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Being There


effects and measurements of user
presence in synthetic environments

Edited by:

G. Riva

Istituto Auxologico Italiano &

Centro di Psicologia della Comunicazione,

Milan, Italy



Telecom Italia Learning Servic
es S.P.A.

Rome, Italy

W.A. IJsselsteijn

Eindhoven University of Technology,

Eindhoven, The Netherlands


What do people do at work? They go to meetings. How do we deal with meetings?
What is it about sitting face to face that we need to captur
e? We need software that
makes it possible to hold a meeting with distributed participants

a meeting with
interactivity and feeling, such that, in the future, people will prefer being

Bill Gates, 1999

Media and laws of the mind

When I th
ink about presence and the engineering of advanced media environments, there’s a
slogan that keeps popping up in my mind. An early VR software engineer, William Bricken,
drunk with the boldness that swirled around the idea of virtual reality at the 1990 SI
conference, captured something essential when he pithily proclaimed to an audience of
hundreds: “Psychology is the physics of virtual reality.” It was a clever formulation of a
powerful idea; one that has precursors.

The many voices that have penne
d some version of this idea have haunted some of my own
research since [1
7]. Although a very clever man, I’m not sure that William Bricken fully
appreciated all the implications of his slogan.

The first psychologist to systematically study media in the 2
0th century, Hugo Munsterberg
[8], hinted at what has not always been apparent: Media obey laws of the mind. Bricken
echoed this thought in a more pithy version linked to the medium de jour.

But with his slogan he made clear to the many bright VR engineer
s in the room that the
physicality of virtual reality had not only some connection to the simulation of real physics, but
a much stronger connection to the simulation of the mind’s reaction to physical stimuli.
Merging the phrasing of Munsterberg and Brick
en today we can say that: Media obey not the
laws of physics, but the laws of the mind*.

My first encounter with this compelling idea was as an undergraduate philosophy student
listening to the controversial media theorist, Marshall McLuhan [9
11], in a l
ecture hall in
Canada. “All media,” he proclaimed, “are extensions of some faculty, psychic or physical.”

Clearly, his slogan suggests that building virtual environments or any medium can be greatly
enhanced by some understanding of user psychology, the i
nteraction of body and brain. But
McLuhan made it clear that there was more to the brain and body; there was a technology, the
extended mind. Therefore, it is perhaps not surprising that issues in perception, what McLuhan
would call extensions of the sense
s, have been central to the design and user experience of
virtual and augmented reality hardware and software.

But the phrase, “Psychology is the physics of virtual reality,” implies more to me. Like physics,
psychology holds a key to our understanding of

reality.This fact suggests that virtual
environments have less to do with simulating physical reality per se, rather it simulates how
the mind “perceives” physical reality. Enter presence!

This is why presence has become a central issue in the engineeri
ng, design, and evaluation of
media technology; why a journal from a hardcore engineering school like MIT bears the name
of a psychological goal, Presence; and why communities of engineers, designers,
psychologists, and other researchers are collaborating
to understand, measure, and engineer

As Munsterberg, McLuhan, Bricken and others have envisioned, presence is about how the
mind “perceives” reality, not the reality itself; not physics, but psychology; the extended mind,
the place where experie
nce, technology, and psychology meet.

Designing Presence Machines: Cyclotrons for the Mind?

If virtual environments are technologies of the mind, then advanced media environments may
be to the mind, like cyclotrons are to physics. In cyclotrons, engineers

whirl atoms through
space to see something essential about their structure.

Advanced virtual environment engineers may whirl minds through cyberspace to understand
something fundamental about the structure of experience

in a word, consciousness. The
tudy of presence can be seen as the study of those traces of phenomenal experience that
emerge when brains and bodies are whirled through virtual spaces created by media. By
tracing those patterns that we call presence, we may come to understand something
fundamental about both mind and media, neuron and silicon. The authors in this book offer to
you, the reader, sightings and reports on the patterns of presence they have observed. May
you join them in their search for the presence of mind.

