spoken language for different

purposes. They deliver short presentations using familiar and learned vocabulary
. Students explore the way familiar spoken texts are
constructed and the features of these texts.

Students develop reading, viewing and comprehension skills and strategies using context, grammar, word usage and phonics to m
ake
meaning from short, predictab
le printed texts on familiar topics. They interpret and provide relevant explanations of characters and main
events in imaginative texts, and key ideas and visual features in short informative texts, making connections to personal exp
erience.
Students reco
gnise, discuss and respond to the different kinds and purposes of various written, visual and digital texts from a variety of

cultures. They read with some fluency and accuracy, drawing support from concepts of print and their developing sound and let
ter
k
nowledge. Students explore and identify some features of texts, including the use of rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in wor
ds in written
and spoken texts.

Students engage in writing with an increasing awareness of the nature, purpose and conventions of w
ritten language. They create simple
texts and recreate familiar imaginative texts by drawing on personal experience and through performance, drawing and images.
Students
retell events and experiences for known audiences that demonstrate an awareness of the

text structure, basic grammar and punctuation
needed. Students begin to apply simple editing techniques to their written work. They know and use letters and sounds of the
alphabet to
attempt to spell known words. Students write most lower and upper case l
etters appropriately, using the NSW Foundation Style as
appropriate. They explore the use of digital technologies to construct a variety of multimodal texts. Students become aware o
f how to
reflect on and assess their own and others' learning.












ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS


STAGE 1

YEAR 1
to
YEAR 2

By the end of Stage 1 students communicate with a wide range of audiences on familiar and introduced topics to achieve a vari
ety of
purposes. They interact effectively, adopting new communication skills and

select vocabulary to enhance meaning in order to give
confident presentations. Students attend to instructions, share ideas and engage effectively in group and class discussions.
They
recognise that spoken language has a range of purposes and audiences an
duse this knowledge when attempting to communicate
effectively with others. They investigate the different types and organisational patterns of common spoken texts and recognis
e features
within them. Students create imaginative, informative and persuasive
spoken texts drawing on their own experiences, their imagination,
and ideas they have learned.

Students read and view imaginative, informative and persuasive texts. They use an increasing variety of skills and strategies
, including
knowledge of text struct
ure, context, grammar, punctuation, word usage and phonics, to make connections between texts and between
their own experiences and information in texts. Students read with developing fluency and intonation short texts with some un
familiar
vocabulary, simp
le sentences and images. Students read, interpret and discuss texts from a variety of cultures, including visual and
multimodal texts, using a range of skills andstrategies. They locate literal information in written texts and refer to featur
es of language

and
images to make inferences about characters’ actions and motivations. Students explore and identify ways in which texts differ

according to
purpose, audience and subject.

Students create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts on familiar topics
for known readers by planning, proofreading and editing
their own writing. They write using basic grammatical features and conventions of punctuation, showingan awareness of differe
nt purposes,
audiences and subject matter. Students use knowledge of letter

sound correspondence, sight words and regular spelling patterns to
accurately spell known words and an increasing number of irregularly spelt words.They write consistently and clearly using NS
W
Foundation Style as appropriate and use digital technologies
to produce texts, recognising simple conventions, language and functions.
Students reflect on and assess their own and others’ learning.













ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS


STAGE 2

YEAR 3
to
YEAR 4

By the end of Stage 2 students communicate expressively
and clearly with growing proficiency about ideas and information in classroom,
school and social situations for a range of purposes. They explore a variety of roles when interacting in pairs and groups, a
ttending to
different views and responding appropria
tely. Students use various listening behaviours to gather general ideas and key points from
conversations, reports or spoken presentations. They identify the effect of purpose, audience and culture on spoken texts and

shape and
present ideas accordingly. S
tudents identify common organisational patterns and language features of predictable spoken texts.

Students independently read, view and respond to familiar and challenging texts and justify interpretations of ideas, informa
tion and events
using a range of

skills and strategies. They integrate a range of skills and strategies efficiently when reading, interpreting, analysing and
evaluating texts and visual images. Students identify literal information in texts and make inferences, integrating and linki
ng id
eas and
asking questions to clarify understandings. They recognise the representation of characters, settings and events in imaginati
ve texts and
start to evaluate point of view. They explain some ways in which authors and illustrators engage the interests

of audiences and achieve a
range of purposes. Students explore the structural and grammatical features and purposes for a range of written, visual and m
ultimodal
texts.

Students create well
-
structured imaginative, informative and persuasive texts in terms

of topic, purpose, audience and language by
drafting, proofreading and editing for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They use simple and complex sentences, paragraphing
,
punctuation and grammatical features characteristic of the various texts to support
meaning. Students spell familiar and unfamiliar words
using knowledge of letter

sound correspondence, regular and irregular spelling patterns, spelling rules and a range of other strategies.
They use increasing fluency when writing, applying NSW Foundation

Style as appropriate, and develop digital publishing skills. Students
explain and reflect on how they structure their writing to achieve intended purposes.
















ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS


STAGE 3

YEAR 5
to
YEAR 6

By the end of Stage 3 students
communicate effectively, using considered language to entertain, inform and persuade audiences for an
increasing range of purposes. They work productively and independently in pairs or groups to deliver effective presentations
using various
skills and stra
tegies. Students collaborate with others to share and evaluate ideas and opinions and to develop different points of view.
They express well
-
developed and well
-
organised ideas about literary texts and respond constructively to different opinions. They
demo
nstrate active listening behaviours in order to gather specific information and ideas, recognising and exploring how spoken a
nd
written language differ and how spoken language varies according to context. Students evaluate characteristic language featur
es
and
organisational patterns of challenging spoken texts.

