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Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




1


Haemagglutination as a rapid tool to differentiate
Saraca asoca
bark

from the adulterant

Polyalthia longifolia


C BEENA
*
AND
V V RADHAKRISHNAN

All India Coordinated Project on Medicinal , Aromatic Plants
and

Betalvine, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agr
icultural
University, P.O.
Vellanikkara, Thrissur
-
680656, Kerala, India.

E mail:
beenac2@gmail.com


ABSTRACT


Saraca asoca(Roxb.) Wilde,
the asoka tree is one of the red listed plants of the Western Ghats. . The

bark of asoka tree is
the source of the ayurvedic medicine “asokarishtam” used in the treatment of gynecological disorders
.
The rising
demand has led to its widespread adulteration. It is widely adulterated with the bark of
Polyalthia longifolia

an
ornam
ental tree. This paper presents a quick and easy method to determine the adulteration in asoka bark.
Haemagglutination method using the phosphate buffered saline ( PBS) extract of the stem barks and o positive
human erythrocytes was proved to serve a
s an effective ,quick, easy and cheap tool in differentiating the raw bark of
asoka from its major adulterant

Polyalthia longifolia

.This can be recommended as a tool for the floor level checking of
the market samples for ensuring the quality

.


Key w
ords
: Adulteration, haemagglutination,
Saraca asoca,
Polyalthia longifolia,

PBS ( phosphate buffered saline)

.


Saraca asoca (
Roxb.) de Wilde

commonly known
as
A
soka (Figure 1) is a sacred tree of India, famous for its
use in the treatment of gyna
ecological disorders. Asoka
belongs to the family
Caesalpiniaceae
. It is one of the red
listed plants of the Western Ghats. Asoka is especially relied
upon as an astringent to treat excessive uterine bleeding from
various causes including hormone disorders
, fibroids and for
regulating the menstrual cycle
.

It was estimated that the
domestic demand of the bark of
Saraca asoca

was more than
15,000 tonnes for the year 2007
-
08. This high annual demand
of the bark needs to be obtained from this medicinal tree
wh
ich is now in an endangered

stage
.
As there is a wide gap
between demand and availability
,

it is clear that some other
plant material is collected and utilized instead of
Saraca
asoca.
There are reports that the bark of asoka is widely
adulterated with the

bark of
Polyalthia

longifolia

(Sonn.)
(Figure2)

which is known as Bangali ashok. belonging to the
family
Annonaceae
.

Polyalthia is having different medicinal
properties and uses and it cannot be used as a substitute to
asoka.

Active ingredients that contr
ibute to the medicinal
property of asoka are phenols and tannins

where as that of
polyalthia are alkaloids. Substituting asoka with polyalthia
may not be effective in treating gynaecological disorders or it
may lead to some serious health hazards whose sym
ptoms
will develop only later.


Adulteration of herbal products has clinically
relevant effects
.

Health problems related to herbal drugs are
observed too often due to the contaminants rather than the
declared ingredients.

As these adulteration cause serio
us
health hazards later ,it is important to have a floor level
checking for the market samples for avoiding the adulterants.
Under this circumstances we have taken up this study to find
out an easy ,quick and reliable method for the identification
of commo
n major adulterant of the important ayurvedic
herbal drug asoka bark and the results of the study are
presented here.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


Stem barks of
Saraca asoca

and
Polyalthia
longifolia

were collected from College of Horticulture,
Kerala Agricult
ural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India.and
authenticated by the botanists. The samples were shade dried.
1 g sample of each was put in 10 ml Phospahte buffered
saline ( PBS, pH 7.4) overnight ( 10%). This extract was used
for the HA ( haemagglutination)
assay using standard
methodology
10
. Double fold serial dilutions of 50 ul extract
in 50 ul Phosphate buffered saline( PBS) was prepared in
micro titer plates (ELISA plates)and mixed with 50ul of 2%
PBS washed human erythrocytes of O positive blood group
taken from human volunteer. Microtiter(ELISA) plates were
incubated at room temperature for about 2 hours and the HA
titer for each sample was recorded. Haemagglutination titer
(HA titer) is the maximum dilution of the sample giving a
visible agglutinatio
n. Agglutination is the clumping together
of blood cells due to the network like linkage between the
Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and the specifically reacting
molecules present in the samples. As the RBCs are coloured
there is no need of any other colouring ag
ents. It was noted
that all the
S.asoca

samples (4 different tree samples taken)
gave positive haemagglutination with an HA titer ranging
from 8 to 36 where as no agglutination was given by any of
the four different
Polyalthia longifolia

bark samples ( HA

=0) tried .(Figure
-
3). This revealed that the genuine
S.asoca


bark can be easily differentiated from the adulterant
Polyalthia.

using this technique.



Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




2






























Haemagglutination assay (Figure 3)

































A
1

to A
4

-

asoka samples with 8, 8, 32, 8 as HA titer respective
ly.

P
1

to P
4

-

polyalthia samples showing no Haemagglutination.

2

4

8

16
6
6

32



Figure.1.
Saraca asoca

Figure.2.
Polyalthia longifolia



Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




3



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



In most of the cases of drug adulteration, the
adulterant will have similar morphology as that of the
genuine samples. It is very difficult to distinguish them
physically. If the drug in question is spu
rious or adulterated,
or is from an entirely different biological source it may still
contain similar confusing compounds. Hence chemical
fingerprints also will be confusing. Fingerprinting
experiments by TLC conducted showed that there were a lot
of simil
arities between asoka and polyalthia rather than
differences. Remashree
et

al

has reported that the
comparative anatomical study can be taken up for the
differentiation between the original and spurious bark
samples of asoka. Very recently S.Khatoon
et al

has reported
that HPTLC profile studies using the methanol extract of
bark samples can be depended. All these techniques require
costly equipments , chemicals and cumbersome procedures.
But the present study revealed that HA assay using O +
human RBCs is

a good technique,practically very simple,
cheap and less cumbersome. It can be used as a quick
reliable and effective tool for the authentication and quality
assessment of
S. asoca

and this method can be recommended
for the floor level checking of market

adulterant of the
important herbal raw drug
Saraca asoca
. The work was
carried out during 2009
-

2010.

Haemagglutination technique has never before tried


adulterant

identification in

herbal drugs. Usually
chromatographic techniques are reported for sta
ndardization
and to control the quality of both the raw material and the
finished products. W
e tried a different biological technique
that can be used for differentiating asoka from polyalthia.
The presence of an entity
-

a haemagglutinin
-

was found in
the
stem barks of
saraca asoca

which causes agglutination
of RBCs whereas it was found to be absent in polyalthia .
Detailed studies are required to find out the specific
molecule causing haemagglutination in asoka samples.

Acknowledgement

Authors thank the
financial support

from ICAR
.


REFERENCES



De Smet PAGM
. 1992. Toxicological outlook on the quality assurance
of herbal remedies. In
Adverse effects of Herbal drugs
. Vol 1, (ed.
De Smet, P.A.G.M., Keller, K., Hansel, R., Chandler, R. F.,)
Heidelberg, Sp
ringer
-

Verlag . pp. 1
-
72.

Drug Interactions
. 2nd edn
. 1998.
Adulteration of herbal products
Eclectic Medical Publications, Sandy.

Houghton

PJ,
Pharmacognosy
. 1999. The basis for quality herbal
medicinal products,
Pharmaceutical New.,

6, pp. 21

27
.


India
n Herbal Pharmacopoeia
, 1998,Vols I and II, RRL.Jammu
-

Tawi
and IDMA, Mumbai, India.

Khatoon S, Neha Singh, Kumar S, Srivastava N, Rathi, A and
Mehrotra S.,
2009. Authentication and quality evaluation of the
important ayurvedic drug asoka bark.
J. of
Sc
ientific
and
Industrial
Research
.
.Vol.68393
-
400.

Nadkarni KM.

The Indian Materia Medica
., Vol.I, pp. 1104
-
1105.

Nayar, MP and Sastry ARK.
1990.
Red Data Book of Indian Plants
,
Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, vol 3.

Nelson L, Shih R., Hoffman R.
, 1
995. Aplastic anemia induced by an
adulterated herbal medication.
Clin Toxicol
, 33,467
-
470.

