Table of functions of lexicographical symbols

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TC 37/SC 2/N276Rev.

April 23, 200
3

Reference number of working document:

ISO/TC

37/SC

2/WG 3

N 102

Date:

2003
-
04
-
10

Second Working draft for the revision of ISO 1951:1997

Committee identification:

ISO/TC

37/SC

2

Secretariat:

SCC

The Document N 276 is

the latest version of N 274 with modifications in Part 4: Formal description of a
dictionary and Annexes C, F et G.

The added or modified parts are marked in pink colour.


The following elements habe been deleted:

4.1: second and third paragraph

4.3: Tabl
e 2: temporal Qualifier; Table 3: MiscellanousClass

4.5: (Former Table 8) Now Table 10: Formula and Symbol

Annex G: ISO 12620

Consequently, the Content, page iii and the numbering of the tables in the whole document have been
corrected.


PRESENTATION/REPR
ESENTATION OF ENTRIES IN DICTIONARIES





Document type:

International standard

Document subtype:

if applicable

Document stage:

00.20

Document language:

en



© ISO 2002
-
06
-
05


ISO 1951:2002(E)

Warning

This document is not an ISO International Standard. It is distributed for review and co
mment. It is subject to change
without notice and may not be referred to as an International Standard.

Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of
which they are aware and to provide

supporting documentation.



© ISO 2002
-
06
-
05


ISO 1951:2002(E)

ii

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Copyright notice

This ISO document is a draft revision and is copyright
-
protected by ISO. While the reproduction of draft revisions in
any form for use by participants in the ISO standards development process is permitted witho
ut prior permission from
ISO, neither this document nor any extract from it may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form for any other
purpose without prior written permission from ISO.

Requests for permission to reproduce this document for the pur
pose of selling it should be addressed as shown below
or to ISO's member body in the country of the requester:

[Indicate :

the full address

telephone number

fax number

telex number

and electronic mail address

as appropriate, of the Copyright Manager of th
e ISO member body responsible for the secretariat of the TC or SC
within the framework of which the draft has been prepared]

Reproduction for sales purposes may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.

Violators may be prosecuted.

21.10.13

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iii



Contents

Foreword

Introduction

1

Scope

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
......

2

2

Normative references

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

2

2

Definitions
................................
................................
................................
................................
...............................

3

4

Formal description of a dictionary : the LEXml model
................................
................................
.......................

4

4.1

Structure of a dictionary entry

................................
................................
................................
......................

4

4.2

Linguistic units

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

4

4.3

Core Components

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

5

4.4

Compositional structures
................................
................................
................................
..............................

7

4.5

Content models

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

9

4.6

General attributes

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

10

4.7

Relations and pointers

................................
................................
................................
................................

10

4.8

Textual contents
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

10

4.9

Customizing LEXml : subsets and supersets

................................
................................
...........................

10

4.10

Administrative informations

................................
................................
................................
...................

11

5

Means of presentation

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

12

5.1

Layout aids

................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

12

5.2

Compacting mechanisms
................................
................................
................................
............................

18

Annex

A (n
ormative) Arabic, Roman and Hellenic Numbering System

................................
...............................

21

Annex B (informative)

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

23

Table of functions of lexicographical symbols

................................
................................
..............................

23

Annex C (informative) Examples of XML
encoding

................................
................................
...............................

26

1

Typical

full entries

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

26

2

Excerpts for illustration of specific elements

................................
................................
...........................

34

Annex D (informative) Assigning Layout Aids to Dictionary Components

................................
.........................

42

1

Dictionary entries of the example »hw
-
de
-
fr.xml« and »hw
-
de
-
fr.xml« :

................................
................

42

2

XSL
-
Stylesheet »LEXml.xsl«

................................
................................
................................
.......................

46

Annex E (informative) Editing a strictly ordered subset for bilingual

dictionaries

................................
............

54

Annex F (informative) Extending LEXml functions

................................
................................
...............................

55

1

OLIF morphology

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

55

2

Generative Lexicon semantics

................................
................................
................................
...................

56

Annex G (informat
ive) Bibliographical references


Source files

................................
................................
........

58



© ISO 2002
-
06
-
05


ISO 1951:2002(E)

iv

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ISO 2002



All rights reserved


Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO
member bodies). The work of preparing Internation
al Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees.
Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, governmenta
l and non
-
governmental, in liaison with ISO, also
take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance

with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part

3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publi
-
cation as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75

% of the m
ember bodies casting a vote.

International Standard 1951 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC

37,
Terminology (principles and coordi
na
tion)
,
Subcommittee SC

2,
Terminography and Lexicography
.

ISO 1951 is based on ISO 1951: 1997. The scope has been e
xtended in order to address pubishers’ and users’ needs by
taking into account various types of electronic dictionaries and the constraints of single sourcing for producing
dictionaries, as well as disseminating and reusing data in lexicographical practice
.

Annexes A
-
G form an integral part of this International Standard
.


Real dictionary entries used as examples in this Standard
only

illustrate the principles of XML representation of
lexicographical data and their associated presentations. They do not en
gage the publishers’ responsibility
.


21.10.13

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1



Introduction

General aim of the standard

The past decade dictionary

making processes have undergone important changes due to the spread of electronic
dictionaries. Consequently, lexicographers are faced with a growing

diversification of methods during dictionary
preparation and publishing..

This revised standard aims to give support in creating and managing various types of dictionaries. It takes into
account different ways of using dictionaries
-

especially the new f
unctionalities of the electronic documents, for
example: hyperlinks.

In order to allow the reuse of a dictionary content in different printed and electronic dissemination forms,
lexicographers increasingly tend to create a single well structured lexicogra
phical source or data repository. Besides
the production of all typographical conventions as described in the former edition of ISO 1951 the revised standard
will provide a specific model based on current best professionnal practices, in order to allow ne
cessary production,
exchange and management procedures.


ISO 1951:2002(E)


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1

Scope

This standard deals with monolingual and multilingual, general and specialised dictionaries. It specifies a formal
generic structure independent from the publishing media and it proposes means

of presentation of entries in print
and electronic dictionaries. The relationship between the formal structure and the presentation of entries used by
publishers and read by users is explained in examples provided in the informative annexes.

The objective

of this standard is to facilitate the production, merging, comparison, extraction, exchange,
dissemination and retrieval of lexicographical data in dictionaries. Following a lexicographical lemma
-
oriented
approach, it does not deal with concept
-
oriented w
orks as defined in ISO 704.

2

Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this
part of ISO

1951. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of,
any of these publications do not
apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO

1951 are encouraged to investigate the possibility of
applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the

latest edition
of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International
Standards.

