robot in space

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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ABSTRACT



In the modern world and in the development of technology the growth of
science is in high. Fast world need fast device hence robots are introduced .A
challenge that scientists face is enabling robots to perform tasks on their own as
much
as possible, and giving these androids the ability to ask for human help and
knowledge only when necessary. In this paper it covers Robotic history, space
Robotic, Robotic types, Robotic software, Robotic application and other aspect of
robotic.































Authors

N. Sabesan,


T. Sathiya Moorthy.

Email : sit_saba@yahoo.co.in


rarunkumarece@gmail.com




III

Year ECE


MPNMJ Engineering College,

Chennimalai


638 112,

TamilNadu.







ROBOTIC TECH
NOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Robot is defined as”
Robot

is the general term for a mechanical man or
automaton, but has come to be applied to many machines which directly
replace a human or animal

“.A robot can be defined as a man
-
made entity with
an intelligent con
nection between perception and action. Usually, the intelligence
is a computer or microcontroller running a program. However, much work has
been done on robots with wired intelligence. The action is usually motors or
actuators that move an arm or propel th
e robot.

ROBOTIC

The word "robot" was coined in 1934 by the Czech playwright Karel C
apek from the Czech word
robota,

meaning "compulsory labor." While this
original meaning still applies to most Earth
-
bound robots, robots in space have
broken through the

tedium to become great explorers. They work in environments
that may be harmful to humans or in situations where sending a human crew
would be too costly. They have been sent as advanced guards to measure the
temperature, evaluate the atmosphere, and anal
yze the soil of other worlds to
determine what human explorers can expect to find.






What, exactly, is a robot? A broad definition considers any mechanism
guided by automatic controls to be a robot; a very narrow definition requires a
robot to be a huma
noid mechanical device capable of performing complex human
tasks automatically. Robots in space have fallen somewhere in between these
extremes. They generally involve a mechanical arm

resembling part of a human,
at least

attached to a stationary planetary

landing module or to a mobile rover
that must perform complex tasks, such as recognizing and avoiding dangerous
obstacles in its path. But the evolution to humanoid robots is well under way with
the Robonaut being developed by the National Aeronautics and

Space
Administration (NASA).

SPACE SHUTTLE
-
ERA ROBOTS

The space shuttle was developed as a reusable spacecraft to replace the
costly one
-
time
-
use
-
only vehicles that marked the Apollo era. On its second
mission in November 1981, astronauts aboard the spac
e shuttle Columbia tested
the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), a robotic arm located in the cargo bay.
The RMS is 15 meters (50 feet) long 38 centimeters (15 inches) in diameter and
weighs 411 kilograms (905 pounds). It has a shoulder (attached to the carg
o bay),
a lightweight boom that serves as the upper arm, an elbow joint, a lower arm
boom, a wrist, and an "end effectors" (a gripping tool that serves as a hand) that
can grab onto a
payload
.




The RMS was designed to lift a satellite weighing up to 29
,500 kilograms
(65,000 pounds) from the payload bay of the shuttle and release it into space. It
can also retrieve defective satellites in orbit for the astronauts to repair. Perhaps
the greatest achievement of the RMS has been the retrieval and repair of
the
Hubble Space Telescope (HST), whose initially flawed primary mirror produced
blurry pictures. After it was hauled in by the RMS and repaired using corrective
optics in 1993, the HST began delivering the high
-
quality photographs that
astronomers had lon
g awaited.

The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) of the
space shuttle Atlantis moves the Destiny laboratory from its storage bay for future
mission use.

After two decades of debate about the need to explore Earth's nearest
neighbor in the solar system, the M
ars Pathfinder landed on the Red Planet on July
4, 1997, and deployed a six
-
wheeled robotic
rover

called Sojourner to explore the
terrain. Standing only 30 centimeters (1 foot) tall and resembling a rolling table
with its flat solar panels facing skyward t
o soak up energy from the Sun, Sojourner
roamed short distances to take pictures of interesting rock formations. It used two
stereoscopic cameras mounted on its front to see the terrain in three dimensions,
just like we do with our slightly separated stere
oscopic eyes. A laser beam
continuously scanned the area immediately in front of Sojourner to avoid
collisions with objects the cameras might have missed. Sojourner analyzed the
chemical composition of fifteen rocks using its
alpha proton X
-
ray

SPECTROMET
ER

Engineers are starting to think of robots on a more human scale again.
Since the space shuttle and the International Space Station are designed on a
human scale, having robots built to the same scale would be advantageous in
working on these spacecraft.

NASA is currently developing the Robonaut, a humanoid robotic astronaut
about the size of a human astronaut, with a head mounted on a torso, a primitive
electronic brain that allows it to make decisions relating to its work, four cameras
for eyes, a nose
with an
infrared

thermometer to determine an object's
temperature, two arms containing 150 sensors each, and two five
-
fingered hands
for dexterous manipulation of objects. It will work alone or alongside human
astronauts on space walks to build or repair e
quipment.

Robotics engineers are also working on a personal satellite assistant, which
is a softball
-
size sphere that would hover near an astronaut in a spacecraft,
monitoring the environment for oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations,
bacterial growth,

and air temperature and pressure. It will also provide additional
audio and video capabilities, giving the astronaut another set of eyes and ears.

DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDS TRACK

T
he design and development of robots and robotic technology requires

the
mastery of multiple disciplines


primarily software development, mechanical and
electrical engineering.


Robotics development is made even more difficult as it is
limited by embedded and real
-
time constraints.


But real
-
time concerns are only
the beg
inning, especially as robots and robotic technology become more prevalent
in the home, the workplace and in public places.


For both the business
-
to
-
business
and consumer markets, products must be usable and robust.


They must be able to
operate in unstruc
tured environments, often with little outside control to guide
them.


The next generation of robots and robotic devices must also be integrated
with other systems in their environment, and be able to communicate with other
devices, as well as directly with

humans.


For this to occur, both de jury and de
facto standards must be developed and adhered to.

Although robotics technology in the various types of commercial, consumer
and military robotics systems can differ radically from each other, the areas of
co
mmonality greatly outnumber their differences.


That is, enabling technologies
and development techniques suitable for one particular class of products are
appropriate and applicable for other types of intelligent, mobile robotics products
as well.


Standa
rds, too, can be applied across a wide variety of mobile robotic and
intelligent systems products.

The
Design, Development and Standards Track

covers issues such as:



Integration of Multiple Sensors for Intelligent Systems;



Standards for Robotic Development and Control;



Open Source Software and Robotics;



Selecting Robot Kits and Development Platforms;



Form Factors and Body Types;



Designing Autonomous Mo
bile Robots;



Mobile Robot Design and Applications with Embedded Systems;



Map
-
Building and Exploration Strategies;



Embedded Java/Windows CE;



Robot Navigation and Control;



Motion Planning and Scheduling;



Operating Systems: Linux, Aperies, Windows;



Real
-
Time Operating Systems:


MTOS, VxWorks, QNX;



BEAM Robotics; and



Human
-
Machine Interfaces, Hepatics.

TYP
ES OF ROBOTS

Robots can be found in the manufacturing industry, the military, space
exploration, transportation, and medical applications. Below are just some of the
uses for robots.

ROBOTS ON EARTH

Typical industrial robots do jobs that are difficult, dan
gerous or dull. They
lift heavy objects, paint, handle chemicals, and perform assembly work. They
perform the same job hour after hour, day after day with precision. They don't get
tired and they don't make errors associated with fatigue and so are ideally

suited to
performing repetitive tasks. The major categories of industrial robots by
mechanical structure are:



Cartesian robot

/
Gantry robot
: Used for pick and place work, application of
sealant, assembly operations, handling machine tools and arc welding. It's a
robot whose arm has three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with
a Cartesian coordinator.



Cylindrical robot
: Used for assembly operations, handling at machine tools,
spot welding, and handling at die
-
casting machines. It's a robot whose axes
form a cylindrical coord
inate system.



Spherical/Polar robot
: Used for handling at machine tools, spot welding,
die
-
casting, fettling machines, gas welding and arc welding. It's a robot
whose axes for
m a polar coordinate system.



SCARA robot
: Used for pick and place work, application of sealant,
assembly operations and handling machine tools. It's a robot which has two
parallel rota
ry joints to provide compliance in a plane.



Articulated robot
: Used for assembly operations, die casting, fettling
machines, gas welding, arc welding and spray painting. It's a r
obot whose
arm has at least three rotary joints.



Parallel robot
: One use is a mobile platform handling cockpit flight
simulators. It's a robot whose arms have concurrent prismatic o
r rotary
joints.

Industrial robots are found in a variety of locations including the
automobile and manufacturing industries. Robots cut and shape fabricated parts,
assemble machinery and inspect manufactured parts. Some types of jobs robots
do: load brick
s, die cast, drill, fasten, forge, make glass, grind, heat treat,
load/unload machines, machine parts, handle parts, measure, monitor radiation,
run nuts, sort parts, clean parts, profile objects, perform quality control, rivet, sand
blast, change tools a
nd weld.



Outside the manufacturing world robots perform other important jobs. They
can be found in hazardous duty service, CAD/CAM design and prototyping,
maintenance jobs, fighting fires, medical applications, military warfare and on the
farm.

Farmers d
rive over a billion slow tractor miles every year on the same
ground. A robot agricultural harvester named
Demeter

is a model for
commercializing mobile robotics technology. The Demeter h
arvester contains
controllers, petitioners, safeguards, and task software specialized to the needs
commercial agriculture.


Some robots are used to investigate hazardous and dangerous
environments. The
Pioneer

robot is a remote reconnaissance system for structural
analysis of the Chernobyl Unit 4 reactor building. Its major components are a
teleported mobile robot for deploying sensor and sampling payloads, a mapped for
creating photoreali
stic 3D models of the building interior, a core borer for cutting
and retrieving samples of structural materials, and a suite of radiation and other
environmental sensors.


An eight
-
legged, tethered, robot named
Dante II

descended into the active
crater of Mt. Spurr, an Alaskan volcano 90 miles west of Anchorage. Dante II's
mission was to rappel and walk autonomously over rough terrain in a harsh
environment;

receive instructions from remote operators; demonstrate
sophisticated communications and control software; and determine how much
carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide exist in the steamy gas
emanating from fumaroles in the crater. Via sate
llite, Dante II sent back visual
information and other data, as well as received instruction from human operators
at control stations in Anchorage, Washington D.C., and the NASA Ames Research
Center near San Francisco. Dante II saves volcanologists from ha
ving to enter the
craters of active volcanoes. It also demonstrates the technology necessary for a
robot to explore the surface of the moon or planets. That is, the robot must be able
to walk on rough terrain in a harsh environment, receive instructions fr
om remote
operators about where to go next, and reach those commanded goals
autonomously.



Robotic underwater rovers are used explore and gather information about
many facets of our marine environment. One example of underwater exploration is
Project Jeremy
, collaboration between NASA and Santa Clara University.
Scientists sent an underwater tele presence remotely operated vehicle (TROV) into
the freezing Arctic Ocean waters to investigate the rem
ains of a whaling fleet lost
in 1871. The TROV was tethered to the surface boat Polar Star by a cable that
carried power and instructions down to the robot and the robot returned video
images up to the Polar Star. The TROV located two ships which it docume
nted
using stereoscopic video cameras and control mechanisms like the ones on the
Mars Pathfinder. In addition to pictures, the TROV can also collect artifacts and
gather information about the water conditions. By learning how to study extreme
environments

on earth, scientists will be better prepared to study environments on
other planets

ROBOT IN SPACE

Space
-
based robotic technology at NASA falls within
three specific

mission areas: exploration robotics, science payload maintenance, and on
-
orbit
servicing
. Related elements are terrestrial/commercial applications which transfer
technologies generated from space tele robotics to the commercial sector and
component techn
ology which encompasses the development of joint designs,
muscle wire, exoskeletons and sensor technology.



Today, two important devices exist which are proven space robots. One is
the
Remotely Operat
ed Vehicle (ROV)

and the other is the
Remote Manipulator
System (RMS)
. An ROV can be an unmanned spacecraft that remains in flight, a
lander that makes contact with an extraterrestrial body a
nd operates from a
stationary position, or a rover that can move over terrain once it has landed. It is
difficult to say exactly when early spacecraft evolved from simple automatons to
robot explorers or ROVs. Even the earliest and simplest spacecraft oper
ated with
some preprogrammed functions monitored closely from Earth. One of the best
known ROV's is the
Sojourner

rover that was deploy
ed by the Mars Pathfinder
spacecraft. Several NASA centers are involved in developing
planetary explorers

and
spa
ce
-
based robots
.