Parvati Menon

2002. Conservation & consumption: A study on the
crude drug trade in threatened plants in Thiruvananthapuram
district, Kerala, Kerala Research Program
me on local level
development studies, Thiruvananthapuram , p 39.


Pueppke SG
, 1979.Purification and characterisation of a lectin from the
seeds of the winged bean,Psophocarpus
tetragonolobus.Bioche.Biophys.Acts,581,63
-
70.

Rajani

M
, Shrivastava N, Ravi
shankara MN.

2000.
A rapid method
for isolation of andrographolide Nees (Kalmegh).
Pharm Biol
. 38,
204
-
209.

Remashree A.B, Sudhakar R., Jayanthy A , Unnikrishnan KP
and Indira B
, 2005.Comparative anatomical and phytochemical
markers to identify aso
ka from its common adulterant.Aryavaidyan
.Vol.XIX.1,13
-
24.

Sperl W, Stuppner H, Gassner I., Judmaier W, Dietze O., Vogel
W,

1995. Reversible hepatic veno
-

occlusive disease in an infant
after consumtion of pyrrolizidine containing herbal tea.
Eur J
P
ediatrics

,154, 112
-
116.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India,
.
2001
-
02.

Part I, Vol.I,
Demand study for selected medicinal plants, Centre for research,
planning and action, Ministry of Health and family welfare, Govt.of
India.

pg 14.


The Wealth of India


Raw materials
, 1998. Vol IX, Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, pp 232
-
234.

The Wealth of India


Raw materials
, Vol VIII, 1999. Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, pp 187
-
188.


Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




4


Assessment of seasonal soi
l moisture under traditional agroforestry systems in

Garhwal Himalaya
, India

ARVIND BIJALWAN

Faculty of Technical Forestry
,
Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM)
,

Bhopal
, M.P.,
India
.

Email:

arvind276@re
diffmail.com

ABSTRACT

The seasonal soil moisture content was assessed under three agroforestry systems viz. A
g
risilviculture (AS), Agri
-
hortisilviculture (AHS) and Agri
-
horticulture (AH) systems in northern and southern aspects of Garhwal Himalaya,
India.

The soil moisture under
these

agroforestry systems was higher compared to sole agriculture (treeless or control)
system. The soil moisture ranged from 8.66
per cent

(AS) in summer to 35.96
per cent
(AH) in monsoon season (0
-
15 cm

depth
) and 11.39
per cent

(AS) in summer to 31.71
per cent
(AS) in monsoon (16
-
30 cm depth). The soil moisture status
in sole agriculture system reported significantly different in all agroforestry systems under 0
-
15 and 16
-
30 cm depths.
The influence of northern aspect obtains mo
re moisture than the southern.

Key words:

Moisture content, Agroforestry, Sole cropping, A
g
risilviculture, Agrihortisilviculture, Agrihorticulture

Agroforestry systems are considered more
sustainable and favourable to improve the soil properties.
Presenc
e of trees in combination with annual crops is
believed to offer systematic plant cover to protect the soil
from erosion as well as enhancement of
moisture status of
soil
. In traditional agroforestry systems, trees are used to
improve the soil fertility, m
aintain the hydrological balance
and
conserve the soil, moreover the tree
-
crop combination
used the soil water more efficiently than the sole cropping.
The

presence of multipurpose trees as an essential
component of traditional settled agriculture on terra
ced
slopes, and indicated the importance of trees in
rehabilitation, improvement of degraded wastelands and
mitigating drought

(Dhadwal
et al

1986)
.
In

situ

retention of
rainfall on the land itself by agronomic measures in the
rhizosphere for better plant
growth is one of the essential
factors which can be achieved through agroforestry practices
and by suitable agronomic measures.

The productivity in agroforestry systems is higher
as compared to sole cropping systems, because higher yield
of crop has been o
bserved in forest influenced soil than in
ordinary soil (Chaturvedi, 1981; Sanghal, 1983; Verinumbe,
1987). Agroforestry systems based on traditional kn

owledge with water management as an integral component
are more effective for rehabilitation of
degraded community
lands than afforestation with plantation crops (Maikhuri
et
al
.

1997
). Keeping in view the appraisal and assessment of
soil moisture status under agroforestry systems
, the

present
study was carried out in the tra
ditional agroforestry sys
tems
of

Garhwal Himalayan region of India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was carried out in six different villages
of
Tehri Garhwal

district
of Garhwal Himalayan region
of

India,
ranging between the elevation of 1000m to 2000m asl
during 2004 to 2006. Th
e selection of these villages

(sites)

varied

in elevation, aspects and biodiversity. The selected
sites stretched between sub
-
tropical to temperate zones. The
study area receives 1240 mm annual rainfall with the mean
monthly maximum temperature varies from

11.6
0
C in
January to 26.0
0
C in June, whereas the mean monthly
minimum temperature ranges from 2.3
0
C in January to 16.8
0
C in July
(Fig. 1
).

Th
e soil analysis was performed in

the soil samples
taken from agroforestry systems and sole agriculture system

(cont
roll
) to compare the insitu moisture status of the soil.
The soil samples were randomly collected from 0
-
15 and 16
-
30 cm depths during winter, summer and monsoon seasons,
using soil auger.
The soil samples were collected thrice in a
season
with

one m
onth interval
.

The soil samples were
collected from different agroforestry systems and sole
agricultural fields and immediately weighed using m
obile
digital weighing balance
to obtain the fresh weight of the
soil. Later the soil samples were brought to the

soil science
laboratory of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal,
Uttarakhand, India and kept in the oven at 105
0
C for 24
hours till constant weight was achieved and weighed. Further
the soil moisture

was calculated
using

gravimetric method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The soil moisture
percentage

under agroforestry
systems was observed to be higher as compared to sole
agriculture system, which is thought to be beneficial for the
growth and development of a
griculture crops.
The soil
moisture ranged in different existing agroforestry systems
varied
from 8.66
per cent

(AS)
in summer to 35.96
per cent

(AH) in monsoon season
at
0
-
15 cm
of depth

and 11.39
per
cent

(AS)
in summer to 31.71
per cent

(AS) in monsoon
(
16
-
30 cm depth) on different study sites
(Table 1
).

Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




5


It was observed that the soil moisture % in winter varied
from 22.38 to 29.87 %, 19.30 to 27.95 %, 14.69 to 20.97 %

in 0
-
15
and 20.38 to 28.15
%
, 18.95 to 30.12
%
, 19.15 to
25.00
%

in 16
-
30 cm depth for
A
S
, AHS, AH systems
respectively
.

In summer season, the soil moisture
%

ranged
from 8.66
%

(AS)
to 17.87
%

(AH) under 0
-
15 cm depth and
11.39 % (AS) to 20.33 % (AH) under 16
-
30 cm depth in
different study sites. It was recorded that the soil moisture %
vari
ed from 8.66 to14.19 %, 10.88 to 16.53 %, 11.47 to
17.87 % in 0
-
15 cm depth and 11.39 to 17.80 %, 14.58 to
19.83 %, 14.70 to 20.33 % in 16
-
30 cm depth for AS, AHS,
AH systems respectively in summer season (Table 1
).
In
monsoon season the soil moisture % r
anged from 25.01 to
35.96 % both in AH system (0
-
15 cm depth) and 22.71 %
(AH) to 31.71 % (AS) under 16
-
30 cm of depth on different
study sites. It was found that the soil moisture % varied from
28.89 to 35.62 %, 28.78 to 31.28 %, 25.01 to 35.96 % in 0
-
15
cm depth and 28.48 to 31.71 %, 27.57 to 30.30 %, 22.71
to 31.03 in 16
-
30 cm depth for AS, AHS, AH systems
respectively in monsoon season (Table 1).