Students independently read and view an extensive range of complex texts and visual images using a comprehensive range of ski
lls and
strategies. They respond to themes and issues within texts, recogn
ise point of view and justify interpretations by referring to their own
knowledge, values and experiences. They identify, critically analyse and respond to techniques, literary devices and language

features
used by writers to influence readers. Students co
mpare and accurately summarise information on a particular topic from different texts and
make well
-
supported generalisations about the topic. Students identify text structure of a range of complex texts and explore how
grammatical features work to influen
ce an audience's understanding of written, visual, media and multimodal texts.

Students create well
-
structured and well
-
presented written and multimodal imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for a wide range
of purposes and audiences. They deal wit
h complex topics, issues and language features. Students select information and ideas from
personal, literary and researched resources, and adapt imaginative ideas and situations from literature. They make considered

choices in
written texts from an expand
ing vocabulary and from growing knowledge of grammatical patterns, complex sentence structures, cohesive
links and literary devices. Students write well
-
structured sentences and paragraphs on particular aspects of the topic, clarifying and
explaining how c
hoices of language and literary features were designed to influence the meaning communicated in their texts. They spell
most common words accurately and use a variety of strategies to spell less common words. They develop a fluent writing style
and employ
digital technology to present written texts effectively in a variety of ways for different purposes and audiences. Students e
valuate the
effectiveness of their writing by drafting, proofreading, editing, reviewing and publishing, focusing on grammatical fe
atures and the
conventions of writing.









GRAMMAR


TERMINOLOGY



EARLY CHILDHOOD BAND OF DEVELOPMENT

LATER CHILDHOOD AND EARLY ADOLESCENT BAND OF DEVELOPMENTS

Kindergarten

Years 1 and 2

Years 3 and 4

Years 5 and 6

Text l
evel

-
Cohesion

Repeated
words.

Repeated groups of words eg
koalas are bears. Koalas eat
leaves.

Synonym



words that have the same
or similar meaning

Antonyms



words that have
opposite meaning

Connectives

eg first, next, finally

Homonyms



words with the same
sound, often same s
pelling but different
meaning

Word families



words linked because
they deal with the same topic

Pronouns



referring words

Word Chains

eg synonyms, antonyms,
repetition, collocation

Word sets

eg mammal, placental, marsupial

Connectives

eg similar, on the
other hand,
however

Dialogue Patterns

eg taking turns, different
types of questions and responses

Sentence level

-
structure of
the sentence

Simple sentence

eg Kim broke
the glass

Sentence



one or more clauses

Conjunctions



joining words eg
and, so, but

Quoted

(direct)
speech

Reported

(indirect)
speech

Compound sentence



two or more
independent clauses joined by a conjunction
eg The bell rang and Kim went home.

Complex sentence



an independent (main)
clause and a dependent (subordinate) clause
linked by

a conjunction indicating time, place,
manner, reason, condition etc. eg When the
bell rang Kim went home.

Clause level



structure of
the clause

Statement



gives information

Question



asks for an answer

Command



tells us to do
something

Exclamation



for emphasis

Clause



a group of words that tell us
about an action and those involved in
the action

Syntax

eg Kim (subject) opened (verb)
the door (object); stressing structural
accuracy, subject/verb agreement.

Theme of clause



beginning focus of the
c
lause

Syntax



direct and indirect object eg Kim
(subject) gave (verb) the teacher (indirect
object) the flower. (direct object)

Meaning



Kim (doer) kicked (action) the ball
(done to) to Lachlan (receiver)

Theme of clause



changing the beginning
focus of the clause. Active


eg Kim (doer)
finished (action) the work. (done to)

Passive


eg The work (done to) was finished
(action) by Kim .(doer)

Group and
Phrase level

-
structure of
the noun group

-
structure of
the verb gro
up

Phrases

-
structure of
the adverbial
phrase

when/where/how words

Noun group



a group of words built
around a noun that describe or
specify the noun eg the sunny day

Adverbial phrase



a preposition
plus a noun group that tell us more
about the action in

terms of when,
where, why, how and with whom. eg
Kim broke the vase
in the morning.
(when)

Structure of noun group



additional
elements of noun group, eg The (article)
three (number) beautiful (opinion
adjective) native (classifying adjective)
flowers. (noun)

Structure of a verb group



negatives,
(including contractions); auxiliary,
helping verbs eg She
is

sitting h
ere.

Structure of noun group



additional
elements of noun group. eg adjectival phrase
(the chair next to my desk); adjectival/relative
clause (the chair that is next to my desk)

Structure of verb group



modal verbs
(high/medium/low shades of meaning) eg
It
might be finished tomorrow.

