Knowledge Management for E-Business

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1

Knowledge Management for
E
-
Business

Dr. Larry Kerschberg, Co
-
Director

E
-
Center for E
-
Business

George Mason University

http://eceb.gmu.edu/

ER Conference Tutorial, 30 November
2001

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

2

Presentation Outline


Knowledge management concepts, tools and
techniques.


Enterprise data, information and knowledge
resources,


E
-
Business drivers, architectures and players,


Role of XML (eXtensible Markup Language),


E
-
Business Frameworks (B2C, B2B, Net
Markets)


Conclusions.


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

3

Strategic Drivers for
Knowledge Management


The management of organizational
knowledge resources

is crucial to
maintaining
competitive advantage
.


Organizations need to motivate and enable
their
knowledge workers

to be more
productive through
knowledge sharing and
reuse
.


The
Internet

and
World Wide Web

are
revolutionizing

the way an enterprise does
business, science and engineering!

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

4

Knowledge versus Information


Knowledge is about
beliefs

and
commitment
.
(Searle, Speech Acts, 1969).


Knowledge, in contrast to information, is
about
acts

and
action
.


Knowledge is
intelligence put to work
.


“Knowledge is a
dynamic human process of
justifying personal belief toward the ‘truth’

(Nonaka and Tekeuchi, 1995).



ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

5

Two Dimensions of

Knowledge Creation


Ontological and Epistemological Dimensions


Ontological Dimension


Individuals create knowledge while working within
an
organization that provides the context for
knowledge development
.


Organizational knowledge creation is a
process

that
amplifies

individual knowledge and
crystallizes

it as part of the organization’s
knowledge network.


Knowledge creation process takes place in an
expanding “
community of interaction
,” crossing
intra
-

and inter
-
organizational levels and
boundaries.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

6

Epistemological Dimension of

Knowledge Creation


Tacit Knowledge

is personal, context
-
specific,
difficult to formalize and explain.


Know
-
how, crafts and skills;


Human beings create mental models, e.g.,
schemata, paradigms, perspectives, beliefs and
viewpoints, of the world by making and
manipulating analogies in their minds.


Explicit knowledge

is codified knowledge and
refers to knowledge that is transmittable in
formal systematic language. (Polanyi, 1966).


Documents, reports, memos, messages,
presentations, database schemas, blueprints,
architectural designs, specifications, simulations.



ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

7

The Knowledge Creation Spiral

Socialization

Externalization



Internalization



Combination

Learning by Doing

Building

Common

Ground

Linking

Explicit

Knowledge

Dialogue

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

8

Knowledge Contents

From
\
To

Tacit knowledge


Explicit
knowledge

Tacit

knowledge

[Socialization]

Sympathized

Knowledge

[Externalization
]

Conceptual
Knowledge

Explicit

knowledge


[Internalization]

Operational

Knowledge

[Combination
]

Systemic
Knowledge

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

9

Knowledge Contents


Sympathized knowledge



includes shared
mental models and technical skills.


Conceptual knowledge



created through
metaphors, analogy and model creation.


Systemic knowledge



creates prototypes,
new services, new methods, etc.


Operational knowledge



creates know
-
how
regarding project management, production
processes, new
-
product usage and feedback,
etc.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

10

Enterprise Knowledge
Resources


Internal Sources


Organizational
tacit

and
explicit

knowledge.


Core competencies, expertise and experts.


Patents, Best Practices Business Processes.


External Sources


Books, papers, patents, and technical reports.


Research services, e.g., the Gartner Group &
Forrester.


External consultants.


Best Practices in Case Tools, Oracle, SAP.


Competitor’s products, services and people.


The Web and Internet information sources.



ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

11

Enterprise Data, Information
and Knowledge


Modern enterprises are creating
data

at an
unprecedented pace.


Information is data which has been processed to
provided
value
-
added insights
.


Knowledge is information that is
compelling

and
can be used to take action

in decision
-
making
situations.


E
-
Business considerations require
KM of
business processes
,
partnerships
,
end
-
to
-
end
relationship management
, and protection of
Intellectual Property
.


IP over IP!