Table 1: Seasonal soil moisture content (%) under traditional Agroforestry systems

AF system/ Site

Wint
er Season

AS

AHS

AH

0
-
15

16
-
30

0
-
15

16
-
30

0
-
15

16
-
30

N
1

29.34

24.28

27.95

30.12

19.94

24.88

S
1

25.13

21.99

19.30

18.95

15.81

23.35

N
2

22.46

20.38

25.41

28.29

15.04

19.40

S
2

22.38

21.38

21.43

23.05

14.69

19.15

N
3

29.87

28.15

25.93

28.27

20.97

25.00

S
3

27.43

23.36

21.15

20.40

17.83

23.31

Mean (N+S)

26.1

23.26

23.53

24.85

17.38

22.52

Mean (N)

27.22

24.27

26.43

28.89

18.65

23.09

Mean (S)

24.98

22.24

20.63

20.80

16.11

21.94

Control

18.23

22.42

15.12

18.37

14.63

18.6





AF system/ Site

Summer Seas
on

AS

AHS

AH

0
-
15

16
-
30

0
-
15

16
-
30

0
-
15

16
-
30

N
1

12.10

16.25

11.21

15.92

10.52

16.43

S
1

10.02

12.26

10.88

14.58

11.47

14.70

N
2

14.19

16.51

12.04

19.83

15.84

19.85

S
2

13.95

16.00

16.53

17.80

16.86

18.49

N
3

8.66

11.39

14.61

14.73

17.87

20.33

S
3

13.
85

17.80

14.61

14.73

16.87

18.30

Mean (N+S)

12.13

15.04

13.31

16.27

14.91

18.02

Mean (N)

11.65

14.72

12.62

16.83

14.74

18.87

Mean (S)

12.61

15.35

14.01

15.70

15.07

17.16

Control

9.55

13.73

8.42

9.12

9.06

10.35



AF system/ Site

Monsoon Season

AS

AH
S

AH

0
-
15

16
-
30

0
-
15

16
-
30

0
-
15

16
-
30

N
1

31.39

29.02

33.54

29.59

32.34

22.71

S
1

28.89

28.48

30.53

29.09

35.96

27.23

N
2

34.44

30.46

30.33

30.30

33.58

29.42

S
2

35.62

31.71

30.88

29.27

30.41

31.03

N
3

31.04

29.43

31.28

28.39

25.63

23.07

S
3

33.91

30.75

28.78

27.57

25.01

25.11

Mean (N+S)

32.55

29.98

30.89

29.04

30.49

26.43

Mean (N)

32.29

29.64

31.72

29.43

30.52

25.07

Mean (S)

32.81

30.31

30.06

28.64

30.46

27.79

Control

35.58

24.19

33.54

29.73

30.83

29.36

AS = Agrisilviculture system, AHS = Agrihortis
ilviculture system, AH= Agrihorticulture system

N (Northern aspect) = N
1
, N
2,
N
3

S (Southern aspect) = S
1,
S
2,
S

Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




6


The soil moisture status in sole agriculture system
(control

or without trees
) is significantly different in all
agroforestry systems on di
fferent sites under 0
-
15 and 16
-
30
cm depths. The statistical analysis (
Table 2
)

shows

that there
is

a significant difference (p<0.01) in the moisture content,
when compared with different aspects and seasons. Depth
had also significant difference (p<0.05)

in the availability of
soil moisture content. The interaction between season and
depth (p<0.01), depth and system (p<0.05) were also
recorded significantly different (p<0.05).
The soil moisture
content is higher
in agroforestry system when compared in
sol
e cropping pattern in winter and summer season while
this trend was not as such followed in the
rainy

season.

In
general the soil moisture content was higher in 16
-
20 cm of
depth

under trees and treeless conditions but the situation
was adverse in the mons
oon season where higher moisture
content was observed in 0
-
15 cm of depth. As far as
influence of aspect on soil moisture content is concerned,
the northern aspect acquired more moisture than the
southern.

The
comparative variation of tree
-
crop system to
s
ole cropping
and impact of aspect
and soil
depth for

soil
moisture conservation

under

different
seasons and

agroforestry


systems are
depicted in
Fig.
2 & 3
.One of the
most widely accla
imed advantages of

agroforestry is its
potential for conserving
the soi
l and maintaining its fertility
and productivity (Nair, 1993).

In a similar study Sing
et al
.
,
2003 reported that among four depths
viz.

0
-
15, 15
-
30, 30
-
60 and 60
-
90 cm, the maximum moisture content was
observed in 0
-
15 cm deep soil layer during monsoon
.
Similarly, the higher moisture content in 0
-
15 cm depth
under agroforestry systems in the present study was also
attributed to the exposure of upper soil to the rain during
monsoon season, while in summer season the impact of tree
shade reduced the water

loss from the soil surface (Kumar
and Yadav, 2003; Singh
et al

2003). In sole agriculture crop
system the soil moisture % was slightly lower as compared
to agroforestry systems, this may be due to the high rate of
evaporation of water from the surface of
open fields during
summer season while reverse trend in the monsoon season
was noticed due to prevalence of excessive moisture. The
noticeable difference in the soil moisture content on
different aspects (north and south) and seasons showed that
the northe
rn aspect always possessed higher moisture
content due to lower ins
u
lation which in turn gives birth to
rich vegetation. During May, insolation period also
increased the atmospheric and soil temperatures, which
influenced soil temperature adversely and equ
ilibrium is
attained only after the monsoon showers are received in the
months of June to August. Donohue
et al
.

(1987) observed
that land with a slope at right angle to the sun would receive
more heat and will warm faster than flat surface. The
statistica
l analysis showed that there was significant
difference in the soil moisture content on different aspects,
seasons and soil depths.


Fig. 1: Meteorological details of the study sites (2004 to 2006)





Fig. 2: Comparative soil moisture (%) in open and

Agroforestry
systems in winter

seasons


Fig. 2: Comparative soil moisture (%) in open and Agroforestry
systems in summer seasons








Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




7



Fig. 2: Comparative soil moisture (%) in open and Agroforestry
systems in winter, summer and monsoon seasons




Fig. 3: Seasonal soil moisture content (%) in different site (aspects)
under existing Agroforestry systems








REFERENCES

Chaturvedi, A.N.

1981. Poplar for planting,

Uttar Pradesh Department
Bull. no
-
50 Lucknow, pp 27.


Dhadwal, K.S., Narain, P. a
nd Dhruvanarayan, V.V
. 1986.

Roots effect
of trees on field
boundary can be estimated by training:
Indian
Farming
, (April) pp 43.


Donohue, R.L., Miller, R.W. and Shickluna, J.C.

1987. Soil chemical and
colloidal properties. Soil: An introduction to soil a
nd plant growth
Prentice Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. pp 107
-
108.


Kumar, S. and Yadav, M.P.

2003. Effect of different moisture
conservation practices on soil profile recharging and water use
efficiency in silvipastoral system.
Indian J
.

of Agrofor
estry

5(172):

55
-
59.


Maikhuri, R.K., Semwal, R.L.,
Rao, K.S. and Saxena, K.G
. 1997
.
Rehabilitation of degraded community lands for sustainable
development in Himalaya: a case study in Garhwal Himalaya.
International J
.

of Sustainable Development and World

Ecology

4:

192
-
203.


Nair, P.K.R.

1993. An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer academic
publication, London. In cooperation with ICRAF. pp 498.


Sanghal, P.M
. 1983. Species compatibility consideration in agroforestry.
The state of art in India.
In:

proc
. National seminar on agroforestry.
Karnal. pp 416
-
428.


Singh, A., Singh, R. and Pannu, R.K.

2003. Effect of
Eucalyptus

plantation on moisture extraction pattern, water use and yield of
wheat.
Indian J
.

of Agroforestry

5(1&2):

45
-
49.


Verinumbe, I.

1987.
Crop production of soil under some forest plantations
in the Sahel.
Agroforestry System

5(20):

185
-
188.


Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




8


Effect of
integrated nutrient management
on growth, yield
and

economics of Sweet corn (Zea mays L)


N M CHAUHAN

Krishi Vigya
n Kendra, RRRS, NAU, Vya
ra,
Tapi,
Gujarat
, India
.

Email:
nikulsinh_m@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm B.A.College of Agriculture, Anand during Kharif season of the year
2004
-
05.The main objective of the study was to find out the effect of organic
& inorganic fertilizer on seed yield of sweet
corn (
Zea
mays

L.). The experiment was studied with split plot design having two levels of Biofe
r
tilizer, FYM and
phosphorus as main plot treatments along with five levels of nitrogen as sub plot treatment. App
lication of organic
matter had significantly increased height
and

all crop growth parameters and 5.75

per cent

more grain yield with
application of FYM@10 ha
-
1.