-
complex verbs eg The plane
started to move
.
-
verbs with preposition or adverb eg the plane
took off





Word level

-
Nouns

-
Articles

-
Adjectives

Naming words

Describing words

Noun



naming word for people,
places, things (proper and common)

Adjective



desxcribing word (size,
colour, shape, numbering, possessive

Additional types of nouns

eg girl
(singular); girls (plural); crowd
(collective); Ms Jones (term of address)

Additional t
ypes of adjectives

eg this
(pointing); our (possessive); bigger
(comparing)

Types of articles

eg the dog (definite);
a/an elephant (indefinite)

Additional types of nouns

eg happiness
(abstract); nucleus (technical)

Additional types of adjectives

eg
her

boo
k
(possessive);
five

books (numbering)
native

flower (classifying);
possible

answer (modal)

-
Pronouns

I, me, he, she

Pronoun



stands instead of a noun
eg I, me, him, it (personal). This
book is
mine
, it is not yours.
(possessive)


Additional types of
pronouns

eg the girl
who
…(relative)

-
Verbs

-
Adverbs

Doing words

When/where/how words

Verb


doing word eg run (action;
shout (saying; wonder (thinking)

Adverb


tells when, how, where eg
carefully (how

Relating verbs eg She

is

my teacher

Tense


eg She we
nt home (past); Koalas
eat leaves (present); She will arrive soon
(future)

Additional types of adverbs eg possibly
(modal); very (degree)

Tense

eg multiple word tenses eg We
have
been working

for three hours.

Additional types of adverbs

eg luckily
(comment
) in my opinion (point of view)

Word
Building and
Origins


Compound words


two words
combined eg playground

Base words

eg happy

Prefixes

eg unhappy

Suffixes

eg happily

Word Origins

eg

telephone (Greek); pyjamas
(Persian and Urdu); pedestrian (Latin);
bungalow (Indian)

Figurative
Language


Creative word play
-

A
lliteration

eg slimy slippery snakes
On
omatopoeia

(wooshed)

Evaluative language

eg It was an
excellent piece of writing

Simile

eg She sings like an angel.

Metaphor
eg She is an angel.

Idiom
eg Pull yourself together.

Personification
eg the water was licking at
my feet.















Literacy Best Start Extended Continuum

Where are
they now?

Students may
respond using
augmentative communication and
imaging devices or other
technology
/equipment available.
This should be noted in
assessment information.




Student
names















Visually follows some objects and
people

Quietens or responds to voices

Shows some reflex responses to
sound or movement to ICT (eg.
computer screen) experiences.

Recognises some graphic non letter
symbols eg PCS

Matches object to photo

Orients picture correctly

Recognises start and finish of a story
book eg. front and back of

a book,
when story reading is over

Attends to/responds to
movement/sound in ICT experience (eg.
computer screen)


Recognis
es picture/logo in
environment

Can read a few familiar wor
ds eg
name

Selects book from non
-
book items

Follows a story eg. Mimics
actions.
Match to sample “word to word


Shows awareness of need to turn a
page at points in a story book

Reaches out to a touch
screen/switch to interact with an
interactive ICT activity

Reacts to loud sounds

Demonstrates varying states of
alertness

Shows anticipation of actions (eg.
moves bodies)

Reacts to strange or new
situations


Interprets a single symbol to
associate with an object or action

Demonstrates some awareness of
familiar routines

Tries to repeat new or interesting
events/movements

Can
an
swer simple literal questions
about familiar text eg. “Where is the
…?”, using gesture , or augmentative
or spoken form.

Provides irrelevant aspects unrelated to
story when answering literal questions
about familiar text.

Follows 1 or more steps in a
visual
sequence


Makes a single comment related to
an unfamiliar story

Can answer literal question about
an unfamiliar text

Holds objects once placed in their
hands and retains it for 10
-
15
seconds

Visually inspects an object


Purposely reaches for and
touches
objects and other non
-
writing
implements

Uses finger/hands/other non
-
writing
implements to purposefully make a
mark eg. Makes marks in shave cream
on table top

Engages in cause/effect activity using
alternative/augmentative system to
make a mark
eg. mouse


Purposefully recognises, holds and
uses writing implements to make a
mark

Uses an augmentative device to
create a graphic symbol eg.
keyboard

Early Learning Plan

Vocalises comfort/distress

Uses varying pitch and volume in
voice to reflect emotion

Communicative
partner interprets
intended purpose of interactions


Participates in a joint activity

Responds to known people

Attempts to satisfy wants/needs by
gaining attention of others


Attempts to communicate with
another person using an
unconventional form and
expects a
response



Visually follow slow moving objects

Alternates glance between two objects

Matches identical letters eg. c to c
or C to C

Scans for pictures only without
attending to print

Focuses only on specific items
without reference or awareness of
surrounding items or forms

Distinguishes between pictures and
print eg. symbol/photo/word

Assess to determine and develop
student’s communication needs.
Assessment should include
appropriate mode of communication
(speech, pictorial/augmentative, sign
and unconventional gesture) as well
as existing vocabulary, in a number
of settings and with different
communicative partners.

Assess to determine and develop
student’s communication
needs.
Assessment should include
appropriate mode of communication
(speech, pictorial/augmentative, sign
and unconventional gesture) as well
as existing vocabulary, in a number of
settings and with different
communicative partners.

Has a means of indicatin
g “more”.

Looks when someone points and
names a nearby object/person

Acknowledges by looking for or
touching a named object

Understands and uses some
words/gestures/symbols and
generalises across settings







Reading Texts

Where
are
they
now?

Prior to School

1
st

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6 RES1.8

Best Start Level 0

2
nd

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6

Best Start Level 1

3
rd

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6

Best Start Level 2

4
th

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6

Best Start Level 3

Student
names












1
st

cluster


Provides incorrect word/s in
environmental print/texts.


Unable to read any words in a
sentence correctly.


Tells a story based on pictures
/names pictures only.


Holds a book incorrectly.


Unable to identify writing
.



