ISO 31
-
0:1992,
Quantities and units
-

Part 0: General principles


ISO 639
-
2:1998,
Code for the representatio
n of name of languages

ISO 690: ,
Documentation
-

Bibliographic references
-

Contents, form and structure

ISO 690
-
2: ,
Information and documentation
-
Bibliographic references
-

Electronic documents or parts thereof

ISO 999: 1975,
Documentation
-

Index of a pu
blication

ISO 1087
-
2:1999,
Terminology


Vocabulary


Part 2: Computer applications
.

ISO 3166
-
1:1997,
Code for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions


Part 1: Country codes.

ISO 3166
-
2:1998,
Code for the representation of names of

countries and their subdivisions


Part 2: Country subdivision
code.

ISO 3166
-
3:1999,
Code for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions


Part 3: Codes for formerly
used names of countries.

ISO/IEC 6937: 1994,
Information technology
-

Coded graphic character set for text communication
-

Latin alphabet

ISO 10241:1992,
International terminology standards
-

Preparation and Layout

ISO/IEC 10646
-
1:1993,
Information technology


Universal multiple
-
octet coded character set (ucs )



Part 1: a
rchitecture
and basic multilingual plane

ISO/DIS 12199: ,
Terminology
-

Alphabetical ordering of multilingual terminological and lexicographical data represented in
the Latin alphabet

ISO 12620:,
Computer applications in terminology
-

Data categories

21.10.13

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3



2

Definit
ions

For the purpose of this international Standard, the following definitions apply:

These definitions concern basic and unambiguous terms of dictionary structure and presentation, common in most
types of dictionaries, which this International Standard ai
ms at. Thereof, terms considered specific of certain
dictionaries have not be included here.

3.
1

dictionary entry

lexicographical entry

entry

part of a dictionary which contains information related to one lemma and its variants

3.
2

lemma

based word

one or more lexical units, which have a semantic interpretation, chosen according to lexicographical conventions to
represent the different forms of an inflectional paradigm

EXAMPLE

“sell” is the lemma of t
he paradigm ”sells, sold, selling, etc.”


“gas mask” is the lemma of the paradigm “gas mask, gas masks


3.
3

headword

entry word

lemma heading a dictionary entry

3.
4

lexicographica
l symbol


letter, punctuation mark, other typographical or graphic symbol or group of symbols or any combination thereof used
to represent certain terminological or lexicographical data as displayed or output either singularly or in conjunction
with anothe
r item of terminological data [ISO 1951: 1997 (E)]

NOTE


Even the space between two words can be interpreted as a meaningful “character”.

ISO 1951:2002(E)


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4

Formal description of a dictionary : the LEXml model

4.1

Structure of a dictionary entry

A dictionary is a
collecti
on

of dictio
nary entries
. It can be seen as comments about topics. Topics are any linguistic
unit belonging to a language or produced by a discourse (
headword
, compound, collocation, example, translation

synonyms and antonyms
). Comments are metalinguistic
informations describing a linguistic unit by the mean of
lexicographical data categories.

The present part of the standard presents how such a general model can be specified by an XML model.

A dictionary entry consists in



a descrip
tion of the headword and
the description of secondary linguistic units related to the headword:
orthographical variants, its flexional or morphological derived forms etc.;



a description of each meaning of the headword and secondary linguistic units associated to that meaning.
Seco
ndary linguistic units may contain “hidden entries”;



the compound forms of the headword (compound word or compound term);



when a headword have very different meaning, the entry can be split into homographs or an entry (with a
homograph number) can generate
d for each meaning;



several entries can be grouped inside a unique “nest” in order to put together related
headword in a compact
dictionary.

4.2

Linguistic units

The following table give the minimal list of linguistic units described in dictionaries.

The f
irst column contains the name (Generic Identifier) proposed for the unit, the second gives a short explanation,
the third points at the first example of this unit usage in Annex C (the first number points at the example, the second
indicates the line).

Tab
le

1



List of Linguistic units

Generic
Identifier

Description

See
Annex
C

<Antonym>

A [linguist unit] which concept constitutes the opposite of the concept
represented by [the curr
ent linguistic unit] . [ISO 12620
-

A.10.18.6]

5,42

<Citation>

The quoting of a book or an article

4, 93

<Collocation>

A recurrent word combination characterized by cohesion in that the components
of the collocation must co
-
occur within an utterance or se
ries of utterances, even
though they do not necessarily have to maintain immediate proximity to one
another. [ISO 12620
-

A.2.1.18.1] OR

Idioms are frequent co
-
occurences of linguistic units, where each unit maintains
its autonomous meaning (Sinclair)

2, 3
8

<Derivation>

A change in the form of a linguistic unit, usually modification in the base/root or
affixation which signals a change in part
-
of
-
speech
-
information.

5, 10

<Example>

An instance that is typical of the headword usage in a specific sense. OR

Descriptive material that provides a sample of the object or entity defined in the
entry. [ISO 12620
-

A.5.4]

4, 77

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5



<Inflection>

Any form or change of form which distinguishes different forms of the same
linguistic unit. [OCDL]

11, 4

<Headword>

The cita
tion form of a headword

1, 6

<Synonym>

Any term that represents the same or a very similar concept as the main entry
term in a term entry.
[ISO 12620
-

A.2.1.2]

5, 25

<Translation>

An equivalent linguistic unit belonging to a target language

1, 17

<Var
iant>

One of the alternative forms of a [linguistic unit].
[ISO 12620
-

A.2.9]

9, 6


4.3

Core Components

Each metalinguistic information is represented by a lexicographical data category called Core Component.

Table

2



List of Core Components

Generic Identifier

Explanation

See
Annex C

<Abbreviation>

Designation (symbol, name or term) formed by omitting words or letters
from a longer form [...] [ISO 1087
-
1, 3.4.9]

7, 3

<Attestation
>

The date or period when a linguistic unit has been observed

14, 13

<Definition>

A statement that describes a concept and permits its differentiation from
other concepts within a system of concepts. [ISO 12620
-

A.5.1]

4, 76

<Domain>

An area of human kn
owledge [...]. [ISO 12620
-

A.4]

2, 40

<Etymology>

Information on the origin of a word and the development of its meaning.
[ISO 12620
-

A.2.4.2]

4, 73

<Explanation>

A statement that describes and clarifies a concept and makes it
understandable, but does
not necessarily differentiate it from other
concepts. [ISO 12620
-

A.5.2]

2, 33

<Formula>

Figures, symbols or the like used to express a concept briefly, such as a
mathematical or chemical formula.

[ISO 12620
-

A.2.1.14]

22,3

<Frequency>

The relative com
monness with which a [linguistic unit] occurs. [ISO
12620
-

A.2.3.4].

15, 4

<FullForm>

The complete representation of a [linguistic unit] for which there is an
abbreviated form.