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

12

Knowledge Management
Architecture


Knowledge management requires several
components:


Access to both internal and external information
sources,


Repositories that contain explicit knowledge,


Processes to acquire, refine, store, retrieve,
disseminate and present knowledge,


Organizational incentives and management roles
to support these activities,


People who facilitate, curate, and disseminate
knowledge within the organization.


Information technology to provide automation
support for many of the above activities,

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

13

KM Architecture

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

14

Knowledge Management
Process Model.

Acquisition

Refinement

Storage/

Retrieval

Distribution

Presentation



Expertise



Domain Model



Business Rules


Ownership;

Federation
Agreements,
Data Sources



External
Sources and
Formats.


Wrappers



Politics of data



Data Cleansing



Indexing



Metadata
Tagging


Concept
Formulation



Information
Integration


Ontology &
Taxonomy


Knowledge
Curation.



Storage and
indexing of
Knowledge



Concept
-
based
Retrieval



Retrieval by
Author,
Content,
Threads, etc.



Knowledge
Security.



Intranet &
Internet



Knowledge
Portals



XML



Active
Subscriptions



Discussion
Groups.


Digital
Rights
Management



User Profiles
for dynamic
tailoring links.



Knowledge
creation, update
annotation, and
storage in
Knowledge
Repository.


Collaboration
Environments

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

15

Knowledge Management System

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

16

KM Application:Interactive
Knowledge Sharing.


Organizational learning through experience
sharing, case studies and “know
-
how”
discussion threads.


Technical forums allow participants to share
knowledge on problem
-
domain solutions.


Curators and facilitators continually monitor
forums to identify important threads,
encourage participation, and support user
training.


Buckman Laboratories.


http://www.knowledge
-
nurture.com/

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

17

KM Application:

Electronic Publishing


Value
-
added knowledge dissemination

of
Market Research Reports, Memoranda,
Newsletters.


Repository consisting of Executive
Summaries, Abstracts, Authors, Graphics,
Tables, Charts, Text.


Metatags for syntactic and content indexing.


Organized and indexed for concept retrieval,
keyword retrieval, etc.


Standard formats for document publishing
and delivery


Lotus Notes, PDF, and XML.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

18

KM Application:

Integration and Classification.


Knowledge
creation and classification

in
near real
-
time for data push scenarios,


Need for a domain model of relevant objects,
relationships, constraints, processes, etc.


Need for near real
-
time concept formation,
indexing and processing of massive amounts of
data from multiple sources. Massive indicates
terabytes of data per day!


Examples:


Intelligence Analysis


Earth Observing System and Intelligence Analysis.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

19

Buckman Laboratories


Global enterprise with about $300 million
dollars in sales.


Associates work closely with customers to
solve chemical problems and to sell Buckman
products.


Buckman wanted to move the company from
a “product
-
driven” to a “
customer
-
driven
”enterprise.


Knowledge
-
driven
,
service
-
oriented

approach with the commodities being the
chemicals produced by Buckman Labs.


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

20

Knowledge in Action


“If you can’t maximize the power of the
individual, you haven’t done anything. If you
expand the ability of individual members of
the organization, you expand the ability of the
organization.”

(Bob Buckman)


Buckman Approach: Perform problem
solving for customers by using both tacit
knowledge and explicit knowledge.


Goal is to harness the “
unconscious
knowledge of the organization
.”

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

21

K’Netix


The Buckman
Knowledge Network.


The Knowledge Transfer Department is responsible
for K’Netix.


Enables Knowledge
-
Sharing via TechForums


Forum Leaders actively moderate, facilitate, seek
knowledge, and identify discussion threads.


Awards:


The Arthur Andersen 1996 Enterprise Awards for Best
Business Practices
-

Category, Sharing Knowledge in the
Organization.


Computer World
-
Smithsonian Award


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

22

K’Netix Knowledge Process

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

23

K’Netix Access Menu

Associates Worldwide Share Knowledge via Forums

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

24

Buckman Knowledge Culture


Knowledge is
object
, knowledge is
process
,
and knowledge is
power
.


Knowledge sharing


rewarded within the organization, and


based on
trust and long
-
lived relationships

among associates.


Knowledge curation


performed by Technical Forum leaders;


weekly they index discussions via keywords, write
abstracts, prepare discussion summaries, and
post them to the Forum.