I suspect that
many of the readers of this book have talked about great “interface design” or
heard others talk about it. When you hear interface designers talk about great interfaces or
write about how to design them, you often hear words like “intuitive,” “simple,” or
“transparent.” What do these terms really mean? Let me suggest to you that they point to a
fundamental assumption that lies behind these terms.

Phrases such as “transparent” or “intuitive” suggest interfaces that are more or less in
harmony with the funct
ioning of the mind. An interface that is in better harmony with the way
the mind works is more “intuitive.” If it is in strong harmony with the way the mind works it
becomes not just intuitive, but “transparent.” For some, “transparency” is what presence
eans, the “elimination of mediation” [12]. This very old idea echoes the famous painter
Alberti who wanted to learn the laws of perspective so that his paintings would simply become
a transparent window pane on the simulated environment of his painting.

ut is transparency, the elimination of mediation, the only goal of the engineering of presence?
Is this all a medium can be when it obeys the “laws” of the mind? Surely the implied claim
does not stop there. Let me continue my optics analogy a little furth
er. If an interface were
completley transparent, would that be enough? Is transparency, a kind of physical fidelity
worthy of physics, the heart of presence? What do I mean? Let me make an analogy with
another technology.

Let us say that I want to produce

a technology

an interface if you will

that assists the eye.
If I produce a clear sheet of glass and place it before the eye; it is surely transparent. But it is
not clear that it actually assists the functioning of the eye. A technology that was jus
transparent might have little function. But what if, on the other hand, I mold the glass when
designing my “eye interface,” if I make a lens? It is still transparent, but I somehow
augmented the functioning of the eye. By analogy, does the design of pres
ence really seek a
lens for the mind, not just a piece of transparent glass? Is that why the study of presence is
often preoccupied with the relationship between presence and the physical and cognitive
performance of users? In the design of virtual reality

and augmented reality, there is a claim
that the interfaces are more transparent to the functioning of the brain than say television, but
it is also claimed that this greater transparency somehow augments human intelligence [4].

Presence is not just abou
t the illusion of being there, but also about how the simulation of
future, past, or imaginary space can sharpen the mind’s performance when flying a plane;
considering the architecture, space, and function of the Roman forum; exploring the sinewy
bonds of

a DNA molecule; identifying with the life experience of a character in a novel or a
film; or accessing the “thoughts and emotions” of a virtual agent in a collaborative virtual

Advanced virtual reality and augmented reality interfaces are am
ong those that push the outer
limits of interface design.

When designers push the outer limits, possibly the designers are looking for something that is
to psychology what the cyclotron is to physics, a presence machine

a technology that
accelerates, re
veals, and probes the essence of reality.

But as interface design makes clear, a cyclotron of the mind can only be created by perfectly
simulating the medium of the mind, the body, or what McLuhan called the extended senses.

If the mind is anchored by th
e body, it is on this thought where I can join the long line of
Munsterberg, McLuhan, and Bricken to say: The mind is in the heart of presence.

Frank Biocca

M.I.N.D. Labs, Michigan State University,

East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Actually Munsterberg was
referring at his time only the new visual media film, so he said
“Film obeys the laws of mind.” But had he lived later in the media century, he surely would
have seen that his instinct about film applied to all media.


[1] F. Biocca, Sampling f
rom the museum of forms: Photography and visual thinking in the rise
of modern statistics, in Communication Yearbook 10, M. McLaughlin, Editor. 1987, Sage:
Beverly Hills. p. 684

[2] F. Biocca, The Pursuit of Sound: Radio, Perception, and Utopia in the

Early Twentieth
Century. Media, Culture, & Society, 1988. 10: p. 61

[3] F. Biocca, What does it mean for consciousness to feel "presence" in virtual reality? in
Towards a science of consciousness "Tuscon II". 1996. Tuscon.