[ISO 12620
-

A.2.1.7]

8, 3

<GrammaticalGender>

A set of two or more grammat
ical categories into which the nouns of
certain languages are divided, sometimes but not necessarily
corresponding to the sex of the referent when animate [CED]

2, 13

<GrammaticalNumber>

A set of two or more grammatical categories into which the nouns of
certain languages are divided, sometimes but not necessarily
corresponding to the sex of the referent when animate [CED]

9, 7

<GeographicalUsage>

[Linguistic unit] usage reflecting regional differences.
[ISO 12620
-

A.2.3.2]

2, 10

<GrammaticalNote>

Infor
mal grammatical information generally concerning the inflectional
paradigm according to which a headword is inclined.

1, 8

<Insert>

A text describing some grammatical, encyclopaedic, scientific or
cultural knowledge in relation with the dictionary entry


<LinguisticNote>

A note dealing with linguistic informations.

12, 3

<Note>

Supplemental information pertaining to any other element in the data
collection. [ISO 12620


A.8]


<PartOfSpeech>

A category assigned to a [linguistic unit] based on its grammat
ical and
semantic properties. [ISO 12620


A.2.2.1]

1, 13

<Pronunciation>

The representation of the manner by which a [linguistic unit] is
articulated. [ISO 12620
-

A.2.5]. It can be either represented
phonetically or phonologically.

1, 7

<RealLemma>

The

genuine form of a headword as opposed to its displayable form
which includes optional and/or alternative parts

1, 20

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<Register>

Classification indicating the relative level of language individually
assigned to a [linguistic unit]. [ISO 12620
-

A.2.3.3]

4, 84

<RangeOfApplication>

Range of view within which an acceptation is true

1, 15

<See>

A cross reference to a headword which is a synonym of the current
headword.

11, 3

<SeeAlso>

A cross reference to a related headword

6, 21

<ShiftOfMeaning>

A precis
ion about a slight difference of sense

1, 49

<Subcategorisation>

The assignment of a lexical item to a subclass of its part of speech,
especially with respect to the syntactic elements with which it can
combine [OCDL]

1, 45

<Symbol>

A designation of a co
ncept by letters, numerals, pictograms or any
combination thereof. (see ISO 1087:1990, 5.3.1.1)

23, 7

<UsageNote>

Supplemental information pertaining to any other element in the data
collection. [ISO 12620


A.8]

17, 7


The following table groups the Cor
e Components

into functional classes. The first column gives the name of the
classes and their components, the second column indicates which class should be used to describe the headword,
the third column indicates which class should be used for describin
g sense specific informations.

Table

3



Categories of Core Components

Data categories

General

Sense
specific

HeadwordFormsClass





Abbreviation




FullForm




RealLemma



Form
ationClass





Etymology



OtherRepresentationClass






Formula




Pronunciation




Symbol




Syllabification



MorphologyClass





Derivation




Inflection



GrammaticalClass






GrammaticalGender




GrammaticalNote




GrammaticalNumber




PartOfSpeech




SyntacticBehaviour



SenseDescriptionClass






Definition




Explanation




Insert



SenseDelimitationClass






Domain




RangeOfApplication



PragmaticClass






Attestation




Frequency




GeographicalInformation



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7




Norma
tiveStatus




Register




ShiftOfMeaning




UsageNote



RelationsClass





Antonym




See




SeeAlso




Synonym




4.4

Compositional structures

4.4.1
Structure types

(Container, Block, Group)

Core Components are combined together in three types of com
positional structures:




Containers (denoted by the suffix Ctn) combine one governing Core Component and complementary Core
Components, other Containers or Blocks.
It is refining structure
;

Table

4



Container (from Annex C


example 1)

1.

<HeadwordCtn>

2.


<Headword>dam</Headword>

3.


<Pronunciation> dph40;m</Pronunciation>

4.


<GrammaticalNote> past tense &amp; past participle
<EntailedTerm>dammed</EntailedTerm>, continuous form
<
EntailedTerm>damming</EntailedTerm></GrammaticalNote>

5.

</HeadwordCtn>

The
<HeadwordCtn>

is used for associating a
<Headword>

(“dam”) and metalinguistic information
(
<Pronunciation>
, <
GrammaticalNote
>
) which refine the headword (See Annex C, example 1, line
5
and its graphical representation).



Blocks combine one governing and repeatable Container or Core Component with complementary Core
Components
which are shared by the governing Container or Core Component
;

Table

5



Block (from Annex C, example 1)

1.


<TranslationBlock>

2.


<Translation>refouler</Translation>

3.


<Translation>ravaler</Translation>

4.


<RangeOfApplication>feeling</RangeOfApplication>

5.


</TranslationB
lock>

6.


<TranslationBlock>

7.


<Translation>endiguer</Translation>

8.


<RangeOfApplication>words</RangeOfApplication>

9.


</TranslationBlock>

The <TranslationBlock> is used for associating a repeatable element <Translation> (“refouler”, “rava
ler”) to a
common <RangeOfApplication> (“words”).
See Annex C example 1, line 49 and its graphical
representation)



a Group aggregates independent Core Components, Containers or Blocks.
It is a semantically neutral structure
used for representing repetitiv
e and distinct chunks of information.

Table

6



Groups (from Annex C, example 1)

1.


<SenseGroup identifier='pneumatophoreSense2'>

2.


<Domain>Zoo</Domain>

3.


<TranslationCtn>

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4.



<Translation>Pneumatophor</Translation>

5.


<PartOfSpeech>n</PartOfSpeech>

6.


</TranslationCtn>

7.


<TranslationCtn>

8.


<Translation>Schwimmglocke</Translation>

9.


<GrammaticalGender>f</GrammaticalGender>

10.


</TranslationCtn>

11.



<TranslationCtn>

12.


<Translation>Gasflasche</Translation>

13.


<GrammaticalGender>f</GrammaticalGender>

14.


</TranslationCtn>

15.


<UsageNote>der Siphonophoren</UsageNote>

16.