Seed inoculation with
P
seudomonas gave significant increase in growth and yield
parameters and
grain yield increased to the tune of 8.24 percent. Application of phosphorus significantly increased
plant height at all crop growth stages and higher grain yield recorded by 6.74 per

cent than central. Seed yield of sweet
corn as well as growth and yield
attributes were significantly increased due to varying
lends

of nitrogen. The higher
grain yield (1633 kg ha
-
1
) and strawer yield (5783 kg ha
-
1
) was recorded with 120 and 160 kg N ha
-
1

respectively. The net
realization of Rs. 30525
and

29255 ha
-
1

was recor
ded with 10 Tn FYM ha
-
1.

Seed inoculation gave 31485 Rs. ha
-
1

and
application of P
2
O
5

at 0 and 50
k
g. P
2
O
5

ha
-
1

gave 6.70

per cent

and 4.43

per cent

higher grain and straw yield,
respectively. The significant higher strawer yield were recorded with varying

levels of Nitrogen, but highest net return
was obtained with 120

kg nitrogen per hectare, The strawer yield were increased significantly with increasing levels of
nitrogen from 0 to 160 kg per hectare.

Key words
: Maize, Nitrozen, Growth, Phosphorus, Potas
h

Maize (
Zea mays

L.) popularil
y known as corn is
one of the most important cereal of the world, ranking third
amongst the food crops, next to rice and wheat both in
respect of area and production.India occupied and area of
10.58 lakh hectares with the pr
oduction of 14.32 lakh tones
during the year 1993 correspondingly the Gujarat state had
an area of 3.68 lakh ha with the production of 5.29 lakh
tones.In Gujarat Maize is one of the important traditionally
grown crop of tribal areas. Comprising the distric
ts of
Panchmahals, Sabarkantha, Banaskantha and Part of Baroda
& Kheda districts, now recently this crop may be introduce
in South Gujarat districts like Surat, Tapi. Among these
districts Panchmahals is a leading district which accounts for
area of 2.62 l
akh hectares and production of 2.15 lakh tones.


Among various types of maize, sweet corn is very
popular for the use of its green cabs in the United States of
America. It differs from the field corn due to its higher
sweetness, as it has high amount of su
gar & alcoholic
material. Besides, its consumption as vegetable purpose, it is
also utilized for extracting sucrose as an industrial
purpose.The role of O.M. for increasing crop production has
been universally established, as it plays significant role in
i
mproving physical and chemical properties of the soil
application of 12
-
15 tonner of FYM helps in increasing the
yield of maize crop to the tune of 1.5 to 5.6 a / ha. Sweet
corn is one of the heavy consumers of plant nutrients. It
remains about 72 kg N2, 2
5 kg P
2
O
5

and 220 kg K
2
O / ha.
Nitrogen is the key element in crop growth and is the most
limiting nutrient in Indian soils. The importance of nitrogen
for increasing the yield has been widely accepted.

Maize is one of the crop that responses well to
phosp
horic fertilizer in almost all the soil types. It plays vital
role in plant nutrition. The deficiency of phosphorus is soil
severely limits root and shoot growth and thereby affecting
the yield. The availability of phosphorous are also low as
compared to t
hat of N & K. under such situation, the
phosphate solubilizing micro organism plays significant role
in making the phosphorous available to plants by secretion
of organic acids and enzyme phosphatase which solubilizes
the insoluble phosphate and thereby it

helps in increasing the
crop production.

MATERIAL
S

AND METHODS

The field experiment was conducted during the
kharif season of years 2004
-
05

at agronomy farm of
B.A.College of Agriculture, AAU, Anand. The experiment
was laid out on sandy loam soil, locally

known as Goradu
soil with very deep, well drained & fairly moisture retentive
but low as compared to black soil. The experiment was laid
out in forty treatments comprising all possible combinations
of two levels of O.M. (FYM), two levels of
P
seudomonas,
two levels of phosphoric along with five lends of nitrogen
.The study was carried out with split plot design (SPD).
Combination of FYM×inoculations x phosphorous were
taken as main plot treatment while levels of nitrogen were
taken as subplot treatments wi
th three replication having 5.4
m x 3.6 m gross plot size, 60 cm x 20 cm spacing and
dibbling method of sowing. Application of well decomposed
FYM as basal at 10 + ha
-
1

as per treatment 20 a. of total
nitrogen of respective
levels of N compiled with full
dose of phosphorous in form
of SSP in a previously open furrow at the depth of 8
-
10 cm.
Remaining 80% of nitrogen was applied in two installments
UBC 50% of the total quantity at knew height stage and

Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




9


remaining 30 N of total amount at milking stage, The
ob
servations were recorded from five randomly selected
plants from net plot (Pl. height, no.of barren plants) on
growth & yield attributing character and also economics of
(length of cob, number of cobs per plant, kernels row per
cob, no. of kernels per co
b, grain & stover yield) of sweet
corn.

RESULT
S

AND

DISCUSSION

Growth
and

Yield

With a view to study the effects of organic matter,
inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganism along
with levels of phosphorous and nitrogen on the growth and
grain yi
eld of sweet corn (Zea mays L.).The findings on the
yields of growth and yield attributed characters and
economics as influenced by different treatments are showed
in table
-
1 and 2.

Effect of seed inoculation with
pseudomonas was found significant in resp
ect to plant height
at all growth stages. Seed treated with pseudomonas gave
significant taller plants as compared to un inoculated seed
.measured at21 days interval, i.e 21,42.63 and 84 DAS at all
growth (16.44, 46.72, 137.33, 143.09) and grain (1340 kg h
a
-
1
) stages this might be due to the ability of
phosphobacteria

to bring soluble / insoluble inorganic and organic phosphates
into soluble forms by secretion of organic acids. Similar
results were also noted by Kataraki
et al
. (2004).

Application
of FYM on

sweet corn found non significant effect of FYM
on plant height measured periodically at 21, 63 & 84 DAS.

However, the application of FYM gave numerically higher
values of plant height at each period of crop growth stage and
higher grain yield 1325 kg ha
-
1
,

Table
-
1: Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management of growth of sweet
corn as influenced by levels of inoculation, FYM, phosphorus &
Nitrogen.

Treatment

Plant height (cm)

21
DAS

42
DAS

63 DAS

84 DAS

Inoculation

C
0

uninoculated

15.36

40.88

129.35

142.
13

C
1

Inoculated

16.44

46.72

137.33

143.63

CD (P= 0.05)


0.21

0.80

1.02

1.24

FYM t ha
-
1

F
0

0

15.81

42.57

133.18

142.45

F
1

10

15.99

45.03

133.50

143.32

CD (P= 0.05)

NS

0.80

NS

NS

Phosphorus kg ha
-
1

P
0

0

15.55

43.02

131.00

141.02

P
1

50

16.25

44.
58

135.68

144.75

CD (P= 0.05)

0.21

0.80

1.02

1.29


C.V. %

3.38

4.63

1.95

2.22

Nitrogen kg ha
-
1

N
0

0

14.89

37.88

122.75

135.92

N
1

40

15.30

40.04

129.96

139.17

N
2

80

16.12

44.50

135.63

142.80

N
3

120

16.24

47.00

188.33

146.63

N
4

160

16.93

49.58

1
40.04

149.92

CD (P= 0.05)

0.28

1.36

1.84

1.51



but

Straw

yield had non significant effect.
This could be
attributed to the lower mineralization of organic nitrogen.
Such observation was also made by Sahoo and Mahapatra
(2004).



Table
-
2: Grain, Strover
yield & economics of Sweet corn as influenced by inoculation, FYM, phosphorus and nitrogen levels.