Code of Ethics guides associate interactions.


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

25

Buckman Results and Vision


Measures of success
:


In 1995, 65% of associates sold to customers, versus 16% in
1979.


33% of sales from products less than 5 years old, versus 22%
before K’Netix.


72% of associates are college graduates compared to 39% in
1979.


Learning Center

introduced to allow associates to
enhance their knowledge; uses Learning Space from
Lotus.


Strategic focus

on “intimate” customer relationships to
provided knowledge
-
based services, thus gaining
strategic advantage.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

26

The E
-
Enterprise Framework

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

27

Enterprise Knowledge
Creation and Distribution


Acquire data and information from multiple,
possibly heterogeneous sources,


Integration of information, tagging of
information with semantic tags,


Create intellectual property (IP) with valued
-
added processing,


Protect IP products, processes and
resources,


Share knowledge with partners,


Distribute IP products to customers and
partners.

Capture Information
:


Federated Databases


Web Searching


Intelligent Agents


Knowledge Rovers


XML Messages


Email Messages

Knowledge

Base

Publish & Share

E
-
Business Data Acquisition and Knowledge Creation with XML as the Enabler

Process & Manage


Information

Convert

To


Knowledge

0101010101

0101010101

Suppliers & Business Partners

Customers

Public Domain & WWW

Knowledge Management


XML Role



Knowledge Management Role

XML

XML

XML

KM

XML

KM

KM

Security

Concerns?

Extract New

Information:


Data Mining


Decision Support


AI


Data Warehousing

Materialize

Risk

Management

Generate Information

Information Integration

Indexing (XML Meta Tags)

RosettaNet

SOAP


WIDL

ebXML

XML

Push Publishing?

Courtesy of Mr. Gus Jabbour

Web Services

E
-
Business Knowledge Creation

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

29

Metadata in Knowledge
Management


Metadata is
data
-
about
-
data

and is used to
describe the attributes of a resource.


Metadata is used in several KM activities: search,
discovery, documentation, refinement, and
dissemination.


These activities may be carried out by human end
-
users or their (human or automated) agents.


Metadata is needed in the Internet context to
enhance precision of information retrieval.


Metadata may be embedded within a
document (metatags) or they may be external
to the document.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

30

Metadata Standards Initiatives


Dublin Core Metadata Initiative for Digital
Libraries,
Dublin Core

is an international
initiative hosted by OCLC


XML (eXtensible Markup Language)


W3C
-

RDF, (
WWW Consortium
)
Resource
Description Framework


W3C
-

Semantic Web,

DAML+OIL
.


Web Services


A metadata bibliography is available at:


http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/desire/overview/
.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

31

Content Indexing and Tagging
of Information Resources


Research in automatic classification at
OCLC

includes the
Scorpion Project
for Dewey Decimal
Classification.


Commercial products from
Autonomy

and
Convera
:


Use Bayesian Networks and Neural Networks to formulate
concepts automatically, not just keyword extraction.


Use text mining to correlate related concepts found in
heterogeneous documents.


Automatic tagging will help analysts to create
knowledge and link back to original sources.


DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) program is
creating a tool set for markup of Semantic Web
ontologies and services.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

32

Dublin Core (DC)

Metadata Initiative


Simplicity



the DC is intended to be usable by non
-
catalogers as well as resource description specialists.


Semantic Interoperability



diverse description
models hinder sharing and understanding across
disciplines.


International Consensus



participants are from all
over the world.


Extensibility



may be extended to include more
specialized structure and semantics.


Metadata Modularity on the Web



brings Digital
Library perspective to encoding metadata on the
WWW.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

33

Dublin Core Metadata Types

Content

Intellectual
Property

Instantiation

Title

Creator

Date

Subject

Publisher

Format

Description

Contributor

Identifier

Type

Rights

Language

Source

Relation

Coverage

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

34

Dublin Core Metadata Elements

From ISO/IEC 11179 standard:


Name

-

The label assigned to the data element.


Identifier

-

The unique identifier assigned to the data element


Version

-

The version of the data element
(DC: 1.1).


Registration Authority

-

The entity authorized to register the data
element
(DC: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative).


Language

-

The language in which the data element is specified
(DC:
en).


