Project Overview charts & specsx - DesignByMany

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Product Overview

Greenblock Insulated Concrete Forms create solid,
insulated, steel
-
reinforced concrete wall systems for use in both above and
below grade. Greenblock

wall systems are used for a multitude of
construction applications including residential, light commercial, institutional
and industrial buildings, providing exceptional insulation, thermal mass and
structural integrity.

Greenblock Insulated Concrete For
ms are based on the simple concept of
modular interlocking blocks. During construction, the forms are stacked in
the exterior shape of the structure, then aligned and filled with concrete and
reinforcing steel creating safe, strong, energy efficient, susta
inable homes and
buildings.

Greenblock ICFs consist of two expanded
polystyrene (EPS) panels, held together with
polypropylene web ties spaced at six
-
inch centers.
The plastic webs connect the EPS panels and
terminate with a 1.5 inch flange which is embed
ded
½ inch beneath the outside surface of the panels. The
flanges are clearly marked on the surface of the block
with the word GREENBLOCK.





When the blocks are stacked, the flanges form a horizontal and vertical grid
which is used to attach interior
finishes like drywall and exterior finishes like
stucco, wood siding and brick veneer. In addition to providing form support
and attachment surfaces, the webs are designed to conveniently hold
reinforcing steel bars in place before and during concrete plac
ement.

The Greenblock panels are manufactured with EPS foam
molded at 1.5 pounds/cu. ft. density which has a verified, stable R
-
value of
approximately 4.4/inch of foam. Greenblock forms are dry
-
stacked using a
running bond. Referred to as “adult Lego’s”,

the blocks attach to one another
top to bottom with our patented male/female nub design.

This is the best attachment system in the ICF industry
-

greatly reducing the
occurrence of horizontal wall movement, form separation or lifting during
concrete
placement. This connection design reduces the need for gluing,
taping or strapping of the forms from course to course and creates walls that
require minimal bracing.

The Greenblock design also provides a monolithic concrete
wall; walls which have the sam
e concrete thickness throughout. Flat walls are
easier to calculate structural loads for than other ICF wall types. Solid
concrete is strength and protection. Concrete structures ahave a useful life of
100+ years.



Greenblock

forms are generally 48” in length and 12” in
height. Available in both Fixed
-
Web and Assemble
-
on
-
Site designs, they
come in a range of internal widths, from 4 inches to 12 inches* , to
accommodate most design requirements. A wide variety of special forms
and
accessories, including corners, brick ledges, taper tops and height adjusters
allow Greenblock products to be adapted to many different construction
situations.


The Greenblock Design

Web
-
Ties on 6” Centers
:

The

most essential design feature when co
mparing ICFs; web ties on 6 inch
centers create a much stronger block requiring less secondary operations

than the
majority of ICF blocks with ties on 8 inch centers or wider.


6" centers also means
there is less unsupported foam in a Greenblock wall which

greatly reduces wavy
walls, bulges and blowouts...And, more webs per block provides more attachment
points for interior and exterior finishes. Greenblock ICFs allow for greater pour
heights, utilize less labor and reduce valuable construction time.

“Lego
-
Type” Interlocking Connection System:

Our unique friction
-
fit “nub system” creates a tight male/female connection
course
-
to
-
course

which helps eliminate “lifting” during concrete placement and
minimizes the need for

gluing, taping or zip
-
tieing

joint
s. Water dams between
nubs prevent water seepage which insures proper concrete cure and reduces the
possibility of moisture infiltration.

Directional/Non
-
Reversible :

All Greenblock ICFs are "Directional" (non
-
reversible)...by design...meaning that
they
will fit together course
-
to
-
course in only one direction. Our block was
specifically designed this way to reduce or eliminate movement, lifting or
"floating" of the wall during concrete placement (pour). The interior surfaces of
our blocks have vertical "d
ovetail" channels running top to bottom. Each channel
has a small "shelf" at the bottom which fills with concrete during the pour creating
downward pressure so that the ICF block/wall doesn't float or separate course
-
to
-
course.



Some ICF manufacturers off
er reversible

ICFs which are designed to be used up
or down, left or right, and are typically

vulnerable to lifting and separation since
there is no integral design structure

to hold them down during concrete placement.
Reversible ICFs typically require gl
uing and/or zip ties to secure the blocks
together horizontally, course
-
to
-
course.

These types of secondary operations result
in

additional time, material and labor expenses.