[4] F. Biocca, Intelligence
augmentation: The vision inside virtual reality., in Cognitive
technology: in search of a humane interface, B. Gorayska and J.L. Mey, Editors. 1996,
Elsevier: Amsterdam ; Oxford. p. 59

[5] F. Biocca, The cyborg's dilemma: progressive embodiment in virt
ual environments. Journal
of Computer
Mediated Communication, 1997. 3(2):

[6] F. Biocca, T. Kim, and M.
Levy, The vision of virtual reality, in Communication in the age of virtual reality, F. Biocca and
M. Levy, Editors. 1995, Lawrence Erlbaum Press: Hillsdale, NJ. p. 3

[7] F. Biocca and K. Nowak, Plugging your bo
dy into the telecommunication system: Mediated
embodiment, media interfaces, and social virtual environments, in Communication technology
and society, C. Lin and D. Atkin, Editors. 2001, Hampton Press: Waverly Hill, VI. p. 407

[8] H. Munsterberg, The
Photoplay: A Psychological Study. 1916, New York: D. Aplleton & Co.

[9] M. McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy.
1964, New York: Signet.

[10] M. McLuhan, Understanding Media: The extension of man. 1964, New York: Signet. 318.

[11] M. McLuhan, and E. McLuhan, Laws

of media:

The new science. 1992, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

[12] M. Lombard and T. Ditton, At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of
Mediated Communication, 1997. 3 (2).


The biggest challenge to developing telepresence is achieving that sense of “being
there.” Can telepresence be a true substitute for the real thing? Will we be abl
e to
couple our artificial devices naturally and comfortably to work together with the
sensory mechanisms of human organisms?

Marvin Minsky, 1980

According to different analysts, during the next ten years a new infrastructural paradigm will
emerge, the ‘
Ambient Intelligent Space’. This is the collection of infrastructural technologies,
applications and services that will enable the seamless interoperation of the applications and
services of Ambient Intelligence: a pervasive and unobtrusive intelligence in

the surrounding
environment supporting the activities and interactions of the users.

However, there are many outstanding requirements in order to reduce the lag between the
availability of (hardware) technologies and the availability of applications and
services based
on those technologies, including support for rapid prototyping, user acceptance trials, real life
experiments and demonstrations. In particular, achieving this vision will require the
development of more natural ways of interacting with comp
uter and information technology
systems. This for example, will help to eliminate barriers that arise from difficulties that people
experience in using current interaction devices such as screens and keyboards.

A more advanced human
centered interaction w
ith systems would provide users with a sense
of being there, close to if not equivalent to the experience of actual presence. Creating this
sense of presence remains a major challenge and is leading to the development of new
interdisciplinary research, com
bining cognitive psychology, haptic (sense of touch) studies,
computer graphics and multimedia design, advanced communication theory and socio
issues. A theory of presence, emerging through this interdisciplinary research, that explores
the cognit
ive and affective roots of sensory perception, is expected to give rise to the design of
innovative systems that offer "richer" experiences than any current media and communication

However, this is not an easy task.

This book is an attempt
to help designer and researchers in reaching this goal, by developing a
better understanding of how a real sense of presence can be achieved. It involves learning and
discovering what is going on when people use their senses to understand and interpret the
surrounding environment and when they interact with objects in that environment. For the
complexity of the discussed topic, we have put a great deal of thought and effort in the
definition of the structure of the book and the sequence of the contributio
ns, so that those in
search of a specific reading path will be rewarded. To this end we have divided the book in four
main Sections comprising 21 chapters overall:

1. Presence: Past, Present a
nd Future

2. Presence: Theory and Methods

3. Presence in Practice: Applications

4. Social Presence: Creating a Common Ground

Each chapter begins with a brief abstract and a table of contents that help the reader to
identify the relationships among the section’s chapters.

1. Presence: Past, Present and Future

Chapter 1
, IJsselsteijn and Riva present the forms of the experience of “being there” in a
mediated environment by discussing different types of presence: physical presence, social
ence and co
presence. Two main approaches are considered. On the one hand the fidelity
based approach, which emphasizes the role of perceptual realism and immersiveness in
creating a more convincing experience of presence. On the other hand, the ecological
approach, which points out the importance of a common cultural framework and of the
possibility of action in the mediated environment.