2
nd

cluster

►Reads one or two words in
environmental print /texts.

►Reads some words in a
sentence correctly.

►Holds a book the right way
up.

►Identifies writing.

• Points to words using one
-
to
-
one correspondence when
‘reading.’

• Reads some high frequency
wo
rds correctly in simple,
predictable texts, e.g.
my, I.

• Begins to read with fluency
and rhythm when text and
image placement are
consistent.




Teaching ideas to move
students to the

2
nd
cluster


3
rd

cluster

►Reads one or more
sentences correctly in
environmental print/texts.

►Reads one or more
sentences correctly in a picture
story book.

• Uses context to predict
meaning in texts and
supplement decoding
attempts.

• Reads words using known
letter/sound relationships.

• Reads a number of 'easy'
texts with an increasing
number of high frequency
words and illustrations that
provide high support.

• Begins to develop fluency
and understandin
g by revisiting
familiar texts


Teaching ideas to move
students to the

3
rd

cluster




4
th

cluster

►Reads all or most of a more
challenging
story book.

• Maintains fluency when
reading texts with varied and
irregular text and image
placement.

• Pauses or hesitates when
meaning is disrupted when
reading.

• Reads aloud with increasingly
appropriate pitch, intonation
and fluency. (RR level 5
-
8).









Teaching ideas to move
students to the

4
th

cluster


5
th

cluster

• Reads texts with varied and
longer sentence patterns and
several line
s of text per page.

• Demonstrates increased
fluency by recognising and
decoding words automatically
when reading familiar texts.

• Recognises when meaning is
disrupted and attempts to self
-
correct when reading.

• Reads fluently and accurately
with attenti
on to punctuation.

















Teaching ideas to move
students to the

5
th

cluster







Learning Literacy Plan



Reading Texts

Where
are they
now?

5
th

cluster

TS1.2 RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

6
th

cluster

RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.8

7
th

cluster

RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

8
th

cluster

RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

Student
names









Where to
next?

6
th

cluster

• Understands that pathways for
reading
literary, factual and screen
texts can be navigated in different
ways.

• Self
-
corrects when meaning is
disrupted e.g. by pausing, repeating
words and phrases, rereading and
reading on.

• Reads aloud with fluency and
phrasing, adjusting pace, volume,
pitch
and pronunciation to enhance
meaning and expression (RR level 16
-
18).






Teaching ideas to move students to
the

6
th

cluster


7
th

cluster


Understands how to 'read' text
features such as illustrations,
diagrams, tables, maps and graphs to
enhance meaning.

• Automatically integrates a range of
information e.g. meaning, grammar
and letter/sound relationships to read
in a phrased and fluent way.

• Knows that literary, factual and
screen texts need to be 'read' in
differing ways.

• Responds to punctuation and adjusts
expression to enhance meaning when
reading aloud.





Teaching ideas to move students to
the

7
th
cluster


8
th

cluster

• Reads increasingly complex texts
with less familiar content and
vocabulary and more extended
descriptions.

• Engages with both literary and
factual texts o
f increasing length and
difficulty for longer periods of time (at
least 10 minutes).

•'Reads' texts in different ways to meet
a range of reading purposes.


•Independently monitors reading by
using a variety of self
-
correction
strategies to maintain meaning
.






Teaching ideas to move students to
the

8
th

cluster


9
th

cluster

• Reads for sustained periods (15

20
minutes) and sustains understanding

in longer texts over time, e.g. reading
short novels over several days.

• Makes use of visual representations,
e.g. photographs, tables, charts to
enhance meaning when reading
factual texts.

• Selects and uses the most effective
word identification strate
gy to maintain
fluency and meaning.

• Demonstrates an awareness of how
to use skimming/scanning and text
features such as subheadings to
locate specific information.

• Uses screen features (navigation
bar, hyperlinks, etc.) when reading
and viewing Interne
t texts.


Teaching ideas to move students to
the

9
th

cluster








Learning Plan
-

Literacy





Comprehension

Where
are
they
now?

Prior
School

1
st

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6 RES1.8

Best Start Level 0

2
nd

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6

Best Start Level 1

3
rd

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6

Best Start Level 2

4
th

cluster

RES1.5 RES1.6

Best Start Level 3

Student
names










Where
to next?

1
st

cluster


Provides irr
elevant responses
when asked an
inferential
question.


Gives an incomple
te retell of a
story (even when
prompted) or
tells a different story.


Unable to recall relevant
details
from illustrations in a
story book.


Unable to predict a plausible

next event in a story.











2
nd

cluster

►Reads one or two words in
environmental print /texts.

►Reads some words in a
sentence correctly.

►Holds a book the right way
up.

►Identifies writing.

• Points to words using one
-
to
-
one correspondence when
‘reading.’

• Reads some high frequency
words correctly in simple,
predictable texts, e.g.
my, I.

• Begins to read with fluency
and rhythm when text and
image placement are
consistent.




Teaching ideas to move
students to the

2
st

cluster


3
rd

cluster

►Reads one or more
sentences correctly in
environmental print/texts.

►Reads one or more
sentences correctly in a picture

story book.

• Uses context to predict
meaning in texts and
supplement decoding
attempts.

• Reads words using known
letter/sound relationships.

• Reads a number of 'easy'
texts with an increasing
number of high frequency
words and illustrations that
provid
e high support.

• Begins to develop fluency
and understanding by revisiting
familiar texts


Teaching ideas to move
students to the

3
rd
-
clust
er


4
th

cluster

►Reads all or most of a more
challenging story book.