Flat
-
Wall Design
:

Greenblock’s flat
-
wall design produces an uninterrupted thick
ness of concrete,
evenly distributed throughout the block, thus reducing voids and
“honeycombing”, adding to the overall strength and rigidity of the wall.

12 Inch

Blocks
:

12" high blocks provide

optimum

wall strength and rigidity because there is less
u
nsupported foam when compared to the majority of ICF blocks on the market
that are 16" to 24" tall.

12" blocks also allow for 12"

horizontal rebar placement
where design specifications call for

maximum strength in hurricane, tornado
or

earthquake prone reg
ions for example.

12 "

blocks

stack faster

, are easier to
handle,

require

less cutting and produce

less job site waste than


larger ICFs. Plan
take
-
offs are easier and less time consuming because the majority of walls, both
residential and commercial, are

in one foot increments.

Web Design
:

Greenblock’s sub
-
surface, 100% recycled

polypropylene furring strips are thicker
and wider than most, providing greater block strength and stability. Clearly
marked on the face of our block, the strips provide for eas
y, efficient attachment
of interior and exterior finishes. The webs are also designed to hold rebar in place
during concrete placement.







Greenblock ICF Products


Greenblock

has the most comprehensive ICF product line available in the industry, offering
both Fixed
-
Web and Panel systems:



Fixed
-
Web System:

Still the “toughest” block in the industry, designed after our
original Metric block, the standard design from which several of today’s leading
ICF companies had their origins.



GBLOX Panel System:

This assemble
-
on
-
site block is available in 6”, 8”, 10” a
nd
12” core widths and is fully compatible with our fixed web product line.
(Brickledges also available)



2
-
4
-
2 Panel System:

This assemble
-
on
-
site block has a 4 inch core and an 8 inch
overall width, specifically designed to replace concrete blocks (CMU).

The 2
-
4
-
2
system utilizes a fixed web corner block for added strength and ease of use.

Fixed
-
Web Blocks




6” Family

8” Family




Greenblock Fixed
-
Web blocks come in two core widths: 6 inch and 8 inch. Considered the
backbone of the Greenblock

product line, our fixed
-
web systems have been designed to
provide builders with a tough, tested and proven high
-
performance wall system requiring
minimal bracing with no costly, time
-
consuming secondary operations such as gluing,
strapping or taping. This

versatile system, like all Greenblock products, incorporates many
design features which continue to make it the most copied ICF block in the industry.


6” Straight

6” 90º

8” Straight

8” 90º




6” 45º

6” Taper Top

8” 45º

8” Taper Top



Greenblock Fixed Web Block

Spec Sheet

Block Height


12”

Panel Thickness


2 5/8”

Core Thickness


6” / 8”

Type

Length

Width

Return

Surface
Area

Concrete Wall
SF/YD


48”

6” Core


11.25”


8” Core


13.25”

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6” Core





8” Core





6” Core



27”


8” Core


28”

6” Core


11.25”


8” Core


13.25”

6” Core


15”


8” Core


16”

6” Core


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8” Core


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6” Core





8” Core





6” Core


24”


8” Core


24”

6” Core


11.25”


8” Core


13.25”

6” Core


12”


8” Core


12”

6” Core


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8” Core


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6” Core





8” Core





48”

6” Core


11.25”


8” Core


13.25”

N/A

4 s.f.

6” Core


54


8” Core


40

Greenblock’s

Fixed
-
Web block is a flat wall design featuring a Lego®
type connection system with web ties on six inch centers and interior
dovetail channels for optimal strength, stability and ease of use.
It is fully
compatible with our GBLOX™ panel system.


GBLOX P
anel System


GBLOX Family

GBLOX is our assemble
-
on
-
site panel system that has the same design features as, and is
fully compatible with, our fixed
-
web system. In keeping with our tradition of product
innovation and industry leadership, the addition of the GBLOX system to our produc
t line
makes Greenblock one of the only ICF companies in the nation to offer both fixed
-
web and
panels systems. GBLOX panels have been designed for use with our fixed web corners. No
other panel system offers this unique advantage which saves time and labo
r by eliminating
costly corner assembly procedures. GBLOX comes in widths of 6”, 8”, 10” and 12” which
makes it a versatile system for any project from basements to multistory units.


