EMOTIONS IN INTERACTION DESIGN

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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EMOTIONS IN
INTERACTION DESIGN

Lecture 13



History


During the
1990ies
-

a
wave of new research on the role of emotion in diverse areas such as
psychology, neurology, medicine,
and
sociology




Prior to
this,
emotions
-

a low
-
status topic of
research



researchers
had mainly focused on how emotion got in the way of our rational
thinking
(results
-

focused
on issues like when getting really scared, pilots would get tunnel vision and
stop being able to notice important changes in the flight’s
surroundings)



emotions
were seen the less valued pair in the dualistic pair rational


emotional, and
associated with body and female in the “mind


body”, “male


female”
pairs



In 90ies It
became clear that emotions were the basis for behaving
rationally.



Without
emotional processes we would not have
survived (being
hunted by a predator (or
enemy aircraft) requires focusing all our resources on escaping or
attacking
-

Tunnel
vision
makes sense in that
situation



Unless
we can associate feelings of uneasiness with dangerous situations, as food we
should not be eating, or people that aim to hurt us, we would make the same mistakes over
and
over

The Four
P
leasures framework


Tiger
(1992)/Jordan(2000)


categorizes
the four broad types of pleasure enjoyed by
people



The Four Pleasure model is a framework that can be used
to help evaluate how pleasurable a product will be use
and own
.



can
also be used to identify and generate opportunities to
enhance a
product


The Four Pleasures framework


The Four Pleasures


Physio
-
pleasure



Psycho
-
pleasure



Socio
-
pleasure



Ideo
-
pleasure


Physio
-
pleasure


Physio
-
pleasure is a sensual pleasure that is derived from
touching, smelling, hearing and tasting something
.




It also conveyed by an objects effectiveness in enabling
an action to be performed
.



Ex: When
we close a car door and it makes a satisfying
clunk we experience a certain pleasure

Psycho
-
pleasure


Psycho
-
pleasures
are pleasures that are derived from
cognition, discovery, knowledge, and other things that
satisfy the
intellect



Games are enjoyable because they present challenges
that we need to figure
out (finishing
the Rubik’s cube, or
achieving checkmate in a few moves, there is a cognitive
-
emotional pleasure that is derived from such
activities)




Socio
-
pleasure


Socio
-
pleasures, as the name suggests, are concerned
with pleasures derived from social signifiers of belonging,
social
-
enablers and other social self
-
identification factors
.



Facebook is a tool that enables people to have a greater
sense of community and involvement with one another.

Ideo
-
pleasure


Ideo
-
pleasures then are pleasures that are linked to our
ideals, aesthetically, culturally and otherwise
.



Aesthetic sensibilities are often closely linked to our
ideological or cultural identity and determine to a great
extent the pleasure a product may bring

Emotional Design


Attractive things works better? (cheap wine


fancy glass,
washed car


it drives better ;))



Products that make people feel good, work better



Emotional design framework:


Visceral


how things look, feel, sound


sensory inputs


Behavioral


how things function


effectiveness and usability


Reflective


self
-
image, personal satisfaction, memories


meaning
of things (influenced by knowledge, learning, culture)


Visceral

Behavioral

Reflective

Emotional Design


Design & trust:


Trust comes from experience


products that perform accordingly
to expectations



Lack of trust comes from:


Lack of understanding


Lack of control

Design for Emotion


Design

for

emotion

“comprises

studying

the

emotional

experiences

of

users

with

products,

as

well

as

the

emotional

meanings

assigned

by

users

in

relation

to

experience

and

interaction

with

products,

assessing

how

emotions

vary

with

different

user

characteristics

and

integrating

users’

emotional

expectations

into

the

product

development
.

It

acknowledges

the

fact

that

the

emotion

is

not

a

feature

of

the

design,

but

a

subjective

experience

of

the

user,

owner

or

observer

of

the

product
.


([Engage,

2005
])


Design for Emotion


Advances
in our understanding of emotion and affect have implications for the
science of design
.




Affect changes the operating parameters of cognition:


positive
affect enhances creative, breadth
-
first
thinking


negative
affect focuses cognition, enhancing depth
-
first processing and minimizing distractions.



it
is essential that products designed for use under stress follow good human
-
centered design, for stress makes people less able to cope with difficulties and
less flexible in their approach to problem solving.



Positive
affect makes people more tolerant of minor difficulties and more flexible
and creative in finding
solutions




Products designed for more relaxed, pleasant occasions can enhance their
usability through pleasant, aesthetic design.



Aesthetics
matter: attractive things work better
.

(
D. A. Norman,
2002
)


Design for Emotion


Product design that provides aesthetic appeal, pleasure and
satisfaction can greatly influence the success of a product
.




Traditional cognitive approaches to product usability have tended to
underestimate or fragment emotion from an understanding of the user
experience.



Affect
, which is inexplicable linked to attitudes, expectations and
motivations, plays a significant role in the cognition of product
interaction, and therefore can be usefully treated as a design aid
.




Emotion influences and mediates specific aspects of interaction
before, during and after the use of a product.



These
affective states regularly impact how a user manipulates and
explores a user interface in order to support a desired cognitive
state.”

(
Frank Spillers,
2007
)


T
en
E
motion
H
euristics


Frowning (...) can be a sign of a necessity to concentrate, displeasure
or of perceived lack of clarity.



Brow
Raising (...) should also be considered a negative expressive
reaction (...) is a sign of uncertainty, disbelief, surprise and
exasperation



Gazing
Away (...) from the screen may be perceived as a sign of
deception.



Smiling
(...) is a sign of satisfaction. The user may have encountered
an element of joy during the evaluation process.



Compressing
the Lip (...) should be perceived as a sign of frustration
and confusion (...) reflects anxious feelings, nervousness, and
emotional concerns.


T
en
E
motion
H
euristics


Moving the Mouth (...) is associated with a sign of being lost and of
uncertainty.



Expressing Vocally (...) as well as the volume of the expression, the tone
or quality of the expression may be signs of frustration or deception.



Hand Touching the Face (...) is a sign of confusion and uncertainty,
generally a sign of the user being lost or tired.



Drawing Back on the Chair (...) negative or refusing emotions. By
drawing back the chair, he / she [the user] may be showing a desire to
get away from the present situation.



(...) Leaning forward and showing a sunken chest may be a sign of
depression and frustration with the task at hand (...) the user might be
encountering difficulties but instead of showing refusal, leaning forward is
a sign of attentiveness, of "getting closer".



Kansei engineering



K
ansei

is a Japanese word and implies psychological feeling and
needs in
mind



Kansei

is the instantaneous feeling and emotion that we experience
when we interact with things, such as products and
services



Kansei

Engineering is
a
methodology for ensuring your product or
service evokes desirable emotional responses. The process allows
you to model customer’s instantaneous feelings and emotions and
subsequently translate them into design parameters
.



Kansei

is similar to psychology


grasping the image that exists in
somebody’s mind



Kansei

engineering


transforming the image into something
measurable


multidisciplinary science



Kansei

Engineering


Before purchase of for example a passenger car one has images in mind of may
be “a powerful engine”, “easy operation”, “beautiful and premium exterior, “cool
and relaxed interior” and so on.



These words express the
kansei
, and the consumers really want to have such
kind of a vehicle if the manufacturer succeeds in realizing a vehicle fitting to their
imaginations.




Kansei

engineering
-

a mechanism that technologically translates users
Kansei

into design elements



A good product is more appealing to its consumers in terms of price, functions,
colors, shape


represents users needs and has
Kansei

incorporated



Kansei

engineering


mix of feeling, emotion, and engineering



First the product’s
kansei

is collected then the relationship to the product is
established


Emotions research directions in HCI


In HCI, we understood the importance of considering users’ emotions explicitly in
our design and evaluation processes.



the
HCI research came to go in three different directions with three very different
theoretical perspectives on emotion and design.


1.
Rosalind
Picard and her group at
MIT

-

The
cognitivistically

inspired design
approach she named

Affective Computing



2.
counter
-
reaction
to Affective
Computing
-
instead
of starting from a more
traditional perspective on cognition and biology, the

Affective
Interaction

approach starts from a constructive, culturally
-
determined
perspective on
emotion


3.
emotion
as part of a larger whole of experiences we may design for


we can
name the movement

Technology as Experience
. In a sense, this is what
traditional designers and artists have always worked with (see e.g.

Dewey
1934)


creating for interesting experiences where some particular emotion is a
cementing and congruous force that unites the different parts of the overall
system of art piece and
viewer/artist

Affective computing


b
asic idea: human
rational thinking depends on emotional
processing



it should be possible to create machines that relate to,
arise from, or deliberately influence emotion or other
affective
phenomena



the
roots of affective computing
came
from neurology,
medicine, and
psychology



implements
a
biologistic

perspective on emotion
processes in the brain, body, and interaction with others
and with
machines

Affective computing


Emotions, or affects, in users are seen as identifiable states or
at least identifiable processes.



Based on the identified emotional state of the user, the aim is
to achieve an interaction as life
-
like or human
-
like as possible,
seamlessly adapting to the user’s emotional state and
influencing it through the use of various
expressions



Applications
:


affective learning
-

use an emotion model built on James A. Russell’s
model of affect relating phases of learning to emotions


training autistic children to recognize emotional states in others and in
themselves and act accordingly.



Affective computing


The most discussed and widespread approach in the design of
affective computing applications
-

to construct an individual cognitive
model of affect from what is often referred to as “first principles

-

the
system generates its affective states and corresponding expressions
from a set of general principles rather than having a set of hardwired
signal
-
emotion
pairs



The
model is combined with a model that attempts to recognize the
user’s emotional states through measuring the signs and signals we
emit in face, body, voice, skin, or what we say related to the emotional
processes going
on



facial
expressions
-

portraying
different
emotions
-

can be
analyzed
and classified in terms of muscular movements.


Affective computing

http://www.interaction
-
design.org/encyclopedia/affective_computing.html

Affective Computing


Limitations:


simplification
of human emotion in order to model it,


difficult
approach into how to infer the end
-
users emotional states
through interpreting human
behaviour

through the signs and
signals we
emit



Pros


provides
for a very interesting way of exploring intelligence, both in
machines
and in people.

Affective Computing


T
ools for:


affective input


facial
recognition
tools


voice recognition


body
posture
recognition


bio
-
sensor models


affective output:


emotion
expression for characters in
the
interface



regulating robot
behaviours

Affective
Interaction


sees emotions as constructed in interaction, whereas a
computer application supports people in understanding and
experiencing their own emotions



will
not aim to detect a singular account of the “right” or “true”
emotion of the user and tell them about it as in a prototypical
affective computing application, but rather make emotional
experiences available for
reflection



creates
a representation that incorporates people’s everyday
experiences that they can reflect
on



tries to avoid reducing human experience to a set of
measurements or inferences made by the system to interpret
users’ emotional states.

Affective Interaction


Approach



recognizes
affect as a social and cultural product



relies
on and supports interpretive flexibility



avoids
trying to formalize the
unformalizable



supports
an expanded range of communication acts



focuses
on people using systems to experience and understand
emotions



focuses
on designing systems that stimulate reflection on and
awareness of affect


Affective Interaction


Affector

is a distorted video window connecting
neighbouring

offices of two friends (and colleagues). A camera located under
the video screen captures video as well as 'filter' information
such as light levels,
colour
, and movement. This filter
information distorts the captured images of the friends that are
then projected in the window of the
neighbouring

office. The
friends determine amongst themselves what information is
used as a filter and various kinds of distortion in order to
convey a sense of each other's mood.



eMoto

is an extended SMS
-
service for the mobile phone that
lets users send text messages between mobile phones, but in
addition to text, the messages also have
colorful
and animated
shapes in the background


Affective Interaction


Affective Diary
-

as a person starts her day, she puts on a body sensor
armband.


During
the day, the system collects time stamped sensor data picking up
movement and arousal.


At
the same time, the system logs various activities on the mobile phone:
text messages sent and received, photographs taken, and Bluetooth
presence of other devices nearby.



Once
the person is back at home, she can transfer the logged data into
her Affective Diary.



The
collected sensor data are presented as somewhat abstract,
ambiguously shaped, and
coloured

characters placed along a
timeline.



To
help users reflect on their activities and physical reactions, the user
can scribble diary
-
notes onto the diary or manipulate the photographs
and other
data

Affective Diary

Technology as experience


a
holistic approach to understanding
emotion


emotions
should not be separated from other aspects of being in
the world



Emotion processes are part of our social ways of being in
the world, they dye our dreams, hopes, and experiences
of the world.



design
for
emotions
-

place
emotions
in the larger picture
of experiences, especially if we are going to address
aspects of aesthetic experiences in our design processes

Kansei

engineering


Kansei



difficult to measure



Computer Aided
Kansei

Engineering

Kansei

Engineering


The traditional
Kansei

engineering method includes the
following steps (
Nagamachi
, 2008):


Decision of product strategy (design domain + customer type)


Collection of

kansei

expressions that relate to the domain. Usually
about 30
-
40 words are collected


A

semantic differential scale

is constructed


Samples that represent the domain are collected


Items/categories of the samples are identified, i.e. its "objective"
features are described


Subjects then evaluate each sample item with the constructed scale


Results are analyzed with standard multi
-
variate

methods like factor
analysis, multiple regression or cluster analysis, or quantification
theory (a non
-
parametric method developed by
Komazawa

and
Hayashi)


Results, i.e. ratings of sampled items as well as
kansei

structures are
then interpreted, explained and mapped to the designer's sketches.


Affective computing


2 approaches:


emotion is constructed
in interaction


between people and
between people and
machines > designing for emotion



emotion is just one of the parameters we have to
consider
-

instead
of placing emotion as the central topic in a design process, it is now
seen as one component contributing to the overall design goal.