Ivan E. Sutherland

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Ivan E. Sutherland

ACM Turing Award Winner 1988


Biographical Information

¤
General Background

¤
Education

¤
Early Work and Teaching

¤
Sun Microsystems

¤
Summary of Accomplishments

¤
Summary of Publications

¤
Summary of Patents

Ivan E. Sutherland

ACM Turing Award Winner 1988


Turing Award Lecture: MICROPIPELINES

¤
Clocked
-
Logic Conceptual Framework

¤
Transition
-
Signaling Conceptual Framework

¤
Micropipelines without Processing

¤
Micropipelines with Processing


Impact on Computer Science


Bibliography

General Information:


Born:

1938, Hastings, Nebraska


Parents:
Mom


Teacher, Dad


Ph.D. Civil Engineering [2]


High School:

In the 1950s, he was one of a very few high school students who had written
a computer program


Hobbies:

Motorcycles, Ballroom and Square dancing


Proudest Accomplishment:

Four Grandchildren

Education:


1959 B.S. EE Carnegie Institute of Technology
(Carnegie Mellon University)


1960 M.S. EE California Institute of Technology


1963 Ph.D. EE Massachusetts Institute of Technology

»
Studied under Minsky [6]

»
Ph.D. Thesis:

“Sketchpad: A Man
-
machine Graphical
Communications System” [2]

Education:


Sketchpad


First major Interactive Graphics System, first GUI


Used coding techniques similar to OOP


Memory structures to store objects


Zoom in and out [2] using clipping algorithms


Rubber
-
banding of lines


Perfect lines, corners, and joints[4]


Display file for screen refresh


Recursive methods for geometric transformations


Later additions included


Polygon clipping


Hidden surface removal


Elegant algorithms for registering digitized views [9]

Education:


Sketchpad


The concept of the constraint as a method of specifying details of the geometry of the picture


The ability to display and manipulate iconic representations of constraints


The ability to copy as well as instance both pictures and constraints


Some elegant techniques for picture construction using a light pen


The separation of the coordinate system in which a picture is defined from that on which it is
displayed


Implications of some of these innovations are still being explored by Computer Science researchers
today [4]

Early Work and Teaching


1963
-
64 Army and NSA


1964

1966 D.O.D. Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA)


Director of Information Processing Techniques


1966
-
1968 Harvard


Associate Professor [2]

Quint Foster wearing the Head
-
Mounted Display circa 1967

Early Work and Teaching


1968
-
1974 Utah


Co
-
founder Evans and Sutherland Computer
Corporation


Part
-
time Computer Science Professor at
University of Utah [2]

Early Work and Teaching


1974
-
1980 California

¤
RAND Corporation

¤
California Institute of Technology

»
Chairman of Computer Science [2]

Sun Microsystems


1980
-
1991 Sutherland, Sproull and
Associates


Vice President and Technical Director


1991
-
Present


Sun Microsystems


Vice President [2]

Summary of Accomplishments


Honors & Professional Societies (partial list):


IEEE John von Neumann Medal, 1998


Smithsonian Computer World Award, 1996


ACM Turing Award, Association for Computing Machinery, 1988


First Zworykin Award, National Academy of Engineering, 1972


Member, National Academy of Sciences (NAS), since 1978


Member, National Academy of Engineering (NAE), since 1973


Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)


Fellow, Association for Computing Machinery

Summary of Publications


"Sketchpad
--
A Man
-
Machine Graphical Communication System," Sutherland, I.E., Proceedings of the Spring Joint
Computer Conference, Detroit, Michigan, May 1963, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report #296, January
1963.


"Ten Unsolved Problems in Computer Graphics," Sutherland, I.E., Datamation, May 1966, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 22
-
27.


"On the Design of Display Processors," Myer, T.H., and Sutherland, I.E., Communications of the ACM, June 1968,
Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 410
-
414.

o
"A Clipping Divider," Sproull, R.F., and Sutherland, I.E., AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 33, Part I, 1968, p. 765
-
776.

o
"A Head
-
Mounted Three
-
Dimensional Display," Sutherland, I.E., AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 33, Part I, 1968,
pp. 757
-
764.

o
"Computer Displays," Sutherland, I.E., Scientific American, Vol. 222, No. 6, June 1970, pp. 56
-
81.