Definition

-

A statement that clearly represents the concept and
essential nature of the data element.


Obligation

-

Indicates if the data element is required to always or
sometimes be present (contain a value)
(DC: Optional).


Datatype

-

Indicates the type of data that can be represented in the
value of the data element
(DC: Character String).


Maximum Occurrence

-

Indicates any limit to the repeatability of the
data element
(DC: Unlimited).


Comment

-

A remark concerning the application of the data element.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

35

Knowledge Management in

E
-
Business

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

36

e
-
Enterprise Providers


End
-
to
-
End Solution Providers


Methodologies should provide
: Enterprise Data
Modeling, Process Modeling, Workflow Modeling,
Toolset Neutrality.


Infrastructure Providers


Product attributes
: Reliability, scalability, security,
extensibility, inter
-
enterprise process
collaboration, content management, transaction
management, adherence to standards.


Net Market Makers
.


Provide services
: Marketplace creation,
community of buyers and sellers, auctions,
dynamic and/or fixed pricing.


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

37

Ideal B2Bi Framework


An ideal methodology or framework should include
the following capabilities:


Inter
-
Enterprise Process Integration,


Business service and product definition,


Business and service discovery,


Globally unique identifiers for item tracking throughout the
virtual enterprise,


Security (SSL, HTTPS, PKI, Digital Certificates),


XML
-
based object and information exchange,


Message format translation,


Internet Protocol support (HTTP, HTTPS, SOAP, UDDI)


ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

38

E
-
Business Concepts


E
-
Business denotes the use of the Internet and the
World Wide Web (Web) to conduct business
transactions:


Business to Consumers (B2C)


Business to Business (B2B)


Net Marketplaces


Major goal is to create a
digital domain

by which to:


Integrate business processes


Integrate applications, data and knowledge;


Foster the
virtual enterprise

via the composition of web
services.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

39

The E
-
Enterprise Framework

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

40

Broadvision’s View


Leader in
personalization

and
Customer Relationship
Management,


BV 1
-
to
-
1 supports:


Content Management,


Profiles, Business Rules, and


Transaction Processing,


Strategic partners include
Autonomy, Verity,

i2 Technologies, webMethods.


Customers include US Postal
Service and GSA Advantage.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

41

Oracle’s Hub and Spoke


Multiple E
-
Tailers


Multiple Suppliers


Oracle’s Hub contains
knowledge regarding:


workflow,


XML documents,


business rules,


transformations and


e
-
business processes.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

42

Key Players in the B2B Space


Broadvision



CRM, personalization, intra
-

and
extranets.


i2



Purchase order processing and supply chain
management.


Commerce One

and
Ariba



Procurement.


Vertical Net



E
-
Marketplaces and exchanges.


Oracle



data
-
driven solutions to e
-
business via
hub
-
and
-
spoke

architecture.


webMethods



strong on XML for B2B information
integration, EAI, and workflow.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

43

What is a Net Market?


An Internet
-
based marketplace that creates new
market efficiencies and associated value
-
added
services, such as information, trading, infrastructure
and trust


A net market has the following characteristics:


Creates new revenue models


Has multiple buyers and sellers


Can be vertical or horizontal, leveraging domains of
knowledge


Enables dynamic pricing


Needs a strong community to be successful


Developed by start
-
ups or spin
-
offs of global 2000
companies

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

44

Why are Net Markets
Important?


Net Markets will capture 37% of global online B2B
transactions, or $2.7T out of $7.3T by 2004 (Gartner
Group)


Third party marketplaces will transact 15
-
20% of B2B
e
-
commerce, generating revenue of $400
-
500B by
2003 (Merrill Lynch)


Market capitalization of $800B
--

$1.5T by 2003


Net Markets will grow from 18% of total B2B
transactions in 1998 to 29% in 2003, totaling $438B
out of $1.5T (Bear Stearns)


Market capitalization of $228B by 2002







ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

45

Net Markets Advantages


Improve overall market efficiency


Reduce transactional costs by integrating sourcing,
purchasing, and billing,


More choices for buyer & selling trading partners,


Centralizes access to information


Pricing better reflects supply & demand, improves allocation
and utilization


Attractive business model for Net Market makers
once critical mass is achieved


Network effects


Barriers to competition, high switching costs, good margins


Low incremental costs to increase membership & sales

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

46

Key to Net Markets: Price
Discovery


Static pricing


Sell products at fixed prices, typically from catalogs



single vendor or aggregated (multi
-
vendor)