</SenseGroup>

The <SenseGroup> embeds four elements : two CoreCo
mponents (<Domain> and <UsageNote>) and two
containers (<TranslationCtn>)

4.4.2 Containers

Table

7



List of Containers

Generic Identifier

Explanation

See
Annex C

<CitationCtn>

A gr
ouping element for the description of a citation (<Citation>) and its
complementary features

4, 92

<CollocationCtn>

A grouping structure for <Collocation>

2, 37

<DerivationCtn>

A grouping structure for describing a derived form of the headword
(<Derivati
on>) and its complementary features

5
, 15

<ExampleCtn>

A grouping element for describing an <Example> and its complementary
features

18,1

<InflectionCtn>

A grouping structure for describing the various grammatical forms of the
headword


<HeadwordCtn>

A
grouping element containing a <Headword> and its complementary features

1, 5

<VariantCtn>

A grouping element for an orthographical variant of a headword and its
complementary features

9,5

<PartOfSpeechCtn>

A grouping element containing a <PartOfSpeech> e
lement and its
<Subcategorization> elements

1, 43

<SymbolCtn>

A grouping element for a <Symbol> and its complementary features

23,7

<TranslationCtn>

A grouping element for a <Translation> and its complementary features

1, 16

<UsageNoteCtn>

A grouping
element for a <UsageNote> and its complementary features

17, 6

4.4.3 Block

Table

8



List of blocks

Generic Identifier

Explanation

See
Annex C

<CollocationBlock>

A grouping structu
re for <CollocationCtn> or <Collocation>

Its attribute type can be used for indicating the degree of fixity of the
collocations

4, 17

<DerivationBlock>

A grouping structure for derivation groups and their common features

5, 9

<TranslationBlock>

A groupin
g element for translation groups (<TranslationCtn>) and their
common features

1, 50

4.4.4 Groups

Generic Identifier

Explanation

See
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Annex C

<CompoundGroup>

A sub entry which headword contains the headword of the entry it is included in.
<Compound> has th
e same structure as <DictionaryEntry>, except compounds

1, 40

<HomographGroup>

A grouping element for the description of homographs (one of a group of words
spelt in the same way but having different meanings)

1, 12

<SenseGroup>

A grouping element for th
e description of one meaning of the headword in an
entry

1, 14


4.4.5
High level structures

Table

9



List of high level structures

Generic Identifier

Explanation

See Annex C

<Dict
ionary>

A collection of <DictionaryEntry>

1, 3

<DictionaryEntry>

see 3.1

1, 4

<EntryNest>

A grouping structure for dictionary entries (<DictionaryEntry>)



4.5

Content models

The content of a linguistic unit or of a Core Component is a mixture of plain
text,
XHTML elements
, pointers and of
the following floating and basic components
.

Table

10



List of floating components for a linguistic unit content model

Generic Identifier

Expla
nation

See
Annex C

<Alternative>

Component of a headword indicating a possibility of choice between two or
more components

18, 2

<Collocator>

A complementary component to te headword on which a collocation is built

19, 2

<EmbeddedTopic>

Linguistic unit
or part of linguistic unit embedded in a content


<EntailedTerm>

Entailed term : A term that is defined in another terminological entry in the
same lexicon, glossary, terminology or vocabulary. [ISO 12620 A
-
10.6.1]

1, 9

<ForeignText>

a word, phrase, or e
xtended text as belonging to some language other than
that of the surrounding text. [ISO 12620 A
-
10.8]

5, 8

<Gloss>

Any editorial comment

20, 4

<HiddenEntry>

A contextual (non lemmatic) subaddress within a descriptive element.

20, 4

<HomographNumber>

A number associated to a unit of description of a homograph

21, 3

<Hyphen>

[An element] used to separate the parts of some compound words, and to
link the words of a phrase, and to be found between syllables of a word split
between two consecutive lines o
f writing or printing. [CED]

4, 71

<InlineFormula>

see <Formula>

23,1

<InlineSymbol>

see <Symbol>


<International
ScientificTerm>

International scientific term : A term that is part of an international scientific
nomenclature as adopted by an appropriat
e scientific body.
[ISO 12620 A
-
2.1.4]


<LemmaComplement>

complementary part of a headword.


<Optional>

Optional part of a linguistic unit.

1, 18

<SenseNumber>

A number associated to a unit of description of a meaning

21, 4

<span>

A segment of text as
defined in XHTML

4, 77

<Stress>

[An element used to indicate] emphasis placed upon a syllable by
pronouncing it more loudly than those that surround it. [CED]

4, 71

<Tilde>

A substitutive element used in place of the last address in an entry

19, 2

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<Url>

Component of a headword indicating a possibility of choice between two or
more components



Basic elements are linguistic
-
independant elements that can be part of floating elements.

Table

11



List of basic elements

Generic Identifier

Explanation

See
Annex C

<Quantity>

Component of a headword indicating a possibility of choice between two or
more components

26, 4

<Range>

The relationship between a set of limits within which a quan
tity is measured,
as expressed by stating the lower and upper range values.
[ISO 12620 A
-
5.7]

24, 1

<Unit>

A relationship between a reference value as defined by an authoritative
body; a quantity measured
[ISO 12620 A
-
5.7]



4.6

General attributes

All th
e elements of the structure, core components and floating elements have
at least

general attributes XHTML
attributes
and the d
ictSize

attribute for indicating to which level of dictionary the element belongs to (compact,
medium, large...)

4.7

Relations and

pointers

The <Ptr> element and its href attribute is used for pointing at some location in de the dictionary (inside or outside
the current entry). The target is an XML identifier.

Table

12



Example of cross reference (from Annex C
-

example 3)

1.

<DictionaryEntry id ='LEX_ex.9
-
1'>

2.


<Headword>aerating root</Headword>

3.


<See><Ptr href = 'LEX_ex.9
-
4#pneumatophoreSense1'> pneumatophore
<SenseNumber>1</SenseNumber></Ptr></See>

4.


</Di
ctionaryEntry>


5.

<DictionaryEntry id ='LEX_ex.9
-
4'>

6.


<Headword>pneumatophore</Headword>

7.


<SenseGroup targetLanguage = 'de' identifier = 'pneumatophoreSense1'>

The first entry (
“LEX ex.9
-
1”)
points at an other entry (
“LEX ex.9
-
4”)
by the the mean of a
<Ptr>,
and more
precisely at the location identified by “pneumatophoreSense1”)

4.8

Textual contents

Some elements like <Insert> are complex texts with paragraphs, list, tables, images etc.
Their definition is based on
XHTML enriched with floating and basic

elements defined in 4.5.

4.9

Customizing LEXml : subsets and supersets

4.9.1 Building subsets

The LEXml model can be restricted for specific needs. A subset can be obtained by applying the XML rules for
subsetting (see
FDIS

ISO 16642 Annex C). A subset i
s “strictly ordered” if disorder is allowed only in the content
models.

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The following DTD is a strictly ordered subset for a very simple english
-
french dictionnary in which the headword has
a definition (optionnal) and zero, one or more translations.

Table

13



Example of LEXml subset DTD

1.

<!
--

LEXml subset
--
>

2.

<!ELEMENT Dictionary (DictionaryEntry*) >

3.

<!ATTLIST Dictionary xml:lang (en) #REQUIRED targetLanguage (fr) #REQUIRED

4.



version CDATA # IMPLIED profile CDATA #IMPLIED

>

5.

<!ELEMENT DictionaryEntry (Headword, SenseGroup*)>

6.

<!ELEMENT SenseGroup (Definition?, Translation*)>

7.

<!ELEMENT Headword (#PCDATA) >

8.