Summary of Publications


"How Big Should a Printed Circuit Board Be?," Sutherland, I.E., and Oestreicher, D., IEEE Transactions of
Computers, Vol. C
-
22, May 1973, pp. 537
-
542.


"Reentrant Polygon Clipping," Sutherland, I.E., and Hodgman, G.W., Communications of the ACM, January
1974.


"A Characterization of Ten Hidden
-
Surface Algorithms," Sutherland, I.E., Sproull, R.F., and Schumacker, R.A.,
Computing Surveys: Journal of the ACM, March 1974. Summarized in Naval Research Reviews, June 1975, pp.
21
-
23.

o
"Computerized Commerce," Sutherland, I.E., The RAND Corporation, P5515, September 1975, acceptance
address for the 1975 Award for Outstanding Accomplishment of the Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, San
Francisco, California, September 23, 1975.

Summary of Publications


"Basic Limitations in Microcircuit Fabrication Technology," Sutherland, I.E., and Mead, C.A., and Everhart, T.E.,
RAND Report R
-
1956
-
ARPA, November 1976.


"Microelectronics and Computer Science," Sutherland, I.E., and Mead, C.A., Scientific American, September 1977,
pp. 210
-
228.


"Machines That Walk," Raibert, M.H., and Sutherland, I.E., Scientific American, January 1983, pp. 44
-
53.

o
"Micropipelines," Sutherland, I.E., Communications of the ACM, June 1989.

o
"Logical Effort: Designing for Speed on the Back of an Envelope," Sproull, R.F., and Sutherland, I.E., IEEE
Advanced Research in VLSI, C. Sequin, ed., MIT Press, 1991.

Summary of Publications


"Technology and Courage," Sutherland, I.E., CMU Computer Science: A 25th Anniversary Commemorative, R.F.
Rashid, ed., ACM Press, 1991. (also reprinted by Sun Laboratories)


"The Counterflow Pipeline Architecture," Sproull, R.F., Sutherland, I.E., and Molnar, C.E., Technical Report
Series TR
-
25, Sun Microsystems, Fall 1994, also in Design and Test of Computers, IEEE, Fall 1994.


"Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information
Infrastructure," Brooks, F. and Sutherland, I.E., Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National
Research Council, 1995.

Summary of Patents


”Optical Systems for Retrieving Stored Information," Sutherland, I.E., 3,103,305, April 21, 1964.


"Display Windowing by Clipping," Sutherland, I.E., 3,639,736, February 1, 1972.


"Vector Computing System as for Use in a Matrix Computer," Sutherland, I.E., 3,684,876, Aug 15, 1972.


"Incremental Position
-
Indicating System," Sutherland, I.E. & Evans, D., 3,732,557, May 8, 1973.


"A Computer Graphics Clipping System for Polygons," Sutherland, I.E. & Hodgman, G., 3,816,726, June 11,
1974.


“System of Polygon Sorting by Dissection," Sutherland, I.E., 3,889,107, June 10, 1975.

Summary of Patents


"Reticle Exposure Apparatus and Method," Sutherland, I.E. & Seitz, C.L., 4,209,240, June 24, 1980.


"Reaction Control Valve," Sutherland, I.E., 4,622,992, November 18, 1986.


"Asynchronous Queue System," Sutherland, I.E., 4,679,213, July 7, 1987.


"Asynchronous First
-
In
-
First
-
Out Register Structure," Sutherland, I.E., 4,837,740, June 6, 1989.


"Robot Arm Structure," Sutherland, I.E., 4,900,218, February 13, 1990.


"Asynchronous Pipelined Data Processing System," Sutherland, I.E., 5,187,800, February 16, 1993.

ACM Turing Award 1988


Citation


For his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and
continuing after. Sketchpad, though written twenty
-
five years ago, introduced many techniques still
important today. These include a display file for screen refresh, a recursively traversed hierarchical
structure for modeling graphical objects, recursive methods for geometric transformations, and an object
oriented programming style. Later innovations include a "Lorgnette" for viewing stereo or colored images,
and elegant algorithms for registering digitized views, clipping polygons, and representing surfaces with
hidden lines. [9]


Turing Award Lecture: Micropipelines


Micropipelines


Event Driven Elastic Pipelines



Clocked
-
Logic Conceptual Framework






Transition
-
Signaling Conceptual Framework

Turing Award Lecture: Micropipelines


Micropipelines without Processing








Micropipelines with Processing

Clocked
-
Logic Conceptual Framework


AND




OR




REGISTERS

[5]