Discount pricing rules or schedules for preferred customers
(pre
-
negotiated) or volume purchases


Dynamic pricing


Increases market efficiency, welfare of buyers and sellers


Reduces “lost” revenue (buyers willing to pay more) and
failures to transact (sellers would accept less to make sale)


Works particularly well when limited or unstable supply or demand
creates price uncertainty and volatility


Prices typically vary over time and across transactions


Factors other than price and quantity can affect deals

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

Forward

Auction

Exchange

Reverse
Auction

Negotiation

Many Buyers




One Buyer

One Seller Many Sellers


Seller initiated, driving
competitive bidding from
buyers


Various formats and rules


Most complex trade,
requiring sophisticated
transaction engine


Best suited for dealing with
many attributes, not just
price and quantity,


Mirrors manual processes


Buyers & sellers post positions on
commodities, automatically cleared


Presupposes sufficient liquidity for
quick matching of realistic positions


Requires highest reliability and
performance


Buyer initiated, driving
competitive bidding from
sellers, as in RFPs/RFQs


Same variations as in
forward auctions


Dynamic Pricing Models

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

48

Summary of Pricing Models

Negotiation

No
-
Price

Negotiation

Exchange

Auction


Catalogs

Aggregated

Catalog Hubs

Reverse


Auction


Hybrids

Dynamic
Pricing

Fixed
Pricing

One to
One

One to
Many

Many to
One

Many to
Many

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

49



Net Markets Design Issues


Market size, transaction volumes & deal sizes


Volatility of supply & demand


Fragmentation of buyers, sellers, intermediaries


Relative market shares (and power) of players


Relative cost of sales & distribution
--

“pain points”


Commodity vs. complex/custom


Existing price setting models


Importance of branding & relationships to price


Industry adoption of technology


Competition


How to make money
-

who pays what and when

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

50

Net

Market


Publish Supply & Demand


Connect Buyers To Sellers


Enable Price Discovery


Vet Buyers at Point of Sale


Commit Transactions


Finalize & Generate Order


Track & Manage Orders


Support Members


Report Market Metrics


Enable Decision Support


Ensure Market Trust & Satisfaction


Manage Content


Provide Community Services



Qualify New Members


Manage Member


Entitlements & Access

Control


Net Market Maker


Ship and Receive Goods


Check Order Status


Make & Receive Payment


Access & Contribute Content


Access Community Services


Enroll and Register

Members


Specify or Locate Items


to Sell & Buy


Browse Market


Establish Price for Goods

and Services


Establish Transaction


Terms &Conditions


Provide

Content


Enable

Logistics


Manage
Credit & Risk


Enable
Payment

Value
-
Added Service Providers

Conceptual Architecture for Net Markets

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

51

User & System

Proxies (Future)

Application
Service

Components

Administration

Market Member

Access:

Market Participants

Participant Info. Systems

Platform

Technology Map for Net Markets

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

52

Net Market Value
-
Added Services

Credit/Risk

Processing

Enables on
-
line verification of buyer credit worthiness and management of
aggregate risk exposure through automated rule
-
based workflows.


Financial

Processing

Enables automated, on
-
line settlement of transactions cleared through the market,
via integration with member back
-
office systems and banking payment networks.

Logistics/

Delivery

Enables the on
-
line provisioning of transportation services (and buyer status
-
checking) to accomplish the transfer of physical goods from the seller to the buyer.

Order

Management

Provides interfaces to inventory, manufacturing, distribution, shipping, and customer
support systems to support end
-
to
-
end order tracking.


Info Access
/Exchange

Establishes the on
-
line integration interfaces with market member business systems

to automatically populate catalogs, update inventories, and execute transactions.

Workflow

Specifies, triggers, and manages the sequencing of automated information exchanges
that comprise the business process interfaces between market makers and members.

Content

Providers

Incorporates active data feeds and time
-
sensitive news, events, analyst reports
from individual media outlets or third party aggregators/syndicators of such content.

