Study Guide - lifeedu (pronounced life edu)

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Issues in Biotechnology

Quiz 07 on Lectures 16 and 17

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

16.

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Emergent Technologies

17.

Personalized Genomes, Pharmacogenomics & the Future: Who are We?




BCH

190


1.
Antibiotic resistant tube
rculosis is on the rise world
-
wide. Which
approach to research treatment development would
not

be the best
choice?



(A) develop a vaccine using recombinant DNA technologies


(B) develop RNAi methods to target the tuberculosis bacteria


(C)
develop

cheape
r method
s

to make the antibiotic


(D) develop early detection methods based on PCR

(E) sequence the tuberculosis genome to look for new drug targets


2.
Rheumatoid arthritis is


(A) an autoimmune disease

(B) totally eradicated

(C) curable with the corre
ct diet

(D) has been most effectively treated with homeopathic remedies

(E) best treated early with surgery



3
. Specialized proteins embedded in cell membranes which receive and
transmit chemical messages are often desirable drug targets and are
referred

to as:


(A) random walkers

(B) receptors

(C) transgressors

(D) retractors

(E) transducers



3. Molecules which make the chemical connection between messenger
RNA and amino acids during translation are


(A) phosphates

(B) t
-
RNA

(C) RNAi

(D) z
-
RNA

(E
) polymerases


4. Enzymes are:


(A)
only used in commercial detergents

(B) genes involved with biochemical pathways

(C) made primarily of lipid

(D) not involved with energy production

(E)
usually
proteins that catalyze reactions in cells



5. The flow of

information in biological life on earth


(A) uses the same twenty amino acids

(B) all of the answers

(C) typically occurs from DNA to RNA to protein

(D) uses the same four letter
genetic
code

(E)

is the same in transgenic and non
-
transgenic organisms



6.
RNAi has recently emerged as a new possible therapeutic approach.
This technology uses short interfering RNA that are pieces of double
-
stranded RNA, 21 to 23 nucleotides long, and inhibit translation of
specific messenger RNAs. RNAi allows biologist
s to


(A) "knock down" gene expression of a specific gene to see how the absence of
that gene affects the disease

(B) create new drugs faster and get them to market in less than a year

(C) create new drugs cheaply for under a million dollars

(D) enhance

the expression of genes that fight diseases

(E) sleep at night

if they use them as self medication


7
. An approximate time and cost from ‘Bench to Bedside” for the
development of a new pharmaceutical product would be in the range of


(A) 1
-
5 yrs and $10
million

(B) 12
-
15 yrs and over
1,000

million

(C) 3
-
7 yrs and 100 million

(D) 3
-
7 yrs and $20 million

(E) 1
-
5 yrs and $500


8
. Proteins have the ability to fold into specific shapes that determine
their function because of:


(A)
cytoplasmic streaming in

the cell

(B) actin fibers
in muscle tissues

(C)
the sequence of amino acids specified by the gene

(D) transcription
of mRNA

(E) intelligent design


9
. Proteomics:


(A) The study of all the proteins produced by an organism and their interactions.

(B) The

study of the ecology of the Protista by molecular biology

(C) One of the larges
t

pharmaceutical biotechnology companies in the world

(D) The exact measurement of protein structures using X
-
ray crystallography

(E) a hoax perpetrated by molecular biologis
ts

about alien proteins



10
. The stage of protein making in which a messenger
-
RNA molecule is
'read' by a ribosome is called


(A) transpiration

(B) translation

(C) transmutation

(D) transduction

(E) replication


11
.
Genetic predisposition to disease
or drug response is the focus of
what area of biotechnology?


(A) Agricultural biotechnology

(B) Forensics

(C) Pharmacogenomics

(D) Stem cell research

(E) Animal cloning


12
.
Recombinant

DNA technology has been able to make what class of
compounds as a new

class of effective drugs?


(A) M
uscle fibers

(B) Antibodies

(C) L
ipids

(D) Cox 2 inhibitors

(E) Homeopathic treatments



13
.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (or SNPs) are



(A) deletions of large segments of DNA

(B) single base pair changes in DNA resp
onsible for genetic variation

(C)
also collectively
called ‘junk” DNA

(D) unimportant to the science of pharmacogenomics

(E) nonexistent in humans

but occur in other animals, such as the mouse


14
. What are the implications of gene cloning for the pharmace
utical
industry?


(A) Technically a good idea
but all candidates have failed

in Phase III trials

(B) It might work but it will never gain public acceptance

(C) Drugs
based on antibodies
are now on the market mad
e

using this technology

(D) Technically a
good idea but has yet to be proven

(E) none, it’s the
materials
of science fiction

and Hollywood movies


15
. The ability to replace defective genes in a patient, as a sort of genetic
surgery, has not yet been effectively achieved is called


(A) Gene ther
apy

(B) Chiral chemistry

(C) Combinatorial chemistry

(D) Recombinate drug technology

(E) Alternative therapy



16. Actin and myosin interactions cause contraction of


(A) single
-
stranded RNA with the aid of polymerase

(B) RNAi with the aid of helicase


(C) myofibrils in muscle with the aid of ATP


(D) double
-
stranded DNA with the aid of ligase

(E) because they are FDA approved as new pharmaceutical biotechnology drugs


17. Biochips


(A) are made from genetically modified potatoes cut very thin and dee
p fried

(B) also called microarrays, are used for expression profiling which is the study of
RNA patterns to elucidate various biological phenomenon


(C) are biological constructed radio transmitters that can be inserted into people
so that can be tracked

by GPS

(D) are a bionanotechnology approach to making self replicating nanobots that
can be used for microsurgery in the body


18. Stem cells
, as well as other cells in tissues and organs in the human
body,

have be
en

genetically engineered. For exampl
e,
transgenes could
be developed and delivered into pancreatic cells,

to expre
ss insulin. If
these transgenes were inserted

into the
genome of
pancreas
, those cells
could
become fully functional insulin producing cells

as a cure for
diabetes
. This type o
f an approach

to genetic modification is known as:


(A)
laser surgery

(B)
organ transplantation

(C)
xenotransplantation

(D)
gene therapy

(E)
animal cloning


19.