IJsselsteijn in
Chapter 2

provides a
n historical review of the development of cinema,
television, telerobotics and virtual environments in search for the roots of the concept of
presence in today’s media technology. Such investigation shows how, despite current
technological advances allow f
or more and more perceptual realism, people’s responses to
media do not appear to be a linear product of the extent of sensory information provided by
the medium. A significant role is instead played by previous experiences with and expectations
towards th
e media.

Davide and Walker, starting from the analysis of the techniques used by artists try to outline in

Chapter 3

a four
stage strategy for engineering presence using virtual envi
ronments. The
proposed strategy involves simplification of the physical world, decomposition of complex
situations so as to identify simple situations for which the user already possesses adequate
mental imagery; identification of cues capable of effective
ly evoking this imagery,
recomposition of complex realities via the creation of sequences of cues capable of generating
complex and novel mental imagery.

Chapter 4

by Riva, Loreti, Lung
hi, Vatalaro and Davide, shows how the significant advances in
three different technological areas

virtual environments, mobile communication and

allow the emergence of a new vision: the Ambient Intelligence. As we
have seen before,
it is a pervasive and unobtrusive intelligence in the surrounding environment
supporting the activities and interactions of the users.

Implications of such a perspective for the evolution of the concept of presence are also
discussed. In particular the au
thors underline how the sense of “being there” covers only the
simulation side of the sense of presence. To be “present“ in the augmented context offered by
Ambient Intelligence, the user has to be aware of its meaning.

2. Presence: Theory and Methods


focus of
Chapter 5

by Marsh is the discussion of an activity
based approach to the
analysis and design of interactive mediated environments. According to the author, during the
ed experience, participants are generally absorbed in the illusion of interacting within
the context created by the media and their attention is shifted from the real world to the
mediated environments. In order to avoid a break
down in this illusion (call
ed by the author
“virtual corpsing”) and allowing for the user staying there, two features play a main role:
transparency of the equipment and continuity of interacting within the social and cultural
environment depicted virtually. Both of these aspects ar
e considered within the holistic
based scenario and narrative perspective proposed in the chapter.

In the chapter by Gamberini and Spagnolli (
Chapter 6
), the authors analy
ze the relationship
between presence and usability in virtual environments. Main drawbacks for this analysis
reside in the divide between the symbolic and the physical realm, on the one side, and
between the simulation and the real world, on the other. The

authors propose a situated,
based approach which may avoid these problems. Within this perspective, user’s
presence is taken to emerge from the actions performed, and usability is referred to the
complex object created by the situated interaction w
ith the simulation. Some significant
aspects of a recent evaluation work carried out within this framework by the authors are also

Chapter 7

(Insko) and
Chapter 8

(Gaggioli, Bassi and Delle Fave) methodological issues
concerning the measurement of the sense of presence are presented.

Insko makes a review of subjective, behavioral and physiological m
ethods to measure
presence, discussing their use in the field, advantages and disadvantages and providing a
comparison of such methods in terms of reliability, validity, objectivity and sensitivity criteria.

Gaggioli, Bassi and Delle Fave present a theore
tical and methodological approach to the study
of presence focusing on the analysis of the quality of experience associated with the virtual
environments, in its emotional, cognitive and motivational components. The specific research
instruments (the ESM
xperience Sampling Method and the FQ
Flow Questionnaire), which can
be used to study the quality of subjective experience in virtual environments, are also

The chapter by Zhao (
Chapter 9
) differentiates two basic modes of mediated presence,
remote presence and virtual presence, through the use of the metaphor of “being there”.
Remote presence (“being there”) refers to presence in a virtual environment through sensory
ion, where users believe that they are in contact with a real, albeit remote,
environment, and their sense of “being there” is affected by the perceptual fidelity they
receive. Virtual presence (“being there”), on the other hand, is characterized by the fa
ct that
users feel present in an environment simulated by a presence medium in the form of a mental
model; in this case, the sense of “being there” is affected by the realism of the simulation
users perceive.The merging of this two modes of the sense of “b
eing there” can constitute a
synthetic environment that combines remote and virtual presence.