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

53

Personalization

Dynamically customizes the presentation of a market Web site to members through
mapping rules that match appearance and content against profiles that reflect member
identities, registered characteristics and preferences, and prior interactions with the site.

Community

Provides non
-
transactional benefits to market members through value
-
added
information and communication channels promoting interactions and relationships
between members such as discussion groups, on
-
line chat, and aggregation of
member
-
supplied content.


Catalog

Management

Assembles and maintains an up
-
to
-
date catalog of goods and services available in the

market through a uniform representation that facilitates buyer search and identification

of desired products. This often involves integration with seller
-
side back
-
end systems.

Data Warehouse/

DSS

Extracting market postings and transactions to data marts for off
-
line decision support
analysis. Market makers can generate market price and trend reports, and offer query

capabilities to members, producing important recurring revenues from subscriptions.

Content

Management

Supports the life cycle of value
-
added information to be made available to market

members, covering content specification, authoring or collection, editing, approving,

categorizing, publishing, aging, renewal, and retiring.

Product

Configuration

Augments catalog management with capabilities for buyers to define, manage, and
search markets for specifications of highly customized products or complex combinations
of products in terms of product, delivery, and service attributes.

Trading Engine

Provides the core dynamic price formation feature of a Net Market, encompassing a
variety of models including Auctions, Reverse Auctions, Exchanges, Negotiations and
hybrid (multiple stage price discovery processes).

Net Market Application Services

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

54

Catalog Management
:

CardoNet, Mergent, Hologix, Cohera, Saqqara, Asera, VerticalNet/Isadra,

Trading Engines
: Trading Dynamics (Ariba), Tradeum (VertNet), Net Exchange,
Intell
.l, Moai, CommerceBid

Commerce Engines
: CommerceOne, BV, ATG, MSCommerce Server, Rightworks.Aribia

Personalization:

ATG, BV, Asera, Future Tense (Open Market), NetPerceptions

Content

Management
: Interwoven, Inso, Allaire (Spectra), Vignette, BV

Community
:

PlumTree, Autonomy, Well Engaged, IBM/Lotus

Information Access & Exchange
:

PC Docs/Fulcrum, Verity, Extricty, WebMethods, Bowstreet, OnDisplay, STC

Workflow
:

Extricity, Vitria, Tibco (InConcert), HP (Change Engine) MQ Workflow, STC (SeeBeyond)

Data Warehouse/DSS
:

Red Brick, Oracle, DB2, Cognos, Business Objects, MicroStrategy, Brio, Actuate

System Management
:

Tivoli, BMC, Computer Associates, HP

Product Configuration
:

Selectica, Trilogy Software, Calico Commerce, i2,

Value Added Services
: eCredit, HP/Verifone, CyberCash, ClearCommerce, Cybersource, PaymentTech, HNC Fraud
Detection, Transportation Exchange, CarrierPoint, eGain

Market Maker Business Systems
: SAP, Oracle, Baan, Peoplesoft, Lawson, Great Plains, J.D. Edwards, Seibel

Security Management:

Axxent, RSA, Verisign, etc.

Hardware
: Dell, Compaq, Intel, Sun, HP, IBM, Cisco

Software
:

MS Windows, Sun Solaris, HP
-
UX, IBM AIX, Linux...

Network Protocols
:

TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UDP Multicast,

Middleware
:

webMethods, SeeBeyond, IBM (MQSeries), BEA/WebLogic TIBCO, Vitria

Standards
:

HTML, XML, Enterprise Java Beans, DCOM/COM+, CORBA, LDAP

Application Servers
:

IBM/ WebSphere BEA/Web Logic, ATG, Netscape (Ipla?net), ORACLE

Selected Net Market Component Vendors

ER 2001 Tutorial


2001 ©
Larry Kerschberg.

55

Conclusions


Research is indicated in the areas of
knowledge/data management systems
architectures;


E
-
Business frameworks use knowledge about
processes, products, partners, and customers
to enable knowledge creation and sharing
among net communities.


Intelligent services are needed to assist users
in
search, ontology building, knowledge
indexing, knowledge creation, retrieval and
dissemination
.


The goal is to manage
Intellectual Property
over the Internet Protocol

(IP over IP).