• Maintains fluency when
reading texts with varied and
irregular text and image
placement.

• Pauses or hesitates when
meaning is disrupted when
reading.

• Reads aloud with increasingly
appropriate pitch, intonation
and fluency. (RR level 5
-
8).









Teaching ideas to move
students to the

4
rd

cluster



5
th

cluster

• Reads
texts with varied and
longer sentence patterns and
several lines of text per page.

• Demonstrates increased
fluency by recognising and
decoding words automatically
when reading familiar texts.

• Recognises when meaning is
disrupted and attempts to self
-
cor
rect when reading.

• Reads fluently and accurately
with attention to punctuation.












Teaching ideas to move
students to the

5
th

clust
er






Learning Plan
-

Literacy




Comprehension

Where are
they now?

5
th

cluster

TS1.1 RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

6
th

cluster

RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

7
th

cluster

RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

8
th

cluster

RS1.5 RS1.6 RS1.7

Student
names









Where to
next?

.
6
th

cluster

• Retells and responds to incidents
from a story book or film with
attention to plot elements such as
setting, character, conflict and
resolution.

• Builds understanding of media
texts by discussing different
interpretations of the one
text.


•Shows awareness that information
about one topic can be sought from
a number of sources, e.g. graphs,
posters, reference texts, websites.


Teaching ideas to move students
to the

6
th

cluster


7
th

cluster

• Responds to texts by referring to prior
experiences.

• Responds to and analyses a text by
discussing a point of view
presented in
the text.

• Analyses and evaluates how visual
images support print to create meaning
in texts.

• Interprets and responds to texts by
skimming and scanning to confirm
predictions and answer questions posed by
self and others while reading.







Teaching ideas to move students to the

7
th

cluster

8
th

cluster

• Refers to prior knowledge and
experiences to build understanding of a
text
.

• Justifies predictions about sections of
a text.

• Builds understanding of a text by
using knowledge of text organisation
and features, e.g. referring to headings
to locate information.

• Draws conclusions by using clues in a
text.

• Identifies more tha
n one perspective
or point of view when responding to
questions about texts.

• Articulates the main idea and provides a
synthesised retell that captures key events
in texts.


Teaching ideas to move students to
the

8
th

cluster

Teaching ideas to move students to
the
9
th

cluster



9
th

cluster

• Builds understanding during reading by
discussing possible consequences of
actions and events.

• Interprets texts b
y recognising and
discussing the difference between literal
and inferred meaning in relation to facts,
qualities, characteristics, events.

• Builds understanding about the meaning
of a text by actively seeking information
from different parts of a text.


Shows an awareness through
discussion that texts can present different
perspectives.

• Analyses the ways ideas and
information are presented by making
comparisons between texts.

• Identifies and interprets main ideas and
important information in a text to
provide
an accurate retell of a text.

• Analyses a text by discussing visual,
aural and written techniques used in the
text.

• Builds understanding about the meaning
of a text by identifying and discussing text
organisation and features, including
cohesive

links.


Learning Plan
-

Literacy




Comprehension

Where
are they
now?

9
th

cluster

TS2.1 RS2.5 RS2.6 RS2.7

10
th

cluster

RS2.5 RS2.6 RS2.7

11
th

cluster

RS3.5 RS3.6 RS3.7

12
th

cluster

RS3.5 RS3.6 RS3.7



Student
names













Where to
next?

10
th

cluster



Interprets text by inferring
connections, causes and
consequences during
reading.

• Responds to and interprets
texts by discussing the
differences between literal
and inferred meanings.

• Interprets the meaning of a
text by
seeking further
information in other section of
a text or in different texts.

• Identifies ways texts present
different perspectives.


• Evaluates text accuracy and
credibility by comparing texts
on a similar topic.

• Analyses and evaluates the
relative im
portance of key
ideas and information in a
text to construct an overview.

• Responds to and analyses
texts by discussing the ways
language structures and
features shape meaning.

• Responds to and interprets
texts by integrating sources of
information in te
xts.




11
th

cluster


Analyses and evaluates the ways
that inference is used in a text to
build understanding.


Re
-
examines sections of texts for
evidence to support interpretations
and opinions.


Evaluates a personal interpretation
of a text by
critically re
-
examining
evidence within the text.


Responds to themes and issues
evident in texts that present different
perspectives on a given topic or
different points of view in a text.


Analyses texts to explain and
compare how audience, purpose
and

context influence texts.


Critically analyses and interprets a
text to create a summary that
demonstrates an understanding of
the different views and values
represented.


Analyses and responds to
language and grammatical
techniques used to influence an
audience.

• Analyses and compares how
information and ideas are presented
in a range of texts on the one topic.

12
th

cluster

• Interprets and critically analyses texts by
responding to inferred meaning within a text
and justifying interpretations using
evidence.

• Reinterprets ideas and issues by creating
innovative personal responses to ideas and
issues in literary texts through oral, dramatic,
written and multimodal presentations.

• Critically analyses a wide range of
imaginative, informative and persu
asive texts
in different forms to compare how ideas are
presented.

• Explains how texts can be interpreted from a
variety of perspectives by discussing the ways
that different views and values are presented.

• Interprets texts by identifying and discussing

multiple purposes within the same text.

• Interprets and analyses several different texts
on one topic to present a summary of
information and ideas that show an
understanding of the topic.