3. Presence in Practice: Applications

Chapter 10

by Davies, Rydberg, Mitchell, Hornyansky
, Dalhom and Nichols focuses on the role
played by presence in mixed reality for participatory design. Case studies are presented in
which virtual reality and other forms of synthetic reality representation are used in order to
portray how a particular des
ign is going to look and fit in the surrounding context. Feeling
present in the portrayed environment offers an end
user the opportunity to obtain a full
appreciation of space, by allowing him to think himself into that environment and to consider
how that

environment will function in daily usage.

Chapter 11

by Mantovani F. and Castelnuovo, the role of the sense of presence in Virtual
Training Environments is explored. As pointed o
ut by the authors, in order to be effective, the
learning experience should seem real and engaging to participants, as if they were “in there”:
they should feel (emotionally and cognitively) present in the situation. Goal of the chapter is to
investigate t
he relationships existing among the factors that are critical for the emergence of a
sense of presence in virtual training environments. The relationship between sense of presence
and training efficacy is also discussed.

Da Bormida and Lefrere discuss in
Chapter 12

three forms of mobile
supported user presence
considered within a distance
learning context. The authors talk about ‘anticipatory user
presence’, ‘super
real presence’ and
‘retrospective presence’. The first one concerns the kind
of presence needed to prepare for a meeting or a visit; the second one is focused on increasing
sense of participation during a meeting or a visit by the use of a combination of real and
nerated images; the third form is about the possibility of changing the apparent
nature of one’s presence, and perhaps even level and nature of one’s participation, after the

The persuasive effects of presence in immersive virtual environments are
the topic covered by
Grigorovici in
Chapter 13
. The author reviews empirical findings from a recent research
program studying information processing consequences of presence in virtua
l environments.
Moreover, he presents a two
step theoretical model of persuasion
related effects. The paper
proposes that due to their specific characteristics, immersive virtual environments could be
more effective persuasion channels than the classical a
dvertising media. Possible applications
in entertainment VR, e
marketing, advertising, public or health communication are also

Chapter 14

by Farshchian deals with the anal
ysis of presence technologies for supporting
informal collaboration: all those spontaneous and unplanned interactions that occur frequently
and transparently within the organization and that are recognized to be crucial for developing
working and social re
lations, as well as for long
time learning. The author investigates a
number of existing presence applications that are designed to support informal collaboration,
and compares them to presence technologies for supporting formal collaboration. A system
el that attempts to integrate support for presence needed in both informal and formal
collaboration is finally introduced.

Waterworth and Waterworth in

Chapter 15

present an approach

to presence focused on its
role in eliciting creativity. The authors point out the importance of encouraging switches
between presence and absence in order to stimulate everyday creativity in specific types of
situation. They discuss the role of Perceptua
Seductive Technology and provide an example
of a novel immersive environment

the Interactive Tent

and an artistic production within it

The Illusion of Being. Finally, their chapter describes an experiment used to assess the
degree of presence wit
hin this environment.

Chapter 16

by Hofmann and Bubb reports the concept and results of an empirical study that
explored presence in industrial virtual environment applications. The
work analyzed the effects
of immersion and pictorial realism on the sense of presence in the virtual environment and
differentiated among three presence facets: reality appraisal, involvement and spatial
presence. Practical implications of these results fo
r the design of virtual reality systems are
also proposed.

4. Social Presence: Creating a Common Ground

Chapter 17
, Cottone and Mantovani G. discuss the importance of creating a “c
ground” and support to co
reference in distant learning in order to enhance social presence
and the situation awareness of participants to CMC environments. According to the authors,
one level of awareness consists in being informed of the presence,
positions and actions of
other people in the virtual space. A further level of awareness is offered by collaborative virtual
environments, which allow participants to be represented by avatars, thus fostering the
experience of embodiment. Combination of th
is technological environments and tools can help
transforming “virtual” spaces into social places inhabited by “real” communities of learners.