Treatment

Grain yield (kg
ha
-
1
)

Strover yield (kg
ha
-
1
)

Gross realization
(Rs./ha)

Total cost of
cultivation (Rs./ha)

Net Realization
(Rs./ha)

BCR

In
oculation

C
0


1238

4481

32745

3900

28845

7.39

C
1


1340

4838

35435

3950

31485

7.97

CD (P= 0.05)

61.08

189.61


FYM (t ha
-
1
)

F
0


1253

4575

33155

3900

29255

7.50

F
1


1325

4752

35025

4500

30525

6.78

CD (P= 0.05)

61.08

NS


Phosphorus

P
0


1247

4550

32
995

3900

29095

7.46

P
1


1331

4777

35185

4540

30645

6.75

CD (P= 0.05)

61.08

189.61


C.V. %

12.10

10.38

Nitrogen

N
0


1013

3447

26703

3900

22803

5.84

N
1


1128

3935

29774

4272

25502

5.96

N
2


1341

4671

35371

4543

30828

6.78

N
3


1633

5481

43017

481
5

38202

7.93

N
4


1331

5783

35588

5087

30501

5.99

CD (P= 0.05)

67.38

222.25


Interaction

CXP







C.V.%

9.05

8.27







Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




10


Application of phosphorus @ 50 kg P
2
O
5

ha
-
1

was
found significant on the plant height measured at all growth
stages, grain yield
(1331), strawer yield 4777 kg ha
-
1

(i.e.
21,42.03
, 63

and

84 DAS) significant increase pl. height
(16.25,44.58,135.68,144.75) due to the phosphorus as a key
element influences different physiological process such as
cell division & elongation , Pandey
et a
l
. (2000)

Significant linear increase in plant height, grown &
strover yield was observed wi
th each successive increase in
nitrozen

levels from 0 to 160 Kg .ha
-
1
. Significantly
increased the grain yield (1331 kg ha
-
1
) & strover yield
(5783 kg ha
-
1
) with 1
60 kg ha
-
1

and also showed the
maximum plant height (16.93, 49.58, 140.04, and 149.92) at
all the crop growth stages. The higher availability of nitrogen
might have increased its uptake as a results of which
increased cell size and enhanced cell division,
seems to have
played an important role in increasing the plant height and
yield, this findings Confirms to those reported by Sharma
and Gupta (1998). Interaction effect between inoculation and
phosphorus, FYM with phosphorus and nitrogen levels all
the int
eraction effect were significantly gave higher growth
of and grain & strover yield of sweet corn.

The data on gross and net realization for different
treatments of FYM, inoculation, Phosphorus and nitrogen
presented in table
-
2 revealed that the higher net
returns of
Rs. 30525 / ha were received with treatment F
1
(FYM

50kg/ha)


of the seed treatment with
P
seudomonas

sp. gave a
higher net returns & Rs. 31485 / ha as compared to
uninoculated control. Application as 50 kg P
2
O
5

/ ha gave a
higher net return of R
s. 30645 / ha as compare with no
application of phosphorus.

Among the nitrogen levels, the maximum net
returns of Rs. 38202/ha were realized with the application of
120 kg ha
-
1
. The results confirm the findings of Adhikari
et
al
.(2005). On the basis of st
udy the results obtained from the
investigation the conclusion can be draw for getting
maximum seed and thereby net monetary realization the
sweet corn should be fertilized with 10 t FYM + 120 kg N
ha
-
1

+ 50 kg P
2
O
5

besides, seed inoculation with
pseudomon
as

sp. raised on sandy seats of middle Gujarat.


REFERENCES

Adhikari, S., Chakraborty, T. Bagchi, D.K.

2005. Bio
-
economic
evaluation of maize (
Zea mays

L.) and groundnut (
Arachis hypogaea
)
itercropping in drought prone areas of chotonagpur pleateau regio
n of
Jharkhand.
Indian J. of Agronomy

50(2):113
-
115.

Kataraki, N.G., Desai,B.K., and Pujari, B.T.

2004. Integrated nutrient
management in irrigated maize.
Karnataka J. of Agricultural Science

17(1):1
-
4.


Pandey, A.K., Ved, Prakash, Mani, V.P. and Singh, V.
P.,

2000. Effect of
rate of nitrogen and time of application on yield and economics of
baby corn (
Zea mays

L)

Indian

J. of Agronomy

45(2): 338
-
343.

Sahoo, S.C. and Mahapatra, P.K.

2004. Response of sweet corn (
Zea
mays

L.) to nitrogen levels and plant pop
ulation.
Indian J. of
Agricultural Sciences

74(6):337
-
338.

Sharma,M.P. and Gupta, G.P.
1998. Effect of organic materials on grain
yield and soil properties in maize


wheat cropping system.
Indian J.
of Agricultural Sciences

68(11):715
-
717

Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




11


S
tudy the gende
r involvement of buffalo husbandry and their perception in tribal belt of
Rajasthan

C

M Yadav
,

B

S Bhimawat and P

M

Khan

KVK, Bhilwar,

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology,Udaipur
, Rajasthan, India.

Email:

cmyadav
_
jaipur@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT


A sponsored training program conducted on improved buffalo husbandry practices at KVK Dungarpur. In this training
program 50 tribal women participated. All the desired information colleted from tri
b
al wom
en through personal
interview. All the respondents were categories on the basis of age, land size, herd size and milk produced for sale,
respectively most of the respondents time spent about 28

per cent

in cleaning of animal sheds and dung disposal , same
time spent in fodder harvesting , 26

per cent
milking 10

per cent

calf rearing and 8

per cent

health management.
Majoring of females performed operation like, milking, bathing, watering, feeding and health care, respectively.
However, 100 percent female i
nvolvement like Dung disposed and cleaning sheds. Mostly 64

per cent

respondent
problem like anoestrus, 32

per cent

repeat breeding 20

per cent

prolapse, 10

per cent
mastitis, 8

per cent

calf mortality
and 4

per cent

bloat, respectively. These finding are

that operations such as cleaning of sheds, collection dung; in which
women are actively involved need to become skill oriented. Further more the animal scientists are required to develop
modern and cost effective technologies to be disseminated to the end

users through extension agents.


Key words
: Gender, Involvement, Buffalo, Tribal, Rajasthan, perception


Livestock being an integral part of agriculture in
India are instruments of future growth and development of
the agriculture sector
. Rural women play a very important
role in animal production and participate actively in areas
like animal feeding, milking, breeding cleaning and
providing health care to the animals. As an adjunct to
agriculture, livestock production contributes substan
tially to
poverty alleviation and created employment opportunities,
particularly in rural areas. India is endowed with most
fabulous livestock wealth in the world with 16.49 percent
cattle population and 56.77 percent buffalo population with
both the speci
es, but together countries to 28 percent of
world's large ruminant population. The size land holding had
highly significantly correlation with feeding practices. The
quality and quantity of ration was directly related to the
economic status of the farmers
( Yadav and Bhimawat
2007). Nearly one
-
third of the households in the state
maintained buffalo alone, cattle along and both (cattle and
buffalo ) production systems ( Gupta
et al
. 2007) .

Buffalo production is instrumental in improving the
nutrition securi
ty because of the fact that most of the milk
and meat in the country is produced by the buffaloes. It is on
important source of manure, domestic fuel and dra
u
ght
power in rural areas. Buffalos are backbone of commercial
dairying due to their fat rich produ
ction potential. Livestock
sector is an important source of livelihood in Rajasthan for
rural farmers. Bovine farming is a process to convert
available feed and fodder material ( input) into milk and
other by product (output) r
eported by Gupta
et al

(2008)
.

Women constitute about half of the world's population,
account for 60 percent of working hours and contributing up
to 30 percent of the officia
l labour force. Sangwan
et al

(
1990) reported that the Male and female in farm and diary
sectors in which men a
re involved in planning and women in
implantation of the activity. Thus, present study was
conducted to study the gender involvement of buffalo
husbandry and their perception about different problems
associated with buffalo rearing.

MATERIALS AND METHODS



Under the tribal womens training program on
improved buffalo husbandry practices, a program was
conducted for women in village Faloz, district Dungarpur of
Rajasthan by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dungarpur in
Collaboration with Livestock Devel
opment Board, Jaipur for
three day. Fifty women participated in this training program.
The response was elicited with a well structured
questionnaire on different issues pertaining to gender
involved and perception their various problems of buffalo
rearing
. The data was first tabulated and appropriately
analyzed to draw meaning inference. The data was analyzed
in the form of frequency percentage and as per method of
Snedecor and Cochran (1980).









Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




12


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Profile of respondents in vil
lages background
features were collected (Table 1). The structure of
responding sub population of the village involved 45.7
percent respondents from young age groups while 34 percent
were of middle age group. The rest of the 20.3 percent were
old. It show
that most of them were young and in productive
age group.
As far as their land holdings size is concerned,
Majority of them 65 percent were either landless or having
land holding up to < 2.5 acres. 25.3 percent of the
respondents possessed land size betwee
n 2.5 to 5 acres and
about 9.7 percent respondents were having more than 5
acres, which is in close agreement with the finding of Bhagat
et al
.

(2008).


Regarding the herd size, study revealed that 54
percent of the respondents owed 3 to 5 buffalo and 10.2

percent respondents possessed more than 5 buffalo of animal
strength . 35.8 percent of the respondents were having less
than 2 or 2 buffalos per family in the village. Information
was also elicited with respect to the amount of milk
produced for household
. It is obvious from the Table 1 that
the 86 percent respondents produced up to 10 Kg milk for
sale while only 14 percent produced more than 10 Kg. for
disposed.


Time spent in buffalo husbandry practices by
women:


Women have big contribution in buffalo h
usbandly
practices.
Table 2 shows that 28% time spent in cleaning of
animal sheds and fodder harvesting, 26% time spent in
milking, 10% calf rearing and 8% health management,
respectively. There is need to take due cognizance of
women's knowledge and exper
ience while planning the
research and livestock development programmers suitable to
women. Gender involvement in buffalo husbandry practices
are presented in Table 3. It is Evident from the table that the
majority of the females i.e. about 80 percent of t
hem
performed operations like feeding, 92 percent watering, 96
percent bathing, and milking, 80 percent fodder harvesting,
60 percent heat detection, 80 percent animals care and
calving and 40 percent health management and artificial
insemination. However
, operations like cleaning of sheds
and dung disposal were solely performed by the women.

Identification of buffalo problem as perceived by
women farmers are given in Table 4. The women
respondents were well apprised with the physiological
problems of buf
faloes. Anoestrus condition in buffaloes was
emerged as a serious problem in buffaloes as affirmed by 64
percent respondent. 32 percent repeat breeding, 20 percent
prolapse, 10 percent, mastitic 8 percent calf mortify and
retained placenta and 4 percent bl
oat, respondents
respectively (Table 4).

It could be concluded in this study that respondents
of tribal district of Rajasthan were following a good number
of buffalo husbandry practices. It was encouraging to find
that majority of these practices were rat
ed as rational and
useful by the scientist. Tribal women were highly
involvement in buffalo husbandry practices. So it is need to
develop suitable strategy and arranging adequate and timely
training to women about modern technologies to make them
more skil
led care
-
takers of buffalo husbandry. It is
imperative and urgent to reorient and modify the traditional
practices. So that the scientifically proven practices are
easily be diffused and adopted by buffalo owners.


Table 1 : Profile of respondents in vil
lage :

Age Profile

Land Size

Herd Size

Milk produced

Category (Years)

Percent

respondents

Acres

Percent

responding

Herd size
(respondents)

Percent
responding

Milk

produced ( Kg.)

Percent
responding

< 10 to 30 (Young )

45.7

Land less to
< 2.5

65

<2 to 2

35.8

1 to 5

40

30
-
50 ( Middle)

34.0

2.5 to 5.0

25.3

3 to 5

54.0

6 to 10

46

750 (Old)

20.3

> 5.0

9.7

> 5

10.2

>10

14


Table 2 : Time occupation as per various activities :

Activities

Percent time spent

Cleaning of animal sheds and dun
g disposal

28

Milking & Preparation of milk products

26

Fodder harvesting and procurement

28

Calf rearing

10

Buffalo health management

8



Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




13


Table 3 : Gender Involvement in buffalo husbandry practices

Activities

Male (n)

( Frequency percent)

Fem
ale (n)

( Frequency percent)

Both genders

(n) (Frequency percent)

Feeding

5 (10)

40 (80)

5 (10)

Watering

2 (4)

46 (92)

2 (4)

Bathing

NIL

48 (96)

2 (4)

Milking

2 (4)

48 (96)

NIL

Fodder harvesting

4 (8)

40 (80)

6 (12)

Heat detection

10 (20)

30 (60)

10
(20)

Health Management and AI

20 (40)

20 (40)

10 (20)

Dung disposal

NIL

50 (100)

NIL

Cleaning fodder

NIL

50 (100)

NIL

Chaffing fodder

NIL

NIL

NIL

Animal care at Calving

4 ( 8)

40 (80)

6 (12)


Table 4 : Identification of buffalo problem as perceived b
y women farmers.

Problems expressed by respondents

Respondents

Percent

Anoestrus

32

64

Repeat Breeding

16

32

Mastitis

5

10

Prolapse

10

20

Calf mortality

4

4

Bloat

2

4

Retained Placenta

4

8


REFERENCES

Bhagat, R. L., Gokhale, S.B., Pande,
A.B. and Phadka, N.L.

2008. Socio,
eonomic factors influence conception rat in cattle under field
conditions.

Gupta, D.C., Suresh, A and Singh, V.K.

2007. Livestock growth and
major production systems in different ag
ro
-

climatic zones of
Rajasthan
.
India
n

J
.
of

Animal science

77: 494
-
99.

Gupta, D.C., Suresh. A. and Mann, J.S.

2008. Management practices and
productivity status of cattle and buffalo in Rajasthan.
Indian J.

of
Animal
Science

78(7) : 769
-
774

Sangwan, V. Munjal, S. and Punia, R.K.

1990
.

Partic
ipation of women in
form activities.
Indian J
.

of
Extension Education

26:112.

Snedecore, G. W. and Cochran W.G.

1980. Statistical methods, 8
th

end.
Iowa state university press, Ames Iowa.

Yadav , C.M. and Bhimawat, B.S.

2007. Adoption of buffalo feeding
practices In the tribal of Dungarpur district of Rajasthan Nutrition
Conference,

Oct
. 4
-
7 at NDRI, Karnal, P.P. 70


Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




14


Impact of front line demonstration on adoption of improved castor production te
chnology



S R KUMAWAT
*
,

M

L

REGAR
*

AND D S BHATI
**

*
Krishi

Vigyan Kendra
,

Jalore

and **KVK, Sriganganagar
(SKRAU)
,
Rajasthan
, India
.

Email:

srkumawat69@gmail.com



ABSTRACT


The present study have undertaken in four adopted villages of Krishi Vigyan Kendra in Jalore district of Rajasthan. A
sample of 180 farmers
was taken by proportionate random sampling techniques comprising 90 farmers of
demonstration and 90 farmers as non
-
demonstration. The result of the study found that maximum numbers of
respondents were having medium level of knowledge in both categories whi
le t
here was a significant difference

was
noticed in high level and low level of knowledge about castor production technologies of demonstrate
d

and non
-
demonstratee farmers. Selected respondents of under the study were having sufficient adoption level in c
astor
production technology while low level of adoption were recorded in crop techniques viz: Plant Protection, Seed
Treatment,
B
alance use of manure and fertilizers and
I
rrigation management. The study identified constraints faced by
castor farmers which
induces more number of male farmers, long duration and non
-
availability of root
-
rot tolerant
varieties. The study suggest for conducting intensive trainings on plant protection measures, seed treatment, irrigation
management and balance fertilization for c
astor farmers to enhance the castor productivity in the area.


The ICAR introduced the concept of “first Line
demonstration” under the ‘ Oil seed Technology Mission”
during 1990
-
91. Later on these demonstrations were termed
as “ Front Line Demonstratio
ns” Front Line Demonstrations
are the field demonstrations conducted under the close
supervision of National agricultural Research System
comprising of ICASR institutions, National research
Centers, Project Directorate , Krishi Vigyan Kendras and
state Ag
ricultural Universities and their Regional Research
Stations. Along with transfer of technology, the basic
purpose of these demonstrations is to test research findings
on farmers field and to get direct feed back from the farmers
so that the scientists can

reorient their research and training
programmes. These demonstrations are conducted mainly on
various oil seed and pulses crops to boost their production
and productivity by using latest technologies.