• Analyses texts to compare how language
structures and features
are used to position
readers and viewers.

• Analyses and evaluates how written
information and visual images shape meaning
by comparing texts on the same topic.

13
th

cluster
-

cluster under development

Explores

and critically analyses ideas, characters
and

themes in imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts to construct responses using
the forms and features of language appropriate
for analysis.

Analyses

and evaluates the effectiveness of texts
by discussing and comparing possible
interpretations using
the forms and features of
language appropriate for discussion.

Interprets

and responds to points of view in a text
through critical analysis of the texts’ underlying
social, cultural and/or historical values.

Analyses

a text to identify the different
inter
pretations and perspectives presented by
evaluating credibility and reliability of its sources.

Analyses

and evaluates how text purpose and
audience impact on text composition by linking
ideas, information, perspectives and background
experience.

Interprets

texts by drawing on genre knowledge
from other contexts and comparing plot,
characterisation and language.

Responds

to imagery and symbolism in verbal and
visual forms to innovate on a text using a
different medium.

Analyses

and evaluates the im
pact of visual
images on texts by describing how image choice
complements, contrasts or adds to the text.

Learning Plan
-

Literacy




Vocabulary Knowledge


Where
are they
now?

Prior to School

1
st

cluster

Best
Start Level 0

2
nd

cluster

Best Start Level 1

3
rd

cluster

Best Start Level 2

4
th

cluster

Best Start Level 3

Student
names










Where
to next?

1
st

cluster

While Vocabulary knowledge
has been identified as a
critical aspect of literacy
learning in the
early years, it
has not been included as
part of the Best Start literacy
assessment. Vocabulary
knowledge is most effectively
assessed by teachers over
time in a range

of different classroom
contexts. Students need
ongoing opportunities to
demonstrate that

they
understand the meaning of
words and develop an ever
-
increasing vocabulary.


2
nd

cluster


Knows the meaning of, and
when speaking, can use words
that are likely to be
encountered in easy reading
texts, e.g. big, little.

• Names some basic parts of a
computer, e.g. screen,
keyboard, mouse, space bar.

• Asks questions to find out
meanings of unfamiliar words.

3
rd
cluster


Begins to expand the
vocabulary used to describe
everyday events and
experiences.

• Begins to use topic words
when speaking and writ
ing.

• Identifies unfamiliar words and
attempts to use experience and
context to work out word
meanings.

4
th

cluster



Knows the meaning of commonly
used words in texts read and
demonstrates this knowledge
when writing and speaking.

• Develops beginning
un
derstandings about word
families and uses these
understandings when reading and
writing.

• Uses grammar and context of a
text to work out the meaning of an
unfamiliar

5
th

cluster


Uses knowledge and
understanding of topic words
when reading, writing and
speaking.


Accurately uses a range of
basic computer and Internet
terminology, e.g. icon, bold,
italics, home page.


Demonstrates awareness that
some words have multiple
meanings when reading, writing
and speaking.

• Understands that changing
words in a
text can alter the
meaning.

Learning Plan
-

Literacy



Vocabulary Knowledge

Where
are they
now?



5
th

cluster

6
th

cluster

7
th

cluster

8
th

cluster

Student
names









Where to
next?


6
th

cluster


Demonstrates the use of more
precise vocabulary
to describe
feelings and experiences when
speaking and writing.

• Shows beginning understanding
of the effects of different words and
phrases, e.g. to create humour, to
persuade, to inform.


• Applies knowledge of base words
to build word families, e.g. mo
ve,
moving, remove.

• Independently uses a range of
classroom print resources to
enhance vocabulary, e.g. topic
word lists, labels, etc.



7th cluster


Knows the meaning of commonly
used words in increasingly challenging
texts and can demonstrate this
kno
wledge when reading, writing and
speaking.


Shows beginning understanding of
the effective use of ‘word play’ to
enhance and enrich meaning, e.g.
alliteration, onomatopoeia.


Uses knowledge developed about
word families and word origins to
understand the

meaning of unfamiliar
words, e.g. rhyming words, synonyms,
base words.

• Uses a simple dictionary to check
word meanings,

8
th

cluster


Uses words and phrases for effect,
e.g. to create images, to add
emphasis, to create atmosphere.

• Draws on
topic/content knowledge to
assist in working out the meaning of
unknown words.

• Understands relevant vocabulary
associated with electronic texts.

• Recognises that different words can
be used to describe similar concepts,
e.g. everyday or technical langua
ge,
synonyms.

• Shows evidence of capacity to
improve vocabulary choices in
response to purpose and audience
when reviewing and editing writing.



9
h

cluster


Uses synonyms for a range of common
words.

• Uses simple content specific vocabulary
in appropri
ate ways when creating texts.

• Uses relevant vocabulary associated
with digital technology and electronic
texts.

• Understands how prefixes and suffixes
change word meanings.



































Learning Plan
-

Literacy




Vocabulary
Knowledge

Where
are they
now?

9
th

cluster

10
th

cluster

11
th

cluster

12
th

cluster

Student
names









Where to
next?


10
h

cluster


Demonstrates understanding that
words can have different meanings
in different contexts.

• Demonstrates expanded
content
vocabulary by drawing on a
combination of known and new
topic knowledge.

• Shows awareness that there are
a number of ways to work out the
meaning of unknown words.

• Finds the meaning of
unknown/unfamiliar words in
reference sources, e.g.
dictiona
ries, thesauruses.