Chapter 18

by Markopoulos, IJsselsteijn
, Huijnen, Romijn and Philopoulos discusses research
carried out to understand the requirements of elderly for informal social telecommunication
media that may be addressed through awareness technologies. In particular, it discusses the
relation between th
e concept of social presence and the notion of awareness that the class of
systems studied supports. Finally, the authors draw attention to the research method used,
which they feel is the most appropriate for gauging the social effects of technologies
roduced to support social activities through ICT.

Chapter 19
, Heeter, Gregg, Climo, Biocca and Dekker present findings from case studies
focusing on the use of Tele
windows, a tel
ecommunication system aiming at extending
participation in social groups for homebound and mobility
limited people. The system enable a
new kind of social experience: an ambient presence, a shared window between a homebound
senior’s living room and the sen
ior center they used to frequent. Such an environment allows
the development of a form of asymmetrical social presence, connecting one virtual participant
with a group of physically present seniors.

Chapter 20
, Manninen presents the findings of ethnographical research, which elaborates
and analyses the interaction forms of a contemporary multi
player game. This investigation
shows that participants of collaborative virtual environm
ents can use various forms of non
verbal communication and perceivable actions to enhance social presence. The findings also
indicate that players tend to communicate outside the game system and try to overcome the
limitations of the systems by inventing v
arious imaginative ways to communicate, co
and co

Finally, Boucouvalas (
Chapter 21
) describes a real
time text
emotion engine used to allow
expressive Internet c
ommunications. Such an interface enhances text communication in multi
user environments by automatically extracting emotional states from the content of typed
sentences, and displaying on the screen appropriate facial expression images in real time. The
stem also supports text to speech synthesis and the use of a shared whiteboard.

For the on
line version only Riva and

Waterworth prepared a new paper (
Extra content for
the on
line version
) outlining a cognitive
neuroscience theory of presence. The paper,
published on the on
line journal
, describes the sense of presen
ce as a
defining feature of self and it is related to the evolution of a key feature of any central nervous
system: the embedding of sensory
referred properties into an internal functional space.
Without the emergence of the sense of presence it is impossi
ble for the nervous system to
identify the separation between an external world and the internal one.

The wide array of disciplines and applications described in the four Sections strengthens the
idea of the importance of presence for real
life applicatio
ns. As the field continues to grow, we
eagerly expect larger on
field trials as well as outcomes comparisons to existing methods
of practice, supporting continued growth of new applications.

Moreover, the book also outlines how the vision of Ambient I
ntelligence can be a strong
starting point for giving direction to presence research over the coming five/ten years. Major
opportunities to create an integrated Ambient Intelligence landscape, based on advanced and
intuitive interfaces, can be built in are
as such as mobile communications, portable devices,
systems integration, embedded computing and intelligent systems design.

The design goal of achieving optimal presence within Ambient Intelligence requires an
interdisciplinary approach, integrating knowl
edge and ideas from disciplines such as
neuroscience, social and cognitive psychology, multisensory perception, cognition, artificial
intelligence, multimedia development, video compression or telecom engineering. In order to
build environments which can e
fficiently transmit remote presence, it will be necessary to
incorporate and integrate ongoing insights from these fields into next
generation research for
advanced, wideband multisensory services and novel telecommunications architectures.

Moreover, the
vision of Ambient Intelligence also emphasizes the social dimension of
innovation, and the ability as well as the willingness of society to use, absorb or adapt to
technological opportunities. Alongside technological and economic feasibility, the implicati
for issues such as social sustainability, privacy, social robustness and fault tolerance may in
the longer run determine the success or failure of both Ambient Intelligence and any presence
enhanced application.

In the end, we hope that the contents o
f this book will stimulate more research on technical,
cognitive and human factors connected to the sense of “being there” and on how best use it in
communication, education, commerce, design and telemedicine.

F. Davide, Ph.D.

ices S.p.A.

Rome, Italy

Giuseppe Riva, Ph.D.

Istituto Auxologico Italiano

& Centro di Psicologia della Comunicazione

Milan, Italy

W.A. IJsselsteijn, Drs.

