Masters Project Proposal

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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1


Masters Project Proposal

Pedestrian Navigation Using Mobile Devices and
Georeferencing of
Photographs of Publicly Posted Maps

Joe B. Taylor

Committee Members and Signatures




Approved by Date



_________________________________
____
_ _____________


Advisor: Dr. Edward Chow



__________________________________
____



_____________


Committee member:
Dr. Sudh
anshu Semwal



_______________
___________________
____

_____________


Committee member:

Dr. Chuan Yue



Introduction

Current navigation and mapping systems that are publicly available such as Google Maps

[1]

and
TomTom

[2]

provide quick, easy and ubiquitous access to lo
cation information for users of mobile
devices. This navigation information tends to focus more on vehicle navigation rather than on
pedestrian navigation. The focus of these systems has been to provide detailed
road and highway maps
and puts little focu
s on smaller areas without roads like universities, zoos and parks. These smaller
areas usually have posted maps with excellent detail about the surrounding area but are often only
centrally posted so referencing the map in route to a destination is not p
ossible. One solution to this
problem is to take a photograph of the posted map with a camera phone. Once the photograph of the
map is on the phone, in routing referencing is possible. Many mobile devices today have GPS
capabilities as well as cameras b
ut lack the software to enable on the fly mapping and navigation
enhancement.

Previous research into pedestrian navigation using mobile devices presented a georeferencing problem.
What is the best way for GPS coordinates to be linked to points on the ph
otograph so that the user’s
current location can be displayed on the photo map? An ideal solution to this problem would involve as
little user interaction as possible while providing quick and accurate
results.

Mobile devices in general have become very

popular in recent years.
Apple’s iPhone platform
is one
example of the

tremendous success in the smart phone market. Apple reported that on the 28th day
after its release, the one millionth i
Pad was sold on May 3,
2010 [3
] and three million iPads were s
old in
the first 80 days [
4
]. Apple reported on

January 5
, 2010 that over three billion app downloads had
2


occurred in less than 18 months [
5
]. Over 1.7 million iPhone 4 phones were sold in the first three days
after its release in June 2010 [
6
].

Project
Description

This project will work to extend recent European research

[
7
,
8
]

into this topic. The methods
implemented in this recent research include a basic two point referencing and a smart alignment
method. The two point reference method has the user t
ouch their current location on the map and
records the GPS coordinates. The user then moves to a new location and touches their new location on
the map. These two points are used to georeference the image. The smart alignment method uses an
existing map

such as Google Maps and has the user line up the photo map over the Google map allowing
the photo to be georeferenced.

GPS tracing will be evaluated by allowing the user to move about the map area while the device
captures GPS locations. This list of loc
ations can then be adjusted to fit the map correctly by the end
user. If this method proves to be effective and accurate, automated track fitting might be a viable
option for future research.

Additional information that might be useful to this process i
ncludes user designation of North on the
photo image

and user designation of the scale of the photo map. These two additional pieces of
information will be
considered and evaluated for their potential impact and worthiness for additional
research.

Related

Work

Related research will be studied and summarized to provide a well rounded background to mobile
mapping techniques and research that might affect the georeferen
cing process. Map orientation
,
zooming and presentation will be considered. In the preliminary research
review
for this project,
heading
-
up map orientation is significantly better than north
-
up orientation [9]. A smaller overview
map imposed over the zoomed in map is not likely to
b
e
helpful in this case since the overview map
would not provide
additional
semantic information [10]. Photograph enhancements such as color
reduction and contrast improvement might provide benefit to the end user [11].



3


Tasks & Schedule


This is the list

of tasks that must be completed in order to achieve success in this project.

Tasks nearly completed or finished:

1.

Basic

image
-
based

map funct
ionality
understood and
working in iPhone

prototype application.

2.

Background research on related topics that might i
nfluence an effective mapping application.

Tasks
to be completed prior to project delivery:

3.

Create prototype application project with the ability to access the iPhone camera and retrieve a
photograph.

(1 week)

4.

Create a module that will track GPS points
over time.

(2 days)

5.

Create a module that will overlay the GPS points in a track form.

(1 week)

6.

Enable the user to move and resize the GPS tracks to match the scale and location on the
photograph of the map.

(1 week)

7.

Based on user overlay of GPS tracks, cal
culate and update current location on the photograph of
the map.

(1 week)

8.

Consider and evaluate the impact of additional user input such as map scale and map north
.

(1
day)

9.

Final
write
-
up

of work done and results
. (2 days)

Deliverables


The deliverables of

this project include



An
iPhone

prototype
application
providing
the ability to take a photograph of a map and
georeference the map for immediate navigation.



A project report
that

documents

the
georeferencing approaches considered and implemented,
prototype

application features and implementation challenges
.



4


References

[1]
http://www.apple.com/iphone/features/maps
-
compass.html

[2]
http://www.tomtom.com/en_gb/products/mobile
-
navigation/tomtom
-
iphone
-
ipod
-
touch/

[3
]
http://w
ww.apple.com/pr/library/2010/05/03ipad.html

[4
]
http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/06/22ipad.html

[5
]
http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/01/05appstore.html

[6
]
http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/06/28iphone.html

[
7
] Schöning, J., Krüger, A., Cheverst, K., Rohs, M., Löchtefeld, M., an
d Taher, F. 2009. PhotoMap: using
spontaneously taken images of public maps for pedestrian navigation tasks on mobile devices. In
Proceedings of the 11th international Conference on Human
-
Computer interaction with Mobile Devices
and Services

(Bonn, Germany
, September 15
-

18, 2009). MobileHCI '09. ACM, New York, NY, 1
-
10. DOI=
http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1613858.1613876


[
8
]
K. Cheverst, J. Schöning, A. Krüger, and M. Rohs.

Photomap: Snap, grab an
d walk away with a “you
are here”

map. In Proc. of MobileHCI ’08 : Workshop on Mobile

Interaction with the Real World,
September 2008.

http://citeseerx.ist
.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.139.4848&rep=rep1&type=pdf

[9] Smets, N. J., te Brake, G. M., Neerincx, M. A., and Lindenberg, J. 2008. Effects of mobile map
orientation and tactile feedback on navigation speed and situation awareness. In
Proceedings
of the
10th international Conference on Human Computer interaction with Mobile Devices and Services

(Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 02
-

05, 2008). MobileHCI '08. ACM, New York, NY, 73
-
80.
DOI=
http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1409240.1409249


[
10
] Burigat, S., Chittaro, L., and Parlato, E. 2008. Map, diagram, and web page navigation on mobile
devices: the effectiveness of zoomable user interfaces with overviews. In
Proceedings of the 10th
internat
ional Conference on Human Computer interaction with Mobile Devices and Services

(Amsterdam,
The Netherlands, September 02
-

05, 2008). MobileHCI '08. ACM, New York, NY, 147
-
156. DOI=
http://doi.acm
.org/10.1145/1409240.1409257

[
11
] Setlur, V., Kuo, C., and Mikelsons, P. 2010. Towards designing better map interfaces for the mobile:
experiences from example. In
Proceedings of the 1st international Conference and Exhibition on
Computing For Geospatial
Research & Application

(Washington, D.C., June 21
-

23, 2010). COM.Geo '10.
ACM, New York, NY, 1
-
4. DOI=
http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1823854.1823890