11th cluster


Makes effective word choices in
response to purpose and audience
when creating texts.

• Demonstrates understanding of new
words for new concepts.

• Applies knowledge of prefixes and
suffixes to understand the meanings
of
new words and to create new
words.

• Refines vocabulary choice in
response to purpose and audience
when editing and reviewing own and
peer’s writing.

12
th

cluster


Uses new words for known
concepts, e.g. blissful for happy.

• Increasingly uses appropriate

content vocabulary when creating
spoken and written texts about
specific topics.

• Accurately uses the vocabulary
associated with digital technology and
electronic texts.

• Draws on knowledge of word origins
to work out meaning of new words.



13
h

cluster

Applies knowledge of root words and
word origins to understand the
meaning of new subject
-
specific
words.

Uses technical vocabulary to explain a
complex phenomenon, e.g. how an
electric circuit works.

Consistently selects appropriate
vocabulary in respons
e to subject,
context, purpose and audience.

Uses a combination of effective
strategies to work out the meaning of
unknown words, e.g. context,
dictionaries, word parts.








Learning Plan
-

Literacy




Aspects of Writing


Where
are they
now?

Prior to School

1
st

cluster

WES1.9 WES1.10 WES1.11
WES1.12 WES1.14

Best Start Level 0

2
nd
cluster

WES1.9 WES1.10 WES1.11
WES1.12 WES1.14

Best Start Level 1

3
rd

cluster

WES1.9 WES1.10 WES1.11
WES1.12

WES1.14

Best Start Level 2

4
th

cluster

WES1.9 WES1.10 WES1.11
WES1.12 WES1.14

Best Start Level 3


Student
names












Where to
next?

1
st

cluster


Some attempt to write and
draw name, e.g. one or

two
letters or scribble.


Engages in writing
-
like
behaviour using strings of

letters or scribble.




Writing’ is unrelated to a
story book that has been

read to
them.


Little/no evidence of left to
right direction and/or

spacing
between words.

2
nd

cluster

► Clear attempt to write name
(may not be correct spelling).

►Writes at least one
recognisable word (may not be
spelled correctly) related to a
story book that has been read to
them.

►'Writes' from left to right and
leaves spaces between words.

• Attempts
to form some letters.

• Talks about intended 'writing'
before attempting to 'write'.

• Talks about own writing and
drawing.

• Experiments with computer
mouse and keyboard.

3
rd

cluster

►Writes name correctly.

►Writes a recognisable
sentence, words may not b
e
spelled correctly, some evidence
of sentence punctuation.

• Draws on both personal and
imaginary experiences to 'write'
texts.

• Vocalises words to
approximate spelling.

• Begins to develop a simple
writing vocabulary including
some high frequency words
and
words of personal significance.

• Uses simple noun groups and
adverbial phrases when writing.

• Begins to demonstrate
understanding of pencil grip,
paper placement and posture.

• Experiments with creating
simple texts on the computer.

4
th

cluster

►Writ
es more than one
recognisable sentence, words
may not be spelled correctly,
some evidence of sentence
punctuation.

• Talks about the audience and
purpose for texts being written.

• Attempts to spell high
frequency words that have been
taught.

• Produces so
me compound
sentences using conjunctions to
join ideas.

• Uses simple pronoun
references.

• Forms most letters correctly.

• Uses correct pencil grip, paper
placement, posture and knows
how to self
-
correct.

• With support uses computer
software programs to
create
simple texts.

5
th

cluster

• Selects vocabulary and
phrases modelled by the
teacher during whole class
planning to construct own text.

• Engages in the joint
production of texts using a
variety of mediums, e.g.
podcasts, films.

• Draws on personal
experiences and topic
knowledge to create texts of
about 4
-
5 sentences for a
range of purposes.

• Rereads own text to clarify
meaning and make some
changes to the text.

• Uses sentence punctuation
and some simple punctuation.

• Accurately writes simple and

compound sentences.

• Uses a range of adjectives to
provide more information about
nouns.

• Writes lower/upper case
letters of consistent size and
formation in NSW Foundation
Style






Learning Plan
-

Literacy


Aspects of Writing

Where
are they
now?

5
th

cluster

WS1.9 WS1.10 WS1.11 WS1.12
WS1.13 WS1.14

6
th

cluster

WS1.9 WS1.10 WS1.11 WS1.12
WS1.14

7
th

cluster

WS1.9 WS1.10 WS1.11 WS1.12
WS1.13 WS1.14

8
th

cluster

WS1.9 WS1.10 WS1.11 WS1.12
WS1.13 WS1.14

Student

names









Where to
next?

6
th

cluster

• Creates longer texts supported by
visual information e.g. diagrams,
maps, graphs on familiar topics for
known audiences.

• Begins to use text features such as
headings and paragraphs to organise
information.


Demonstrates elementary proof
-
reading and editing, e.g. circles a
word that does not look right.

• Accurately spells an increasing
number of high frequency and topic
words.

• Uses simple punctuation, e.g. full
stops, exclamation marks and
question marks.



Experiments with using some
complex sentences to enhance
writing.

• Uses a refined pencil grip, correct
posture and paper placement to write
more fluently and legibly.

• Uses computer functions to edit
texts.

7
th

cluster

• Plans texts by making notes,
dra
wing diagrams, planning
sequence of events or information
etc.

• States purpose and intended
audience before creating texts.

• Spells words with regular spelling
patterns correctly and makes
plausible attempts at words with
irregular spelling patterns.