Castor is an important oilseed cash crop. It may be
gr
own in tropical, sub
-
tropical and temperate climate. India,
with 1076.7 thousand hectares is the largest castor growing
country in the world with 866.6 thousand tones of
production, the highest in the world. The average yield of
castor in India is only 805

kg/ha.
a
s against the world
average of 1056 kg/ha. India accounts for 35 percent and 37
percent of global area and production, respectively. Castor
oil obtained from castor seed is non
-
edible, but it is used as
raw material in manufacture of a number of s
pecially soaps,
cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, paints and lubricants
etc. The total castor production in Rajasthan state is 46000
tones. The state is third highest in India after Gujarat and
Andhra Pradesh. The total area and average yield is
estima
ted to be 121200 hectare and 380 kg/ha. Respectively.
In Rajasthan, the major castor producing district are Jalore,
Sirohi, Barmer, Pali and Jodhpur. So far very few efforts
have been made by the behavioral scientists
to study the responses of farmers tow
ards the use of
improved practices of castor for its sustainability and
enhancement in its production and productivity. Realizing
the importance of Front Line Demonstrations in transfer of
technology, it was thought appropriate to study the effect of
thes
e demonstrations with following objectives :
-

To find out the extent of knowledge of demonstrator and
non
-
demonstrator farmers about castor production
technology.

To measure the extent of adoption of improved castor
production technology by the demonstrato
r and non
-
demonstrator farmers.

To identify the constraints being perceived by the farmers in
castor production technology.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The present study was conducted in purposely
-
selected FLD villages of KVK Keshwana Jalore i.e. Harmu
,Bedana,

Methari and Badanwari under three Panchyat
Samiti namely Sayla, Ahore and Jalore of Jalore district of
Rajasthan in the year 2003
-
04, 2004
-
05
and

2005
-
06
respectively. For this study 90 demonstrator farmers and 90
non
-
demonstrator farmers were selected.
The data were
collected through personal interview with the help of pre
-
tested schedule. The responses of demonstrator and non
-
demonstrator farmers (90+90) were recorded in two
-
point
continuum (known / unknown) in case of knowledge
measurement and (yes/no)

in case of constraints in castor
production.
In case of measurement of adoption of castor
production technology responses of farmers were recorder
acc
ording the weights was given by

Agronomist






Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




15



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Distribution
of respondents according to their level of
knowledge about CPT
-

The knowledge of respondents about castor
production technology (CPT)

was measured. Respondents
were divided in to three knowledge groups based on
knowledge score obtained by them. The data r
elated to
knowledge of two categories of respondents (Demonstrator
and Non
-
demonstrator farmers of FLD) indicate that the
farmers knowledge of CPT has wide gap. In order to place
the respondents into appropriate categories knowledge scores
were distributed

as reported in table
-
1
.

The frequency as well as percentage of the
respondents falling in each category was workout. The
critical evaluation of table
-
1 clearly shows that majority of
castor grower 132 (73.33 percent) had medium level of
knowledge regardi
ng CPT. Where as 35 respondents (19.44
percent)have high level of knowledge but only 7.23 percent
respondents have low level of knowledge regarding CPT.

In
case of demonstrator farmers 63respondents (70.00 per

cent)

possessed medium level of knowledge abou
t CPT. This is
interesting to note that none of the respondents in the sample
was reported to be with low level of knowledge and only 27
respondents(30.00 percent) had high level of knowledge
about CPT. Among the Non
-
demonstrator farmers 69
respondents (76
.67 percent) respondents had medium level
of knowledge about CPT. This was followed by 13
respondents (14.44 percent) who possessed low level of
knowledge . It was interesting to note that few farmers 8
(8.89 percent) was reported with hi
gh level of knowle
dge
about CPT.

Benefited farmers have more knowledge about all
the pro
duction technology than the no
-
benefited farmers.
Among no
-
benefited farmers about 20 to 40 % have least
knowledge about seed treatment, spacing, manure
and

fertilizer management and pl
ant protection measures.


Table
-
1. Distribution of respondents according to their level of knowledge about CPT

Knowledge categories

Demonstrator (N
-
90)

Non
-
demonstrator (N
-
90)

Total (N
-
180)

Frequency

Per

cent

Frequency

Per

cent

Frequency

Per

cent

Low

(Up to 18 score)

00

00.00

13

14.44

13

7.23

Medium (19
-
36 score)

63

70.00

69

76.67

132

73.33

High (Above 36 score)

27

30.0

8

8.89

35

19.44




Table
-
2. Extent of knowledge of farmers about castor production technology


Practices

Demonstrator (N=90)

Non
-
Demonstrator (N=90)

Number

Per

cent

Rank

Number

Per

cent

Rank

High yielding verities

73

81

V

51

56

IV

Soil and field preparation

65

72

IX

43

48

VI

Sowing time

85

94

II

69

76

I

Seed rate

87

96

I

61

67

II

Seed treatment

68

75

VII

28

31

VIII

Spacing a
nd sowing depth

71

79

VI

35

39

VII

Manure and fertilizer management

58

64

X

25

27

IX

Irrigation management

74

82

IV

46

51

V

Weed management

87

96

I

53

59

III

Plant protection measure

66

73

VIII

20

22

X

Harvesting of castor

78

86

III

35

39

VII



Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




16



Tab
le
-
3. Adoption of farmers about Castor production technology

Practice

Demonstrator (n
-
90)

Non
-
Demonstrator(n_90)

MPS

Rank

MPS

Rank

Use of Hybrid seeds

78.88

I

31.11

VI

Field preparation

68.88

V

45.55

IV

Sowing time

62.22

VI

40.00

V

Seed treatment

46.
66

VIII

24.44

VIII

Seed rate and spacing and Sowing depth

76.66

II

61.11

I

Use of balance manure and fertilizer

45.44

IX

24.44

VIII


Irrigation management

57.77

VII

35.55

VI

Weed management

72.22

III

52.22

III

Plant protection management

38.88

X

20.00


IX

Harvesting and storage

71.11

IV

57.77

II



The responses of the farmers were recorded and
score was given to each farmer for each practices. Percent
adoption was measured with obtained score is divided by
total score of each practices and multiplie
d by 100.

The over all ranking of Demonstrator farmers
regarding their adoption about CPT shows that they
possessed highest adoption about “Use of hybrid seeds”
ranked as first with MPS 78.88 followed by seed rate and
spacing and sowing depth which was
ranked at second place
with MPS 76.66 and weed management which had been
ranked third with MPS 62.50. Based on table 3, it can be
highlighted that out of the total ten aspects of CPT, three
important practices in ascending order of importance were
not foll
owed by farmers satisfactorily which are ranked X,
IX, VIII with their 38.88, 45.44 and 46.66, respectively. The
practices were Plant Protection Management, Use of balance
fertilizer and manure and Seed treatment. The highest
adoption might have been appea
red regarding
u
se of hybrid
seeds because half production of a crop is depend upon the
quality of seed and in case of second highest adoption of
seed rate and spacing because of the reason that the practices
are not much complicated. Least adoption was r
eported in
plant protection management, Use of balance fertilizer and
manure and Seed treatment due to least knowledge about
these practices. The findings are in line of Kumar, Dileep
and Dangi, K.L.(2003).

Where as in case of non
-
demonstrator farmers the
highest adoption was reported in seed rate and spacing and
sowing depth with MPS 61.11 and ranked first. The second
highest adoption was expressed by non
-
demonstrator farmers
on harvesting and storage with MPS 57.77 because non
-
demonstrator farmers have a
verage knowledge about this
practices. The third rank of adoption by the farmers was
weed management (MPS 52.22).

The practices were Plant
Protection Management, Use of balance fertilizer and
manure and Seed treatment as least adoption and ranked IX
and VI
II
, respectively.


An attempted has been made to identify the
const
r
a
i
nts related to castor production. The
constraints

with
their degree of effect have been presented here under. Data
in table 4 indicate that majority of the respondents were
confronted wi
th in
-
fluorescence of male flower with MPS 94
and assigned first ranks in problem hierarchy by them.
Further long duration crop was a serious
constraints

hindering farmers to an extent of 93 Percent and was placed
at second position in the rank hierarchy.