<!ELEMENT Definition (#PCDATA) >

9.

<!ELEMENT Translation (#PCDAT
A) >


The following XML instance is compatible as well with the general LEXml DTD and the LEXmlSubset DTD :

Table

14



Example of LEXml subset instance

1.

<?xml version ="1.0" encoding=
"ISO
-
8859
-
1" ?>

2.

<!DOCTYPE Dictionary SYSTEM
'http://www.genetrix.org/lexicography/LEXml/dtd/LEXmlV06subset.dtd' >

3.

<Dictionary version 'LEXmlV06' profile 'LEXmlV06subset' xml:lang = 'en'
targetLanguage = 'fr' >

4.


<DictionaryEntry>

5.


<Headword>hello</Head
word>

6.


<SenseGroup>

7.


<Definition>an expression of greeting used on meeting

8.


a person</Definition>

9.


<Translation>bonjour</Translation>

10.


<Translation>salut</Translation>

11.


</SenseGroup>

12.


</DictionaryEntry>

13.

</Dictionary>


4.9.2 Bu
ilding supersets

According to the principles of modularization, the LEXml model can be extanded for specific needs by using the
general method of overwriting the definition of XML entities
. Annex F shows how to extend LEXml capabilities for
morphology and
semantic using other lexical models (OLIF for morphology, Generative Lexicon approach for
semantics).

4.10

Administrative informations

Most of the informations in a dictionary may receive administrative informations (creation or modification date,
responsi
bility, working status etc.). ISO 12620, ISO 16642 provide a wide range of such data categories. They may
be included in the LEXml model or borrowed to another name space and added to a superset

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5

Means of presentation

5.1

Layout aids

General

Depending
on the medium, one or several layout aids are used. Text formatting and typographical conve
n
tions can
be used for all media to differentiate entry elements, see 4.1.2 and 4.1.3. The tabular form is e
s
pecially
recommended for dictionaries with more than two

languages, see 4.1.2.3. For electronic media data bank templates
can be used as a specific form of presentation, see 4.1.3.


Layout aids for dictionaries


Text formating

Table

15



Text Formatting

Formatting characteristic

Examples of formatting options

Type family

differentiation by using different type families (e.g. serif typefaces and sans
-
serif
typefaces)

Point size

different point sizes for different entry elements

Typeface

light roman type, light italic, semibold roman type, semibold italic

Colour

entry elements set off by colour (e.g. entry terms in colour)

Style

small caps, upper case, subscript, superscript


Typographical Signs

Note that the typographic signs listed b
elow describe the function of the sign but do not describe the glyph of the
sign.

Different scripts have different glyphs for the typographic signs. E.

g. within the Latin script the glyph ";" represents
the typographic sign "semicolon", but within the Gre
ek script it represents the typographic sign "question mark". In
other words: within the Latin script the typographic sign "semicolon" has to be printed as ";", within the Greek script
the typographic sign semicolon has to be printed as "∙".







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Table

16



Typographic Signs

Typographical Sign

Typographical characteristic

Comma

separation of entry elements

Semicolon

separation of entry elements

Colon

connection of entry elements

Slash

connection of entry elements

Numberings

classification of larger sections, Arabic, Roman, Hellenic, alphabetical …

(see Annexe Arabic, Roman and Hellenic Numbering System)

Parentheses and brackets

labelling of entry elements (round, square, angle)

Symbols

labelling of entry elements

Superior figures

differentiation of identical entry elements


Tabular presentation

Different entry elements can be structured by arranging them in a table (e.

g. for dictionaries with more than two
languages: differen
t languages in different columns). One must assure that the column headings are visible in each
presentation (e. g. in a book format the column headings should appear on every page).

If within the tabular cells different entry elements are listed they must

be designated by means of other presentation options as
set forth in 4.1.2 and 4.1.3.

Types of entry arrangements

One way of presenting entries on electronic media is by using data bank templates. Different data categories should
be presented in different

text fields. If necessary, the text fields are given a field designation, especially if the
ele
c
tronic medium does not allow and text formatting.

The information in a lexicographical entry in a data bank can be arranged in various ways on a screen. The fo
llo
w
ing
basic possible arrangements for an entry's macrostructure result from this:

a)

Fixed arrangement of the elements of an entry (see Fig. 1),

b)

Varying arrangement of the elements of an entry (see Fig. 2),

c)

Hierarchical arrangement of the elements
of an entry (see Fig. 3),

d)

Compressed arrangement of the elements of an entry (see Fig. 4),

e)

Mixed forms of entry structuring (see Fig. 5),

f)

Substructuring by means of file card symbolism (see Fig. 6),

g)

Absent structuring of the elements of an entry (
see Fig. 7).


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Figure

1



Fixed arrangement of the elements of an entry

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15






Figure

2



Variable arrangement

of elements of an entry


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Figure

3



Hierarchical arrangement of the elements of an entry


No example as yet


Figure

4



Compressed arrangement of the elements of an entry

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17




Figure

5



Mixed forms of entry structuring



No example as yet

Figure

6



Substructuring by means of file card symbolism

ISO 1951:2002(E)


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Figure

7



Absent structuring

of the elements of an entry


5.2

Compacting mechanisms

5.2.1

Abbreviations

If abbreviations are used, t
hey must be clearly recognizable and explained (e.

g. in user instructions). A
b
breviations
must be transparent and easily understood, if possible without looking them up in the user i
n
structions.

If abbreviations are defined by a standard, the standardized

abbreviations should be used:

if they are precise enough for the respective scope of the dictionary and

if they correspond to the level of education and to the reading habits of the target group.

5.2.2

Repeat symbol (tilde)

The tilde may be used in print
ed dictionaries to save space. In the case of data bank systems the tilde must be
avoided in data categories which are used for searching and sorting.

The tilde can stand for an element of a multi
-
word term or for a part of a word. In the latter case, the
word component
must be clearly delimited
, e. g. by a vertical line. Ambiguities must not arise
. Series of tildes to replace several
elements of a term are not permitted.

The tildegree sign [Kreistilde] enables presenting the switch between upper case and l
ower case spelling; both
directions being possible.