Applies spelling generalisations
when writing.

• Uses contraction apostrophes and
capitals for proper nouns as well as
other simple punctuation.

• Includes different types of verbs
using appropriate tense and
demonstrates subject
-
verb
agreement.

• Uses a c
omputer to produce texts
with graphics.


8
th

cluster

• Creates longer texts (at least one
page) that achieve the intended
purpose and are appropriate for less
familiar audiences.

• Experiments with
producing/publishing texts using an
increasing range of me
diums and
modes.

• Writing shows evidence of revision,
editing and proof
-
reading.

• Demonstrates a range of spelling
strategies to spell unfamiliar words.

• Uses quotation marks for direct
speech and commas in lists.

• Produces a range of grammatically
acc
urate sentences.

• Fluently writes letters of consistent
size and formation in NSW
Foundation Style.

9
th

cluster

• Constructs well
-
sequenced
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts using language
appropriate to purpose and audience.

• Plans and
organises ideas using
headings, graphic organisers,
questions and mind maps.

• Rereads texts during and after
writing to check accuracy,
consistency of meaning and fitness
for purpose.

• Structures texts using paragraphs
composed of logically grouped
sente
nces that deal with a particular
aspect of a topic.

• Uses a variety of spelling strategies
to spell high frequency words
correctly.

• Uses simple word processing
functions such as spell check,
grammar check.

• Chooses verbs, adverbials, nouns
and adjectiv
als to express specific
ideas and details.

• Uses joined letters of consistent
size.

• Experiments with creating simple
multimodal texts using digital text
creation programs.

Learning Plan
-

Literacy


Aspects of Writing

Where are
they now?

9th
cluster

WS2.9 WS2.10 WS2.11 WS2.12
WS2.13 WS2.14

10
h

cluster

WS2.9 WS2.10 WS2.11 WS2.12
WS2.13 WS2.14

11
th

cluster

WS3.9 WS3.10 WS3.11 WS3.12
WS3.13 WS3.14

12
th

cluster

WS3.9 WS3.10 WS3.11 WS3.12
WS3.13 WS3.14

Student

names









Where to
next?

10
h

cluster

• Draws ideas from personal
experiences, other texts and
research to create imaginative,
informative and persuasive texts for
different audiences.

• Shows awareness of the need to
justify opinions with supporting
evidence.

• Locates resources and accesses
information when planning.

• Rereads and revises text to check
and improve meaning, deleting
unnecessary information or adding
new information.

• Creates meaningful sentences
using a variety of sentence
beginnings
, including adverbial and
adjectival clauses to create complex
sentences.

• Uses sentence and simple
punctuation correctly.

• Uses morphemic, visual, phonic
knowledge and knowledge of
prefixes and suffixes to spell and edit
words.

• Uses grammatical featur
es such as
pronouns, conjunctions and
connectives to accurately link ideas
and information.

• Consolidates handwriting that is
consistent in form.

11
th

cluster


Writes coherent, structured texts for
a range of purposes and contexts.

• Deliberately
structures language in a
way that creates more cohesive
imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts..

• Shows awareness of accurately
acknowledging sources in relevant
texts.

• Refines writing in response to
feedback.

• Selects appropriate language for
p
urpose, e.g. descriptive, persuasive,
topic, technical, evaluative, emotive,
and colloquial.

• Uses topic sentences and
appropriately organises main and
subordinate ideas.

• Experiments with using complex
punctuation to engage the reader and
achieve purpos
e.

• Applies knowledge of
generalisations, meanings of base
words and word parts (prefixes and
suffixes) to spell new words.

• Writes fluently with appropriate size,
slope and spacing.

• Uses word processing programs
confidently and accurately, integrating

various functions.

• Plans and designs more complex
multi modal texts.


12
th

cluster


Writes sustained texts for a wide range of
purposes.

• Makes choices about the type and form
of texts, including combinations of forms
and types, to suit purpose and
audience.

• Creates well planned, extended texts that
include more complex and detailed subject
matter and language features such as
nominalisation.

• Critically reflects on effectiveness of
own/others’ writing and seeks and
responds to feedback from other
s.

• Selects some sophisticated and subtle
language features, literary devices (e.g.
irony, humour) and grammatical features
(e.g. modality) to engage and influence an
audience.

• Makes sentence level choices (e.g. short
sentences to build tension; complex

sentences to add detail) using a variety of
sentence beginnings and dependent
clauses.

• Uses a range of punctuation to enhance
meaning and clarity, including the use of
brackets to enclose additional information,
quotation marks and commas to indicate
cl
auses.

• Integrates a range of spelling strategies
and conventions to accurately spell most
words, including words of many syllables.

• Uses visuals to extend or clarify
meaning, selects from a range of media
and experiments creatively with the
production
of multimodal texts for
audience impact.

13
th

cluster under development

No markers available for this

aspect
for Stage 4.



The following points have been

taken
from a description of
Literacy learning
in the middle years

on page 13 of
An
introduction to
quality literacy teaching

(NSW DET 2009).



Produces

increasingly sophisticated
texts.

Creates

extended spoken, written and
multimodal texts.

Further

develops the ability to spell,
punctuate and use more complex
grammar.

Composes

increasingly complex texts

in different media, both print
-
based
and digital, that have multiple
purposes and audiences.

Understands

and uses the language
of different subjects.

Create

subject specific texts using the
codes and conventions of Standard
Australian English.


Learning Plan
-

Literacy