Clocked
-
Logic Conceptual Framework


Advantages [1]


Simple way to design computing equipment


Widely taught and understood


Parts that operate with clocks are widely available


System noise dissipates by the time a clock event occurs


Disadvantages


Complexity of Implementing Pipelines


Clock Speed Limited by Set
-
up time of Registers


Not flexible or easily updated


Not well suited for FIFOs (elastic pipelines)


Synchronization must be handled in the design for FIFOs to connect senders and receivers with separate clocks (or to
resolve the effects of clock skew [8])

Transition
-
Signaling Conceptual Framework


Events [1]




Logic Modules for Events


Event
-
Controlled Storage Element





Two
-
Phase Bundled

Data Interface

Transition
-
Signaling Conceptual Framework


Two
-
Phase Bundled Data Interface








Muller C
-
elements








Event
-
Controlled Storage Element

Transition
-
Signaling Conceptual Framework


Advantages [1]


Flexibility


Design hardware with small parts previously designed and tested


Handle vectors of variable length in software


Extend system life by replacing isolated parts with components with improved speed or cost


Well suited for FIFOs (elastic pipelines)


Synchronization handled by Two
-
Phase Bundled Data Interfaces


Disadvantages


Not widely taught or understood


Difficulty overcoming the Clocked
-
Logic Conceptual Framework

Micropiplelines without Processing


FIFO
-

Flow through memory structure

Micropipelines with Processing


Four Stage Event
-
based Pipeline

Impact on Computer Science


Pioneered Interactive Computer Graphics


Sketchpad


Interactive Graphics Systems


Benjamin Bederson, “Jazz: An Extensible Zoomable User Interface Graphics Toolkit in Java,”

UIST, 2000.


Hidden Surface Removal


T. Hudson, D. Manocha, J. Cohen, M. Lin, K. Hoff, H. Zhang, “
Accelerated Occlusion Culling using Shadow
Frusta
?n?6\PSRVLXP?RQ?&RPSXWDWLRQDO?*HRPHWU\???????


Edward F. Grove, T.M. Murali, Jeffery Scott Vitter, “
The Object Complexity Model for Hidden
-
Surface
Removal
?n?,QWHUQDWLRQDO?-RXUQDO?RI?&RPSXWDWLRQDO?*HRPHWU\? ?$SSOLFDWLRQV???????


Mark de Berg, “
Visualization of TINs
?n?$OJRULWKPLF?)RXQGDWLRQV?RI?*HRJUDSKLF?,QIRUPDWLRQ?6\VWHPV???????


Jeff Erickson, “
Finite
-
Resolution Hidden Surface Removal
?n???
th

Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete
Algorithms, 2000.

Impact on Computer Science


High Performance Computing Machinery


Micropipelines


Rhodri M. Davies and John V. Woods, “
Timing Verification for Asynchronous Design
?n?(XURSHDQ?'HVLJQ?
Automation Conference (EURO
-
DAC), 1996.


L. Lloyd, K. Heron, A. M. Koelmans, A. V. Yakovlev, “
Asynchronous Microprocessors: From High Level
Model to FPGA Implementation
?n??????


C. Tofts, “
Some Formal Musings on the Performance of Asynchronous Hardware
?n?8QLYHUVLW\?RI?0DQFKHVWHU?
Technical Report Series UMCS
-
96
-
2
-
2, 1996.


O. A. Petlin and S. B. Furber, “
Designing Asynchronous Sequential Circuits for Random Pattern Testability
?n?
IEEE Proceedings, Computers and Digital Techniques, 1995

Bibliography


[1] "Micropipelines," Sutherland, I.E., Communications of the ACM, June
1989.


[2]
http://www.sun.com/960710/feature3/ivan.html


[3]
http://www.es.com/about_eands/history/index.asp


[4]
http://sln.fi.edu/tfi/exhibits/sutherland.html


[5]
http://hyperphysics.phy
-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/dflipflop.html


[6]
http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/people.html


[7] "Technology and Courage," Sutherland, I.E., CMU Computer Science:
A 25th Anniversary Commemorative, R.F. Rashid, ed., ACM Press, 1991.


[8]
http://www.cs.umass.edu/~weems/CmpSci635/Lecture6/L6.I.html



[9]
http://www.acm.org/awards/turing_citations/sutherland.html