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19




EXAMPLES

Not permitted

Permitted

Faltversuch [Flattening test]

~ mit Biegedorn [with bending block]

~~ Wurzel auf der Druckseite [root on the pressure
side]

~~~~~ Zugseite [tensile side]


Faltversuch
[Flattening test]

~ mit Biegedorn [with bending block]

~ mit Wurzel auf der Druckseite [with root on the
pressure side]

~ mit Wurzel auf der Zugseite [with root on the
te
n
sile side]

Stumpfnaht in Q
-
Position [Butt weld in Q
-
position]

~ in Ü
-
~ [ ]

~ in W
annen
-
~ [in basin]


Stumpfnaht in Q
-
Position [Butt weld in Q
-
position]

~ in Ü
-
Position [in Ü
-
position]

~ in Wannen
-
Position [in basin
-
position]


Niere [Kidney]

~, künstlich [artificial]

Nieren

慳瑨t愠ak摮敹s

慳瑨t慝

扥k敮⁛牥湡 ⁰ lvs]

扥k敮敮瑺ﱮ摵
湧⁛ 湦l慭慴a潮 ⁴ 攠牥湡l⁰ lvs]

k敬栠h慬]

k灥ö桥渠潲灵l敝



乩敲攻⁾Ⱐ,ﱮs瑬桥㬠乩敲敮

慳瑨t愻

扥k敮㬠;扥k敮敮瑺ﱮ摵湧㬠;k敬栻

k灥ö桥

孋摮敹㬠;Ⱐ,r瑩f慬㬠;摮敹s

慳瑨t愻

r敮慬⁰ lvs㬠;湦l慭m慴a潮 ⁴ 攠牥湡l⁰ lvs㬠

慬;

潲灵l敝


摩杩瑡t敳⁂敦敨lsz敩桥渠
n

~
Bild
n

~ diensteintegrierendes Netz
n

~ europäisches Schnurlos
-
Telefon
n

~ Fernmeldenetz
n

~ Fernsehen
n

Digitalfehler
m

[digital command character

~
picture

~ service integrating network

~ European cellphon
e

~ telecommunications network

~ television

Digital error]


((Kreistilde;
example could not be included in time
))





ISO 1951:2002(E)


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5.2.3

Nesting

To save space in printed dictionaries nests can be built with the help of the tilde. Nesting must be avoided when
using e
lectronic modes of presentation.

EXAMPLE

Anti│biotikum....; ~depressivum....; ~rheumatikum....; ~septikum....; ~vitamin....

Antikensammlung

Antiquitäten│handel...; ~handlung...; ~sammlung...

antistatisch

Antizyklone

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21




Annex

A (normative) Arabic, Roman and
Hellenic Numbering System

Number Name

(English)

Arabic System

sign

Roman System

sign

Hellenic System

sign

one

1

I

α΄
1

two

2

II

β΄

three

3

III

γ΄

four

4

IV

δ΄

five

5

V

ε΄

six

6

VI

στ΄

seven

7

VII

ζ΄

eight

8

VIII

η΄

nine

9

IX

θ΄

ten

10

X

ι΄

eleve
n

11

XI

ια΄

twelve

12

XII

ιβ΄

thirteen

13

XIII

ιγ΄

fourteen

14

XIV

ιδ΄

fifteen

15

XV

ιε΄

sixteen

16

XVI

ιστ΄

seventeen

17

XVII

ιζ΄

eighteen

18

XVIII

ιη΄

nineteen

19

XIX

ιθ΄

twenty

20

XX

κ΄

twenty one

21

XXI

κα΄

twenty two

22

XXII

κβ΄

thirty

30

XXX

λ΄

forty

40

XL

μ΄

fifty

50

L

ν΄

sixty

60

LX

ξ΄

seventy

70

LXX

ο΄

eighty

80

LXXX

π΄

ninety

90

XC

ל
΄

(koppa)

one hundred

100

C

ρ΄

one hundred one

101

CI

ρα΄

two hundred

200

CC

σ΄




1

The accent on the letter usually is omitted.

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Number Name

(English)

Arabic System

sign

Roman System

sign

Hellenic System

sign

three hundred

300

CCC

τ΄

four hundred

400

CD

υ΄

five hundred

50
0

D

φ΄

Six hundred

600

DC

χ΄

Seven hundred

700

DCC

ψ΄

Eight hundred

800

DCCC

ω΄

Nine hundred

900

CM


΄ (
sampi)

One thousand

1000

M

α

One thousand one

1001

MI

α
α΄


λ

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23



Annex B (informative)

Table of functions of lexicographical symbols

The list of l
exicographical symbols used in this ANNEX is indicative. The initials DE and EL used here represent the
country code where the lexicographical symbol have been drawn upon.


Symbol

Name

ISO
10646
-
1

Explanation and mode of use

*o

(o_[neo])


Asterisk

002

A

a
)

preceding a term (or other designation) indicates that the
designation is newly coined. It can be alternatively
represented by [neo], i.e., “neologism” following the term.

戩b i渠 瑨t i摩潭慴~c s散瑩潮 i琧t 畳敤 瑯t m慲~ i摩潭慴~c
數灲敳si潮s
䑅F

cF i渠整e
m潬潧y i湤ic慴~s f潲os 瑨t琠桡v攠湥v敲e扥敮 f潵湤 i渠
瑨t wêi瑴t渠äi瑥牡瑵牥Ⱐ湡m敬y 瑨ty 慲攠瑡t敮 慳 桹灯瑨t瑩c慬
Eb䰩

搩d i渠整em潬潧y i湤ic慴~s f潲os wi瑨t 䥮fo
J
b畲潰敡渠潲楧i湳
Eb䰩

攩ei琧tis 畳敤 f潲ocê潳s
J
ê敦敲敮e攬ew桥渠瑨t w潲搠ê敦敲ei湧 瑯tis
“hidd
en” inside the body of the semantic part of a different
敮瑲y
b䰩

ꝟ§

E潟孬敧崩

Section sign

00A

7

Section sign
preceding a term (or other designation)
indicates that this designation is legally protected (or otherwise
regulated). It can alternatively
be represented by “[leg]”, i.e.,
ä敧慬⁴ êm爠 数ä慣敤⁳ym扯ä⁦潬ä潷i湧⁴ 攠e敲eK

°
o

E潟孳ci崩

Degree sign

00B

0

Degree sign
preceding a term characterizes this term as an
internationally harmonized scientific
-
technical term. It can
alternatively be repr
esented by “[sci]”, i.e., “scientific” following
瑨t⁴ êmK

†o

E潟孯xs崩

孳異z

Dagger

202

0

Superscript
dagger
preceding a term (or other designation)
indicates that this designation has become obsolete or was
superseded. It can alternatively be represente
d by “[sup]”, i.e.,
“superseded” or “[obs]”, i.e., “obsolete” following the
摥si杮慴~潮



E潟孴牡湳ä崩


Exclamation

mark


002

1


Exclamation mark a) when
preceding a term indicates that
this term has been coined by means of translation. It can
alternativ
ely be represented by “[transl]”, i.e., “translation”
f潬ä潷i湧⁴ 攠e敲eK

戩bi湤ic慴~s 瑨t琠瑨t w潲搠f潬ä潷i湧 瑨t sym扯ä is 愠瑡t潯 w潲搠
Eb䰩



o™



Registered sign

Trade mark sign

00A

E

212

2

Superscript
Registered
(trade mark)
sign
or superscript
Trade mark sign
after a term or term element indicates that
this term or term element also represents a trade mark

=o


Equals sign

o 003

D

Equals sign

preceding a term (or other designation) indicates
that this equivalent or synonym to a (main) entry term
represents the same concept.

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o


Almost equal to

224

8

Almost equal to
sign preceding a term indicates that this