This was followed
by non availability of wilt resistance variety of castor with
MPS 79 Percent and was assigned third rank by respondents,
respectively. Non
-

availability chemicals at local markets
(MPS 30) was expressed at least severe barrier in the
con
straints

in castor production and awarded last (Ninth)
rank.


A critical analysis of the data presented in table
-
4
indicate that the demonstrator farmers expressed that in
-
florescence of male flower (MPS 100) , long duration of
crop(MPS 96) and non availa
bility of wilt resistance
variety( MPS 73),
constraints

as first three important
constraints
, because maleness in castor is a serious problem,
it reduce production directly, this problem mainly due to four
reasons that is firstly by low quality seed, secon
dly by
suddenly change in temperature, thirdl
y by long dry spell to
the crop
and fourthly by imbalance fertilization. Hence
knowledge of farmers should be increased and proper
solution should be communicated to farmers. Second
important
constraints

was lon
g duration of crops, it takes
both Kharif and Rabi season, hence only one crop is take in
year.

Where as in case of Non
-
demonstrator farmers long
duration of crop (MPS 90) in
-
florescence of male flower
(MPS 88) and non

availability of wilt resistant

varie
ty

(MPS
85) are major three constraints in CPT. In case of least
constraints were
m
arket price is very low, Non
-

availability
chemicals at local markets and non availability of hybrid
seeds and ranked IX, VIII, and VII respectively.


Based on the study it
could be conclude
d

that clear
-
cut difference was reported in case of low level of
knowledge i.e. non of demonstrator farmers were under this
category where as 14.44 percent non
-
demonstrator fall under
this category. Where as in case of high level of knowle
dge
about CPT was clearly shows that 30 percent demonstrator
farmers were fall under this category where as only 8.89
percent non
-
demonstrator farmers have a high level of
knowledge about CPT.

Out of the total ten major aspects of caster
production techn
ology selected for assessing extent of
adoption, maximum adoption was reported in Use of hybrid
seed (78.88 percent) in case of demonstrator farmers and in

Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




17


case of non
-
demonstrator farmers seed rate and spacing
(61.11percent)was
major adoption aspects of C
PT.

I
nflorescence of male flower was major problem in
caster production where as non
-
availability of chemicals at
local markets was least problem in CPT.

It can be conclude
that extent of knowledge and adoption of CPT was higher
among demonstrator farmers

than the non
-
demonstrator
farmers. The finding of this study clearly shows that FLD
programme played an important role in increasing the
farmers for adopting innovations and increasing their yied
and profits.

Table
-
4. Constraints in Castor production

Co
nstraints

Demonstrator (N=90)

Non
-
Demonstrator (N=90)

Total

MPS

Rank

MPS

Rank

MPS

Rank

Non availability of Hybrid Seed

24

VIII

42

VII

33

VII

Non availability of Wilt resistance variety

73

III

85

III

79

III

In florescence of male flower

100

I

88

II

9
4

I

Market price is very low

28

VII

36

IX

32

VIII

Long duration crop

96

II

90

I

93

II

Lack of knowledge about incidence of diseases and pest

34

VI

76

IV

55

IV

Non availability of chemical at local market.

21

IX

39

VIII

30

IX

Lack of financial facility


39

V

50

VI

44.5

VI

Any other
-

electricity for irrigation

53

IV

52

V

52.5

V


REFERENCES


Desai,

C.P., Pandey, D. N, Patel, M.R. and Patel AA

1996. Farmer’s
satisfaction wit
h adoption of cumin cultivation
,

Gujarat Agriculture
University Research J
.
,

21(
2), 72
-
75.

Lakhera J.P. and Sharma B M
2002
.

Impact of front line demonstration
an adoption of improved mustard production technology.
Raj. J.
Extn. Edu
. Vol. X, 43
-
47.

Kumar, Dileep and Dangi KL

2003
.

Adoption of improved castor
production technology amon
g tribal and non tribal farmers
.

Raj. J.
Extn, Edu

Vol. XI, 36
-
40


Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1:
October

2010




18


Attitude of women SHG members towards SHPIs and problems faced by them in running the SHGs


VEENITA KUMARI

Department of Extension Education,
& Communicatio Management,

College of Home Sci
ence,

CAU, Tura, Meghalaya
, India.

Email: veen_chand@yahoo.co.in


ABSTRACT


The

study was conducted in West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya under ‘Intra Mural Research Project’ funded by
Central Agricultural University. One of the objectives of the study
was to assess the attitude of women entrepreneurs
towards Self Help Promoting Institutions and also to find out the problems faced by them in running the Self Help
Group. The
result
has revealed that most of the respondents (80.67 per

cent) had
favo
u
rable

attitude towards the SHPIs
while 12.66 per

cent of them had
most favo
u
rable

attitude followed by 6.67 per

cent of respondents with l
east

favo
u
rable

attitude towards them.
The study

found that major problems faced by them were group conflict, lack of motiva
tion of
member
s

of the group, members are less hardworking and does not owe due responsibility of their duties, in
-

fighting
among

group members, competition with other Self Help Groups
,

etc. The result also showed that the respondents
didn’t have any prob
lem or resistance from parents, in
-
laws or husband/spouse.


Keywords:

Attitude, Women Entrepreneurs, Problems, SHPIs, SHGs


Women entrepreneurs have been making significant
impact in all segments of the economy. The emerging changes
in the values and atti
tudes of the members of the SHGs are a
clear manifestation of socio
-

economic empowerment
interventions yielding relatively quicker results. A true
entrepreneurial attitude requires refusing to quit when things get
tough. According to Secord and Backman
5
(1964) the term
attitude refers to certain regularities of an individual’s feelings,
thoughts and predispositions to act towards some aspects of his
environment. Attitude as been defined “as the degree of positive
and negative effect associated with some p
sychological objects”
(Edwards1969
1
). The complexity of the problem of women
empowerment process itself requires both macro and micro
considerations, and it is difficult to pass a judgment on its
success by using a single or just a few selected criteria. L
ife for
a women entrepreneur having a small scale industry is not a bed
of roses. The individual women entrepreneur single handedly
faces a plethora of seemingly endless problems. But despite
these numerous barriers and tangible obstacles women are,
today,

entering the field of business in increasing numbers.
SHGs have the power to create a socio
-

economic revolution in
the rural areas of our country. SHGs have not only produced
tangible assets and improved living conditions of the members
but also helped i
n changing much of their social outlook and
attitudes. The nature of attitude held by women entrepreneurs
towards their support agencies reflects the degree of credibility
in their support agencies. In the running of SHGs, its members
are surrounded by a w
ide variety of problems which affects
their performance. Therefore, it is necessary to implore these
problems. Hence the study was carried out with the following
objectives

To assess attitude of women entrepreneurs towards SHPIs.

Ascertain problems faced
by them in availing benefits provided
by the SHPIs.

MATERIALS
AND METHODS

The study was conducted in 29 villages and one urban
area of West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya. Five SHPIs


District Rural Development Agency, International Fund for
Agricultura
l Development, District Sericulture Department,
BAKDIL (NGO) and Bethany Society (NGO) were randomly
selected as SHPIs. 30 respondents from six villages supported
by these SHPIs were randomly selected keeping into
consideration that they were active SHG me
mbers.


To assess attitude of women entrepreneurs towards
SHPIs, 19 statements were framed. These statements were
marked on a five point continuum scale as ‘Strongly agree’ (5),
‘Agree’ (4), ‘Undecided’ (3), ‘Disagree’ (2) and ‘Strongly
Disagree’ (1). Base
d on the total score obtained by the
respondents they were categorized into three categories of low,
medium and high. To find out the problems faced by them,
respondents were asked questions related to the problems faced
by them within the family, with mem
bers of SHG or with other
people outside the SHG. The response given by the respondents
were scored and then suitably categorized as low, medium and
high.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Attitude of respondents towards SHPIs




Respondents were asked to indicate t
heir opinion
on a five point continuum scale, the attitude they had about
the selected SHPIs. The statements were related to behavior,
financial support, gender biasness, efficiency in discharging
different roles by SHPIs etc.





Journal of Progressive Agriculture, Vol.1, No. 1: