ACHIEVING SUCCESS OF TPM ON THE BASIS OF CRITICAL ...

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ACHIEVING SUCCESS OF TPM ON THE BASIS OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

OF IMPLEMENTAION

Abstract: The backbone of any industrial organization depends on the successful implementation
of the contemporary industrial tools and approaches in an effective manner. To
tal Productive
Maintenance (TPM) is one of such a tool which has benefited lot of companies in terms of
improving production economies and profits. The present paper aims at the finding out certain
critical parameters that are linked with productivity, emp
loyee development, quality
improvement and organizational changes within manufacturing unit under TPM implementation.
These critical and decisive factors have been classified into two factors namely Human Factors
and System Factors. Critical factors thus i
dentified have a significant effect on the successful
implementation of Total Productive Maintenance in a manufacturing organization. Most of
literature on TPM has described a pillar based approach however this study enables to disclose
the secret of succe
ss of TPM in terms of above mentioned factors.
These factors has been
recommended on the basis of some literature and case studies further these
are
supported on the
basis study carried in a Indian manufacturing company
. In applying approach

of TPM, syste
m
factors shadow

the human factors but later are difficult to measure and improve.


Keywords
:
-

Total Productive Maintenance, Human Factors and System Factors


1.

INTRODUCTION


Industries undertake maintenance to keep the proper working of physical systems
, so that,
system will continue to do what it was meant to do. It is a very commonly known that most of
machines and equipments are not performing to the desire standards. Low production rates and
high cost of manufacturing of products is really matter of
serious concern in specially
Manufacturing Organizations. Surprisingly, 25
-
30% of total production cost is attributed to
maintenance a
ctivit
ies in an organization [13]
.The profitability seems to be having a direct
relation with quality of maintenance. Impr
ovement in the Maintenance Systems has taken a lot of
attention from organizational point of view as it ensures maximization of availability of
machines and equipments, increased product quality, safer environments hence TPM became
important part of Planni
n
g for manufacturing firms.

Japanese developed and introduced the concept of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in 1971
to counteract the maintenance problems in an effective manner within manufacturing
environment. TPM is a maintenance system which cover
s the entire life of equipment in every
division including planning, manufacturing, and maintenance. TPM describes a balanced
relationship among all organizational functions, but particularly between production and
maintenance, to involve everyone in the o
rganization to improve performance of the physical
systems, continuous improvement of product quality, capacity assurance and safety.TPM is a
program that “addresses equipment maintenance through a comprehensive productive
-
maintenance delivery system cover
ing the entire life of the equipment and involving all
employees from production and maintenance p
ersonnel to t
op management.” [14,15] .
Swanson
(2001)

identifies TPM as “a way of working together to improve equipment effectiveness
.” As
explained by Schippe
rs (2001)
, the word ‘total’ in TPM has three meanings:

1. TPM is extended to Total effectiveness of organization in terms of its economy of production
and profitability.

2. TPM ensures physical systems totally reliable, maintainable, and supportive for ope
rators.
However to do this Planned Maintenance, Maintenance Prevention (MP) and Maintainability
Improvement (MI) is deployed on the routine basis

3. Total employee involvement through small teams for effective maintenance system, where
operator takes respo
nsibilities of machines and equipments.

TPM is a program that “addresses equipment maintenance through a comprehensive productive
-
maintenance delivery system covering the entire life of the equipment and involving all
employees from production and mainten
ance depar
tments to top management”
[17]
. Seiichi
Nakajima has defined TPM as an “innovative approach to maintenance that optimizes equipment
effectiveness, eliminates breakdowns, and promotes autonomous maintenance by operators
through day
-
to
-
day activiti
es involving the total workforce”.



2.
S
uccess
F
actors for

TPM
implementation

The following factors are concluded based upon the literature survey and the case studies of
implementation of TPM in manufacturing companies. These critical successes factors
however
are ranked on the basis of system involveme
nt and human being involvement as under:

(1)

System factors for Success of TPM

(2)

Human factors for Success of TPM

2.1 System factors for Success of TPM

These factors are critical for the success of TPM;
in general these factors having little
involvement by the human elements, but these are established & controlled by the high ranked
employees of the organizations. Effectiveness of these factors depending upon competencies,
vision, organization goal orient
ation and leadership skills of the senior officials .Basically these

factors should be well formulated and executed, in order to facilitate the human being
involvement with ease and comfort. The administrative part of TPM implementation is regulated
throu
gh these decisive

and systematic

factors
.

2.1.1 Quality

Fredendall et al. conclude that maintenance is critical to a firm’s ability to compete successfully
in its market based on quality
[8]

.
Maintenance quality is very critical for TPM success. So
achievi
ng maintenance quality it is necessary to quality purchase and installation of equipments
and machinery. Tools quality and use must be standardized. Quality of maintenance and
maintenance
-
personal should be considered to achieve higher productivities and r
educed
rejections and defects.

2.1.2 Development

This factor has bent towards research and development activities in organization. Increasing
demands of customers for changing products, it becomes necessary to design and develop the
products, methods, equi
pments, tools according to changing needs of the time

[14]
.
TPM Club
India recommended a need of developing tools and equipments with zero maintainability.

2.1.3 Maintenance

Hipkin and Cock

(2000)


propose mastering preventive maintenance, breakdown mainte
nance
corrective maintenance and maintenance prevention in order to ac
hieve productive maintenance
.
A properly executed maintenance programme is a strategic tool that could ensure continued
generation of benefits. TPM programme includes standardization of

maintenance procedures,
maintenance skills required and recording them in a specified format.
Past data of equipment
failures,use of
SPC

and
suggestions from the operators need more attention here.

2.1.4 Information and analysis

The sound information sys
tem provides for the company to review its TPM programme. Suzuki
states that a good information system

benefits
TPM implementation [20]
. This is s
upported by
McKone et al. [12]

and Brah et al.

[5]
.
The
variables

include the degree of use of statistical
pr
ocess control, the information provided and the probability of implementing the latest
techniques.

2.1.5 Safety

Safety focus is another area of significance in the TPM programme. Autonomous maintenance,
focused improvement and maintaining safety standards

form the actual activities of TPM
programmes is key for the su
ccess of TPM implementation [
10
]



Fig.1
Generic
model of factors affecting successful implementation of TPM


2.2 Human factors for Success of TPM

Once the Key strat
egies to implement TPM are planned and methodologies are proposed at the
same time role of the human elements at each level of the organization became important to
achieve high degree of the
success. The
system factors shadow the human factors but later ar
e
difficult to measure and improve.

But
a strong foundation of the system factor ensures

the best
use of human resource practices leading into the success of TPM
. Through literature and case
studies the foll
owing factors are found linked with
high degree o
f use of human resource and its
optimization through various initiatives.

2.2.1 Role of management

Quali
ty

Teamwork


Culture

Development


Employee
-
Satisfaction





















Safety

Education
&

Training

Maintenance

Role of
Management

Management

Information
and Analysis

TPM

Introduction
….


Evaluation …
Improvement…

It takes almost 5 years to feel the full benefit of TPM and eventually TPM would run smoothly
only after the pilot phase, promotion and consolidation phase,
and the maturity phase of
implementation. The TPM implementation should be in three main stages: preparation,
implementation and stabilization. The preparation phase includes getting top management
support and establishi
ng

key TPM policies. Powell [16]

sug
gests top management support and
planning leads to the success of a TQM programme. Similarly study of TQM of companies in
Singapore found corporate planning and the role of top management leadership

as import
ant
TQM constructs [20]
. Counting on a close as
sociation between TPM and TQM and due to a lack
of research on the former, it is assumed that both have a similar process. Hence, the general TPM
constructs include corporate planning and top management leadership to gauge the top
management support in TPM

efforts. McKone et al. propose a framework to understand how
TPM depend
s

on managerial factors such as JIT, TQM and employee involvement, and
un
contr
ollable external factors [12]
.

2.2.2 Team
-
work

TPM is productive maintenance carried by all employees t
h
rough small
group activities [15]
.
TPM is a purely team based approach where persons from Maintenance Department, Production
Department ,and operators all work together for betterment of productivity, reduce losses and
accidents. The proper co
-
ordinatio
n among team members and leadership is a key to achieve
organizational objectives

2.2.3 Training

Training and education strategies promise to improve performance of employees although they
require increased commitment to trainin
g, reso
urces and integratio
n [21]
. To make autonomous
maintenance more effective, skill training for operators is a very important human element.
Training

monitoring and training
-

content standardization is still a matter of concern in the
Industries.

2.2.4 Culture

In a TQM study s
uggested that
employee involvement, training and empowerment to be
important
constructs of
the programme [5]
. These factors are crucial elements of employee
performance level and in turn are expected also to affect the TPM programme. TPM depends on
operat
ors to perform autonomous routine maintenance, and an employee failing to follow the
standard procedure may cause damage to the machine while servicing. In addition, continuous
improvement being a fundamental element of a TPM programme depends on employee
willingness to accept changes and adapt to new environments. People are often not willing to
change for such type of cultural change.

2.2.5 Employee
-
satisfaction

The Management policies are may affect employee satisfaction. Increased job security and
appro
priate salaries structures, growth of employees increases employee satisfaction .Higher
satisfaction leads to more dedications towards their responsibilities.

3.Validation of the model


The purposed model is found relevant as per studies carried by many re
nowned researchers in
the different countries and mostly in the manufacturing companies further a case study of a
major Indian tractor company(M&M Swaraj) has been referred to explain the factors
suggested

in the model
. Bohoris et al. [4]

provides a more

detailed review of the literature survey used to
develop the categories. This review of literature and case studies has led to the development of a
conceptual framework, which is
summarized

in
the nine
categories

critical

to successful
implementation of T
PM,

developed from the theory in the manner
:

(1) T
he existing
organization
;

(2) M
easures of performance;

(3) A
lignment to company mission;

(4) T
he involvement of people;

(5) A
n implementation plan;

(6) K
nowledge and beliefs;

(7) T
ime allocation for implem
entation;

These categories has lime lighted the importance of the role of management to develop the
effective TPM organization structure, alignment of the activities at each level to execute the plan
of TPM
and to

achieve common goals. A culture of knowled
ge
and beliefs and longer spans of
time are required to make the programme
successful.



Accor

ding to Da
vis [6]

experience of TPM implementati
on in the UK has shown that

factors for s
uccessful implementations are
:

(1)Approach TPM

realistically
,
develop
ing a practical plan and employing

program an
d project
management principles.

(2)Accept that TPM will take a long time to spread across the company and

change existing
maintenance culture;

(3) B
e determined to keep going.

(4)Put in place, train and develop

a network of TPM co
-
coordinators that will

promote and
support TPM activities every day;

(5)Support TPM co
-
coordinators with time and resources, plus senior level

back up.

(6)Put in place relevant measures of performance and continually monitor

and public
ise benef
its
achieved in financial terms.

The study indicated the importance of the management strategies to actually establish a foolproof
TPM system. Synchronization of the efforts put in place by the TPM coordinators (Teamwork) is
necessary at every lev
el of the organization. Evaluation of the TPM activities is the another
important aspect according to the study, so the
benefits and achievements of TPM

must b
e
shared with the
operators to motivate them .

Davis and Willmott [7]


recommended two significan
t enablers for

successful implementation of
TPM initiatives in the manufacturing organizations:

(1) A structured approach which uses a number of tools and techniques to achieve

highly
effective plants and production equipment and to measure its

effectivene
ss.

(2) A philosophy, which is based upon the empowerment and encouragement of

factory floor
-
based personnel from all areas

The purposed model can be verified on the basis of the
suggestions

proposed by Ahmed et al. [1]

during their study in large Malaysia
n semiconductors
manufacturing industry.

(1)Automation of da
ta collection and
its
processing
.


(2)

Employee skill upgrading

on continuous basis including teaching them statistical

applications.


(3)

Providing
more easy
-
to
-
operate equipment environment.

(
4) Improving early equipment purchase management.


(5) Effective use
of QM matrix and PM analysis under 4M

conditions.

(6) A
ttempt can

be made to develop area
-
safety teams, standardization of all safety measures,


fully incorporation of EHS awareness into

TPM activities
.

(7)
. All technicians to be used as diagnostic thinking force
.

Again this study is pointing towards to human factors as discussed by the author.


Ahuja and Khamba [2]
suggested

key enablers and success factors for successful
implementation

of TPM in Indian manufacturing industry can be classified into six categories:

(1) Top management contributions.

(2) Cultural transformations.

(3) Employee involvement.

(4) Traditional and proactive maintenance policies.

(5) Training and education.

(6) Ma
intenance prevention and focused production system improvements.

The above mentioned factors are clearly indicating the importance of reforming the conventional
maintenance system of companies and also practicing human resource development through
training
, motivation from management and involvement at each level of the organization

.

These
study are

found useful to actually justify the two broader classification of TPM success
factors .The suggested model

was also fou
nd satisfactory on the basis
of the pil
lar based
approach suggested by many well known researchers like
Willmott [20] and Nakajima [15]

.

From the literature of

Ahuja and Khamba [2]


and Seth and Tripaty [18]

,
it has been shown in
the

conceptual model that there is a need to allow sufficien
t time for the successful

implementation of TPM, otherwise failure is expect
ed. In fact, Bakerjan [3]

suggested

a planned
time frame of over three years should be considered, while

others such as McCarthy [11]

and
Seth and Tripat
h
y [18]

express
ed

the regr
essive and

detrimental effects of short term
perspectives, which inevitably lead to failure

of implementation of TPM.

In particular wi
th
reference to the eight pillars(JIPM) , most activity within M &M

SwarajTPM program is

the
planned or preventive mainte
nance pillar and there is

great
est emphasis on operator

based
autonomous maintenance and
rather than higher level maintenance by skilled personnel.

Consequently
, emphasis

has been

also
given to

the

team

development

at the ope
rators levels to
solve some

critical problems

.

The

core maintenance system

is broadly shadowed by the three
TPM pillars namely Planned Maintenance

,Jishu
-
Hoze
n and Quality Maintenance .I
n the case
company the
these pillars are headed by senior officials of Maintenance department i
t seems that
TPM is driven by the Maintenance department ,so resistance is offer by the employees including
operators from the product
ion

department. So effectiveness of maintenance system
cannot

be
achieved even after longer span of
time, revealed

through

the interviews with senior man
agers
and some of the operators having longer work experience of the case company.

The role of management is very important to actually introducing the TPM to its
managers,

operators and other employees .It demands rich leade
rship competencies to
steer the TPM
programme from introduction to implementation. Selection of key area to implement TPM and to
optimize the resources is very critical to negotiate the failures of TPM implementation

at early
stages

faced by many Indian c
ompanies in the past.

The conceptual model (Figure 1
) shows that an implementation plan for

TPM is a necessarily
based upon


success factor; furthermore, the plan should be realistic and

practical

and evaluation
of these factors is the backbone of the pro
gramme
. The model indicates that with such a plan,
measures of performance

or milestones should be included and project management principles
adopted.

Accordingly,
monitoring of

the
implementation

effort, whether it be milestone

project
achieveme
nts as adv
ocated by Davis [6]
. Although, M&M
have developed a written

TPM
policy, strategic measures of TPM had not been created and documented.

Therefore, steps



for

implem
entation of TPM does exist but
measures ,
mileston
es or sub
-
goals on route to achieve
highe
r success of

implementation are not visible
and

diffic
ult to communicate
.

The importance of training is not well defined to the operators in the company

undertaken under
TPM pillar named Training &Education
. Some of the Operators stated that, course
-
conte
nt is
also sometimes not that much understandable or simple to learn. Training aids are now being
improved by training instructors but it need to be at higher pace to meet the current requirements.
Through the discussions with senior operators it was reali
zed that, operators are not enough
motivated towards training. Sometimes busy production schedules keep the operators away from
the training workshops regularly. In Indian industries priorities must be given to strategic and
operational decisions in reall
ocating resources such as training schedules,
assessing
maintenance
personal competencies and balanced production to actually reap the fruits of TPM
.Employee
satisfaction is realized by company management to the bring the cultural change
.

So efforts are
r
equired to well suited job design and enrichment, approiate Salary and incentives, motivation
through awards and recognition and maintaining relational
-
harmony to achieve this.

The further
findings reveals that the quality of tools purchased and materials
supplied from the vendors is not
really put under the scanner

from the quality department .Machine tool design and tool life can
affect the OEE,
hence development m
anagement pillar

was the additional feature of the company
in conjunction to R&D
department,

however lack of support is visualized from the Quality
department.

The

fundamental measure of TPM performance is the overall equipment

effectiveness (OEE) value which

as described by Nakajima [15]

should be the

driving force and
provides direction for imp
rovement based activities with

manufacturing organisations. Ma
ny
activities and changes at M&M Swaraj

resulted in

an improvement in OEE. Ho
wever, at M&MS

it is true to say that the adopted

improvement methods are not focused specifically on OEE, as
OEE val
ues are

not
evaluated regularly
.So

information on

analysis
is one of the important
critical success factor to keep recording
,including

the six big losses as described

by Shirose
[19]

as a specific activity t
o address the OEE. Shirose [19]

also

proposes

that the information
gathered be analysed and root causes of

problems or inefficiencies attacked. Because the six big
losses are not

addressed

in a standard format

at M&MS

in this manner improvement is neither
systematic nor

focused. The

review of M&MS

i
ndicated that

the company have no plans to
improve its system
of information

and analysis
.
However there are strong provisions to keep
the
manual

record
keeping of

case
-
histories of the break
-
downs and accidents to negotiate them in
the future.

The CMMS

s
ystem can make easy storage and assessing of
in
formation
s
and analysis



(1) S
upporting and organizing the handling of huge amounts of information.


(2) P
roviding readily available historical information, statistics, trends
and

graphs
; and


(3) I
mproving
communication between the TPM personnel.

The change culture

is desired
to adopt new methodologies and philosophies
.The Indian
companies having

a mixture of regular appointed and contractual
employees, so

resistance is
offered to the change, at operator
le
vel and the

effect of worker unions can make the condi
ti
ons
stiffer
.

3. Conclusions

The study carried in the industry on TPM implementation has revealed its importance for
improvement in productivities and cost reduction. Definitely, it will take a longer
span of time,
but this time span will be reduced in the presence of other concepts like TQM, JIT and six

sigma. The system elements are found to be more important in early part of implementation.
Fool
-
proofing of system elements makes human elements more
effective for success of TPM to
desired standards.
The emphasizes can be given to interlinking the critical sucess factors with the
pilla
rs of TPM so
that improvement

and optimization of these factors should practiced at each

level of the organization .


4.
References

1.

Ahmed, S., Hassan, M.H. and Taha, Z. (2005),
“TPM can go beyond maintenance:
excerpt from a case implementation”,
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,

No. 1,

pp.19
-
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2.

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and success factors for overcoming
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,
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,

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4.

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in Land
-
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,

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