equivalent or synonym to a (main) en
try term represents a
similar concept. More specific information may be given by the
greater
-
than sign and the less than sign.

>o


Greater
-
than
sign

003

E

Greater
-
than sign

a)

preceding a term (or other designation) indicates that the
concept represent
ed by this designation is slightly broader
than the entry concept.

b) in etymology: the form which follows the symbol comes
from the form preceding the symbol (EL)

<o


Less
-
than sign

003

C

Less
-
than sign

preceding a term (or other designation) indicates

that the
concept represented by this designation is slightly narrower
than the entry concept.

in etymology it's used in the sense of “from“. More specifically,
the

form before the symbol comes from the form following the
symbol (EL, DE)

×
o


Multiplicat
ion
sign

00D

7

Multiplication sign
preceding a term (or other designation)
indicates that the concept represented by this designation
overlaps with the entry concept.

o
¹


o
²


o
³

...

Superscript one


Superscript two


Superscript
three

00B

9

00B

2

00B

3

Su
perscript
number following two or more terms (or other
designation) indicates that these homographic designations
represent different concepts.


o


Not equal to

226

0

Not equal to
sign preceding a term (or other designation) may
indicate that

a)this designation is a homograph to the entry term and
represents a different concept;

b)this designation (e.g., a “false friend”) does not represent
the
entry concept.

~o

o~o

o~

o_~_o

Tilde

007

E


Tilde
can replace

a)a certain term element throughout an entry or part of an
entry, preceding or in the middle of the rest of a term or at the
end of part of a term;

b)the main entry term throughout the entry, i
f standing alone.

|


Bar


Bar

a)in the lemma shows the way the word can be divided (DE)


b)in the semantic part separates different usages of phrases
and sentences in the examples (EL)

(.)

Dot under vowel


Dot under vowel
indicates stressed short vowel

(
DE)

(_)

Underline under

Underline under vowel
indicates stressed long vowel (DE)

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25



vowel



Vertical arrow


Vertical arrow
indicates cross
-
reference (DE)



Diamond sign


The
Diamond sign

is used to mark words and usages from
classical literature. (DE)

+

Plus sign


The
plus sign

represents the sequence of the separate
components of a compound word (EL)

.

Greek
semicolon
Symbol


The
greek semicolon symbol

separates etymologies of
different words or different senses and types of a word (EL)

' '

Inverted
co
mmas


Inverted commas

are enclosing translations of foreign words.
(EL)



Horizontal
arrow


The
horizontal arrow

indicates cross
-
references between
lemmas. (EL)

//

Slashes


Slashes

enclose phonological transcription. (EL)

/

Slash


The
slash

separates en
dings (in an inflectional paradigm) and
alternative collocations in the examples. (EL)

-

Dash


The
dash

separates word's segments, such as bases from
endings, prefixes, affixes etc. (EL)



Hyphen


The
hyphen

is used to denote that an embedded lemma
follo
ws. (EL)



Square box


The
square box

is used to denote that a hidden entry follows.
(EL)

&

Ampersand


The
ampersand

symbol connects the headword with its
variants in the header of an entry. . (EL)

:

Colon


The
colon

marks the beginning of the semantic

p a r t o f a
d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y. ( E L, D E )




B u l l e t


T h e b u l l e t i s u s e d t o d e n o t e t h a t a s e n s e o f a l e mma i s q u i t e
d i f f e r e n t f t o m t h e r e s t o f i t s me a n i n g s. w h i c h i s v e r y mu c h
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m o t h e r s e n s e s o f t h e s a me l e mma. ( E L )





U p a n d d o w n
a r r o w s


Th
e
up and down arrows

show that a synonym has a more
general or a more narrow meaning respectively. (EL)


ISO 1951:2002(E)


©

ISO


26

©
ISO 2002



All rights reserved


Annex C

(informative) Examples of XML encoding

Real dictionary entries used as examples in this Standard
only

illustrate the principles of XML repre
sentation of
lexicographical data and their associated presentations. They do not engage the publishers’ responsibility
.

The first six full entries show examples of monolingual
-
bilingual
-
general
-
technical entries conforming to LEXmlV06
dtd (
http://www.genetrix.org/lexicography/LEXml/dtd/LEXmlV06.dtd
). Each example begins by a “reader’s view” of
the entry (green background), it is folloxed by the LEXml encoding (yellow background). The fo
llowing excerpts
illustrates other XML elements described in Part 4, Table 1, 2 ,3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.

The full xml file can be dowloaded at
http://www.genetrix.org/lexicography/LEXml/s
ample/LEXmlV06.xml


1

Typical

full entries

1



General bilingual dictionary entry (Larousse
-
Chambers)

dam
[d$ph
40;m], ( past tense & past participle

dammed
, continuous form

damming
)


dam
noun


[barrier] barrage
m

(de retenue)


[reservoir] réservoir
m



[animal] mère
f




dam
transitive verb

construire un barrage sur



dam up

separable transitive verb


literal

construire un barrage sur


figurative

[feelings] refouler, ravaler;

[words] endiguer





Encoding

1.

<?xml version ="1.0" encoding="ISO
-
8859
-
1" ?>

2.

<!DOCTYPE Dictionary SYSTEM
'http://www.genetrix.org/lexicography/LEXml/dtd/LEXmlV06.dtd'>

3.

<Dictionary version 'LEXmlV06' profile 'LEXmlV06' >

4.


<DictionaryEntry>

5.


<HeadwordCtn>

6.


<Headword>dam</Headword>

7.


<Pronunciation> dph40;m</Pr