The most common type of existing robotic device is the robot arm often
used in industry and manufacturing. The mechanical arm recreates many of the
movements of the human arm, having not only side
-
to
-
side and up
-
and
-
down
motion, but also

a full 360
-
degree circular motion at the wrist, which humans do
not have. Robot arms are of two types. One is computer
-
operated and programmed
for a specific function. The other requires a human to actually control the strength
and movement of the arm to
perform the task. To date, the NASA
Remote
Manipulator System (RMS)

robot arm has performed a number of tasks on many
space missions
-
serving as a grappler, a remote assembly device, and also a
s a
positioning and anchoring device for astronauts working in space.

ROBOT SOFTWARE

ARIA
=
-

Active Media Robotics Interface for Applications

ARIA is a powerful Object Oriented (OO) interface to
ActivMedia mobile
robots, usable under Linux or Win32 OS in C++. ARIA is an API designed and
written entirely in the OO paradigm. It dynamically controls velocity, heading,
relative heading, and other navigation settings. ARIA includes ARNetworking
layer f
or use under TCP/IP and other software for use under serial Ethernet. ARIA
also integrates user I/O bus, gripper, pan
-
tilt, bumpers, and other accessories.
ARIA is included with every ActivMedia robot. Compatible with Campestral and
Sphinx voice synthesis
and speech recognition.

ARIA is included with every
developer robot

COMMERICAL APPLICATION SOFTWARE:

Advanced Robotics Control System (ARCS) Software

ARCS software is included with all platforms with
ARCS inside,
including Patrol
and the ADAM AGV. ARCS sof
tware includes:



ARAM: onboard robot intelligence that controls our commercial
applications robots



µARCS: low
-
level robot server operating system



SETNETGO: network set
-
up application



MAPPER 3 PRO: robot work planning software for the command &
control stati
on



MOBILEEYES: robot command & control GUI

MOBILE EYES

In conjunction with ARAM, now supports customization for demos by end users!

Mobile Eyes is a graphical user interface for viewing robot motion and
sensor output that turns into a command center when A
RAM, ARNL or
SONARNL is onboard the robot. Mobile Eyes automatically polls robot
configuration and displays the appropriate sensor data, accessory controls, such as
camera pan, tilt and zoom. Also displays the loaded building map. Click on a
destination an
d the robot travels there. Watch it plan paths and re
-
plan when
obstacles are detected.

OPERATING SYSTEM

Advanced Robotics Control Operating System

Advanced Robotics Control Operating System (ARCOS) is low
-
level
software that handles motor controls,

sensor reading, power and other
basic processes for communication via RS232 interface to ARIA.
Accessed by only a few developers, ARCOS automatically feeds packets from
custom sensors on the user I/O for use in custom softwa
re.
ARCOS is included in
firmware on every Mobile Robots developer platform.

Micro Advanced Robotics Control System

µARCS


Micro Advanced Robotics Control System (µARCS) is low
-
level
software that

handles motor controls, sensor reading, power and other basic
processes for communication via RS232 interface to ARIA.

µARCS is included in
firmware on all ARCS inside application systems such as Patrol and any ARCS
inside AGV.



ROBOT APPLICATIONS




Manufacturing
&

Materials

Handling



Research



Security

&

Surveillance



Rapid

Prototyping &

Application Development



Robotics

Education


CONCLUSION


Robots and human beings need to clearly converse about goals, abilities,
plans and achievements, according to Fong. People and robots need to "collaborate
to solve problems, especially when situations exceed

(robot) autonomous
capabilities human
-
robot communications need to take place on three levels: in a
shared space, line
-
of
-
site (from a human being in a habitat to a robot outside on
the planetary surface), over the horizon and even at interplanetary dista
nces s.
Thus in future robotic play a very good role in all field of science and in modern
world.

“Get ready for Robotic age”.