Eindhoven University of Technology

Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Start of the page


Important: To read the chapters (PDF format) you need
Adobe Acrobat Reader


Frank Biocca

go to preface


Fabrizio Davide, Giuseppe Riva, Wijnard A. IJsselsteijn

go to introduction

Extra Content

for the Online Version (Presence
Connect, Vol.3, Issue 3, 2003)

Presence and Self:

A cognitive
neuroscience approach




go to

extra content



Presence: Past, Present and Future

1. Being There: The experience of presence in mediated environments (180 kb)



2. Presence in the Past: what can we learn from Media History? (460 kb)



3. Engineering Presence: a
n Experimental Strategy (870 kb)



4. Presence 2010: The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence (950 kb)





Presence: Theory and Methods

5. Staying there: an activity
based approach to narrative design

and evaluation as an antidote to virtual corpsing (190 kb)



6. On the Relationship between Presence and Usability: a Situated, Action
Based Approach to
Virtual Environments (180 kb)



7. Measuring Presence: Subjective, Behavioral and Physiological Methods (410 kb)



8. Quality of Experie
nce in Virtual Environments (190 kb))



9. "Being there" and the Role of Presence Technology (140 kb)




Presence in Practice: Applications

10. Are you with us? The role of presence in Mixed Reality

for Participatory Design (310 kb)

R. C. DAVIES, B. Rydberg MITCHELL, E. Hornyanzsky DALHOM,



11. Sense of Presence in Virtual Training:

Enhancing Skills Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

through Learning Experience in Virtual Environments (180 kb)



12. User Presence in Mobile Environments (140 kb)



13. Persuasive Effects of Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments (300 kb)



14. Presence Technologies for Informal Collaboration (160 kb)

B. A


15. The Illusion of Being Creative (520 kb)



16. Presence in Industrial VirtualEnvironment Applications

Susceptibility and Measurement Reliability (160 kb)




Social Presence: Creatin
g a Common Ground

17. Grounding "subjective views"

Situation awareness and co
reference in distance learning (170 kb)



18. Supporting Social Presenc
e Through Asynchronous Awareness Systems (300 kb)



19. Telewindows: Case Studies in Asymmetrical Soc
ial Presence (200 kb)



20. Interaction Manifestations in Multi
player Games (210 kb)



21. Real Time Text
Emotion Engine for Expressive Internet Communications (510 kb)





Laboratorio di Psicologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche LITA Vialba, Facoltà di
Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Milano,

Milan, Italy


MIND Lab, Michigan State Un

Michigan, USA


Multimedia Communications Research Group,

Bournemouth University,

School of DesignEngineering and Computing,

Fern Barrow, United Kingdom

Heiner BUBB

Society and Technology Research Group, DaimlerChrysler AG

Berlin, Germany


Applied Technology for Neuro
Psychology, Istituto Auxologico Italiano,

Milan, Italy.

Laboratorio di Psicologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche LITA Vialba, Facoltà
diMedicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi
di Milano,

Milan, Italy


Department of Antropology, Michigan State University,

Michigan, USA


Dipartimento Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova,

Padova, Italy


GIUNTI Interactive Labs, Italy

Elisabeth Horny
anzsky DALHOM

Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Dept. of Design Sciences, Lund Institute
of Technology,

Lund University, Sweden

Fabrizio DAVIDE

TELECOM ITALIA Learning Services S.p.A.,

Rome, Italy


Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Tec
hnology, Dept. of Design Sciences, Lund Institute
of Technology,

Lund University, Sweden


Michigan Office of Services to the Aging,

Michigan, USA

Antonella DELLE FAVE

Laboratorio di Psicologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche LITA Vialba,

Facoltà di
Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Milano,

Milan, Italy


Telenor Research, Norway


Applied Technology for Neuro
Psychology, Istituto Auxologico Italiano,

Milan, Italy.

Laboratorio di Psicologia
, Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche LITA Vialba, Facoltà di
Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Milano,

Milan, Italy