onunciation>

8.


<GrammaticalNote> past tense &amp; past participle

9.


<EntailedTerm>dammed</EntailedTerm>, continuous form

10.


<EntailedTerm>damming</EntailedTerm></GrammaticalNote>

11.


</HeadwordCtn>

12.


<HomographGroup>

13.


<PartOfSpeech
>Noun</PartOfSpeech>

14.


<SenseGroup>

15.


<RangeOfApplication>barrier</RangeOfApplication>

16.


<TranslationCtn>

17.


<Translation>barrage <Gram>m</Gram>

18.


<Optional>de retenue</Optional>

19.


</Translation>

21.10.13

©

ISO



ISO 1951:2002(E)


©
ISO 2001



All rights reserved


27



20.


<RealLem
ma>barrage</RealLemma>

21.


<RealLemma>barrage de retenue</RealLemma>

22.


</TranslationCtn>

23.


</SenseGroup>

24.


<SenseGroup>

25.


<RangeOfApplication>reservoir</RangeOfApplication>

26.


<Translation>réservoir<Gram>m</Gram> </Translatio
n>

27.


</SenseGroup>

28.


<SenseGroup>

29.


<RangeOfApplication>animal</RangeOfApplication>

30.


<Translation>mère<Gram>f</Gram></Translation>

31.


</SenseGroup>

32.


</HomographGroup>

33.


<HomographGroup>

34.


<PartOfSpeech>transitive verb</Part
OfSpeech>

35.


<SenseGroup targetLanguage ='fr'>

36.


<Translation>construire un barrage sur</Translation>

37.


</SenseGroup>

38.


</HomographGroup>

39.


<CompoundCtn>

40.


<HeadwordCtn>

41.


<Headword>dam up</Headword>

42.


<PartOfSpeechCtn>

43.



<PartOfSpeech>transitive verb</PartOfSpeech>

44.


<Subcategorisation>separable</Subcategorisation>

45.


</PartOfSpeechCtn>

46.


</HeadwordCtn>

47.


<SenseGroup>

48.


<ShiftOfMeaning>figurative</ShiftOfMeaning>

49.


<TranslationBlock>

50.


<Translation>refouler</Translation>

51.


<Translation>ravaler</Translation>

52.


<RangeOfApplication>feeling</RangeOfApplication>

53.


</TranslationBlock>

54.


<TranslationBlock>

55.


<Translation>endiguer</Translation>

56.



<RangeOfApplication>words</RangeOfApplication>

57.


</TranslationBlock>

58.


</SenseGroup>

59.


</CompoundCtn>

60.


</DictionaryEntry>

61.


</Dictionary>





A graphical representation


ISO 1951:2002(E)


©

ISO


28

©
ISO 2002



All rights reserved



2
-

General bilingual dictionary entry (Collins CDE)

jumper

['
d

mp
«
*]

noun

a

(garment)

(Brit)

pull(over)
m

(US: dress)

robe
-
chasuble
f

b

(one who jumps: person, animal)

sauteur
m
,
-
euse
f

jumper cables
(US Aut)

câbles
mpl

de démarrage

(pour batterie)

c

(Comput)

cavalier
m

Encoding

1.

<?xml version ="1.0" encoding="ISO
-
8859
-
1" ?>

2.

<!DOCTYPE Dictionary SYSTEM
'http://www.genetrix.org/lexicography/LEXml/dtd/LEXmlV06.dtd' >

3.

<Dictionary version
'
LEXmlV06' profile
'
LEXmlV06' >

4.


<DictionaryEntry xml:lang= 'en'>

5.


<HeadwordCtn>

6.


<Headword>jumper</Headword>

7.


<Pronun
ciation>'dZÃmp"*</Pronunciation>

8.


<PartOfSpeech>noun</PartOfSpeech>

9.


</HeadwordCtn>

10.


<SenseGroup targetLanguage ='fr'>

11.


<RangeOfApplication>garment</RangeOfApplication>

12.


<SenseGroup>

13.


<GeographicalUsage>Brit</GeographicalUsag
e>

14.


<TranslationCtn>

15.


<Translation>pull(over)</Translation>

16.


<GrammaticalGender>m</GrammaticalGender>

17.


<RealLemma>pull</RealLemma>

18.


<RealLemma>pullover</RealLemma>

19.


</TranslationCtn>

20.


</SenseGro
up>

21.


<SenseGroup>

22.


<RangeOfApplication>dress</RangeOfApplication>

23.


<GeographicalUsage>US</GeographicalUsage>

24.


<TranslationCtn>

25.


<Translation>robe
-
chasuble</Translation>

26.


<GrammaticalGender>f</GrammaticalGen
der>

27.


</TranslationCtn>

28.


</SenseGroup>

29.


</SenseGroup>

30.


<SenseGroup>

31.


<TranslationCtn>

32.


<Translation>

33.


sauteur <Gram>m</Gram>,
-
euse

34.


<Gram>f</Gram>

35.


</Translation>

36.


<Explanatio
n>one who jumps: person, animal</Explanation>

37.


<RealLemma>sauteur</RealLemma>

38.


<RealLemma>sauteuse</RealLemma>

39.


</TranslationCtn>

40.


<CollocationCtn>

41.


<Collocation>jumper cables</Collocation>

42.


<GeographicalUs
age>US</GeographicalUsage>

43.


<Domain>Aut</Domain>

44.


<TranslationCtn>

21.10.13

©

ISO



ISO 1951:2002(E)


©
ISO 2001



All rights reserved


29



45.


<Translation>

46.


câbles <Gram>mpl</Gram> de démarrage

47.


</Translation>

48.


<RealLemma>câbles de démarrage</RealLemma>

49.


<UsageNote>pour batterie</UsageNote>

50.


</TranslationCtn>

51.


</CollocationCtn>

52.


</SenseGroup>

53.


<SenseGroup>

54.


<TranslationCtn>

55.


<Translation>cavalier</Translation>

56.


<GrammaticalGender>m</GrammaticalGender>

57.



<RangeOfApplication>Comput</RangeOfApplication>

58.


</TranslationCtn>

59.


</SenseGroup>

60.


</DictionaryEntry>

61.

</Dictionary>


3


Technical bilingual dictionary entry (Langenscheidt)

aerating root


pneumatophore
1.

aerophore


pneumatophore

1.

pne
umatocyst

1.
(Bot)

Pneumatozyste
f
, Luftkammer
f

(in einem Pneumatophor)
; 2.

pneumatophore
2.

pneumatophore

1.
(Bot)

Pneumatophor
n
, Atemwurzel
f
; 2.
(Zoo)

Pneumatophor
n
, Schwimmglocke
f
, Gasflasche
f

(der Siphonophoren)

Encoding

1.

<?xml version ="1.0" enc
oding="ISO
-
8859
-
1" ?>

2.

<!DOCTYPE Dictionary SYSTEM
'http://www.genetrix.org/lexicography/LEXml/dtd/LEXmlV06.dtd'>

3.

<Dictionary version 'LEXmlV06
'

profile 'LEXmlV06
'

>

4.


5.


<DictionaryEntry id ='LEX_ex.9
-
1'>

6.


<Headword>aerating root</Headword>

7.


<See><Ptr
href = 'LEX_ex.9
-
4#pneumatophoreSense1'> pneumatophore</Ptr></See>

8.


</DictionaryEntry>

9.


10.


<DictionaryEntry id ='LEX_ex.9
-
2'>

11.


<Headword>aerophore</Headword>

12.


<See><Ptr href = 'LEX_ex.9
-
4#pneumatophoreSense1'> pneumatophore</Ptr></See>