HPV stands for


(A) High Purity Vaccine

(B) Hallmark Pneumonia Vaccine

(C) Henrietta's P
ark
Virus

(D) Human Papilloma Virus

(E) Human Pancreatic Virus



20.

Alternative therapies, such as herbal medicines, DNA Activation,
and homeopathy have all raised suspicion
and scientific concerns
because


(A)
they are not regulated by the FDA

(B) they have

not been rigorously tested in clinical trials


(C)
they active ingredient(s) or mode(s) of action have not been elucidated or
determined in peer
-
reviewed scientific publications

(D)
their results are highly variable

(E)
all of
answers are correct


21. Pha
rmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with
the chemical sciences and



(A)
is a relatively new profession developed with the advent of synthetic insulin

(B) produce compounds that cannot be rigorously tested in clinical trials

(C)
it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs



(D)
therefore can
not
be
regulated by the FDA

(E)
all of answers are correct


22
.
The entire genomic sequences are now known for many species of
bacteria, fungi, insects, plant
s and animals, including humans and
chimpanzees. This vast amount of information has been published and
is in the public domain. The genome databases aligned and the
similarities and relations can be examined. Individual gene sequences
can be searched to

find striking similarities between species. These
types of analyses have shown that humans are 98% similar in DNA
sequence to the chimpanzee; 88% similar to mice and about 33%
similar to the genes of a rice plant. This type of analysis is called:


(A) Tr
ansgenic analysis

(B) Comparative genomics

(C) Mutational analysis

(D) Functional genomics

(E) DNA gold mining


23. Personalized Medicine


(
A)

is what is in your medicine chest at home

(B) is based on individual genomes indicating appropriate drug pr
escriptions and
diagnostics of disease susceptibilities.

(C)


is an alternative therapy allowing patients their right of choice for
their

own
treatment

(D) is part of the Oba
ma Health Care Bill of 2010 requiring health care and
pharmaceuticals for all peo
ple regardless of income.

(E)
is individualized hands on health care required now for all end of life patients.


24. How much do we as unrelated humans differ at the DNA level in
terms of the number of base pair (bp) differences?


(A) 0 bp

(B) 1/10,000 b
p

(C) 1/1000 bp

(D) 1/100 bp

(E) 2/3 bp


25
. An influenza pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs
when a new influenza A virus appears or “emerges” in the human
population, causes serious illness, and then spreads easily from person
to person

worldwide. Such a pandemic



(A) has only occurred once in recorded human history

(B) is only the material of Hollywood movies such as "Contagion"

(C)
is only a matter of time before another occurrence

(D)
is totally preventable

(E)

proves that the

theory of evolution is incorrect since viruses cannot evolve.

26. Imagine this scenario in the not too distant future (20
-
100yrs). You
knew your own genome, and it revealed that you have a genetic
recessive gene for Tay Sachs Disease (you are a 'carrier
' but do not have
the disease) and your spouse has the same knowledge with the same
diagnosis. You had a prenatal screen of your child to be and it revealed
the disease. It might be possible based on what biotechnology approach
to correct the problem cau
sed by the disease?


(A) Xenotransplantion

(B) Nanotechnology

(C) Gene Therapy coupled with Cloning Technologies

(D) Suicide

(E) Pharmacogenomics


27
. The greatest challenges faced by the pharmacogenomics is the
systematic correlation between normal

versus disease patterns of gene
expression and variation of drug efficacy and metabolism in human
populations.

this can be accomplished using what biotechnology tools?



(A) Xenotransplantion

(B) Nanotechnology

(C)
Phenotyping by genomics, transcript
omics and proteomics

(D)
Human cloning procedures

(E)
Psychotropic drugs


28. The 'Out of Africa' hypothesis for the origin of humans is now
considered fact based on what evidence?


(A) RNA evidence through comparative transcriptomics

(B) new fossi
ls uncovered in Australia

(C) DNA evidence through comparative genomics

(D) new mythologies handed down through the generations revealed by older tribal
members

(E) it has been discounted by all of these approaches


29. Our environment is increasingly
contaminated with toxic
compounds. pesticides get a lot of press since Rachel Carson's
publication "Silent Spring" in 1962 about the effects of DDT.
Compounds once thought to be safe have been included in everything
from cosmetics to plastics. Some are e
strogen
-
like and are not removed
from the water by standard treatments.
The study of how genomes
respond to environmental stressors or toxicants. Brings together
genome
-
wide mRNA expression profiling with protein expression
patterns to elucidate the role o
f gene
-
environment interactions

is now
called:


(A) comparative ecology

(B) toxicogenomics

(C) comparative genomics

(D) deep biology

(E) environmental chaos


30.
Human Genetics:


(A) Comparative ecology

(B) Toxicogenomics

(C)
The study of inherit
ance patterns of specific human traits

(D) Deep biology

(E) Genomic chaos