6” Straight

6” Brickledge

8” Straight

8” Brickledge






6”
45º

6” Taper Top






Greenblock GBLOX Panel System

Spec Sheet

Block Height


12”

Panel Thickness


2 5/8”

Core Thickness


6” / 8” / 10” / 12”

Type

Length

Width

Return

Surface
Area

Concrete Wall
SF/YD


48”

6” Core


11.25”


8” Core


13.25”


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6” Core





8” Core





10” Core





12” Core





48”

6” Core


11.25”


8” Core


13.25”


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-

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8” Core


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10” Core


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12” Core


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-
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2
-
4
-
2 Panel System


4” Straight

4” 90º Universal

4” 90º Shortie

4” 45º Shortie



Greenblock 2
-
4
-
2 Panel System

Spec Sheet

Block Height


12”

Panel Thickness


2”

Core Thickness


4"

Type

Length

Width

Return

Surface
Area

Concrete Wall
SF/YD


48”



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48"

8"

24"/24"

4 sf

81


24"

8"

12"/12"

2 sf

81


18”

8"

9"/9"

1.5sf

81

With its 8 inch width, the 2
-
4
-
2™ panel system was specifically designed
to replace concrete block construction.
Dovetails on the block ends allow
the 2
-
4
-
2™ user the option of either straight or stagger stacking, saving
time and labor costs. And like GBLOX™, the 2
-
4
-
2™ utilizes fixed web
corner blocks for added strength and convenience.



Other Products

Greenblock

offers 2 inch height adjusters in two different configurations allowing for
increased job site efficiency. Measuring 48” L x 2 5/8” W x 2” H, our versatile adjusters
are designed for use at any place in the wall, around windows, or even with scrap block t
o
save money and reduce job site waste.
End inserts are available for our 6 and 8 inch
systems.









2” Height Adjusters






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Greenblock Physical & Technical

Characteristics

1. EPS Material:

Type 2 Flame Retardant Expanded Polystyrene
(EPS) Shape Molded at 1.5 pcf.


2. EPS Thickness:

2
-
4
-
2 Panel System: 2 inches

Gblox Panel System: 2⅝ inches

Fixed
-
Web System: 2⅝ inches


3. Unit Weight:

2
-
4
-
2 System: Approximately 4 lbs.

Gblox

Panel System: Approximately 5 lbs.

Fixed
-
Web System: Approximately 5 lbs.


4. Unit Sizes:



L

W

H



4” Core

4’

8”

12”



6” Core

4’

11¼”

12”



8” Core

4’

13¼”

12”



10” Core

4’

15¼”

12”



12”Core

4’

17¼”

12”



5. Sound Transmission

(STC) 55+

6.

Capillarity of EPS:

None

7. Minimum Pouring Temperatures:

to minus 4º F or minus 20º C

8. Production Method:

Shape molding of Flame Retardant Expandable
Polystyrene (EPS) by heat and steam with no additives using only raw EPS
bead bearing National Evaluat
ion Report (NER # 236.238.384 or 479)
Certifications as required by all North American building code authorities.

9. Fire Resistance:



A fire retardant is added to Greenblock EPS during manufacturing



Greenblock 6, 8, 10, & 12 inch concrete core provides a
fire
resistance of four (4) hours in accordance with ASTM E 119 and
CAN/ULCS 101.



Greenblock 4 inch concrete core provides a fire resistance of two (2)
hours in accordance with ASTM E 119 and CAN/ULCS 101.



Meets flame spread (10), max acceptance 75 and s
moke development
(less than 300), max. acceptance 450, as required by UL723, UBC8
-
11, ASTM E84.
(UL Report R 4775)

Expanded Polystyrene has a flash ignition temperature of 340º C (655º F),
where pine is 224º C (400 º F). (Data from National Research Counc
il of
Canada) Self
-
ignition is 425º C (797º F).

10. Building Method:

Stack units as if CMUs. Secure straight and plumb
with alignment hardware, fill with #5 or #6 slump, 2500 psi concrete leaving
units in place providing insulation, surface finish strappin
g & air/vapor
barrier (resulting from EPS units filled solidly with concrete without any
penetrations therein).

11. Pour Height

4’
-
10’ monolithic pours, no seams or joints.

12. R
-
Value

(Thermal Resistance) in accordance w/ ASHRAE
2001Fundamentals Handbook
& ASTM C177, 6” & 8” Core EPS R 23/4
inch core EPS R 18. The Thermal Performance of an assembled wall
including calculations for EPS, Thermal Bridging, Thermal Mass & Air
Tightness will be higher


depending upon type and size of doors/windows,
ceiling heig
hts, attic insulation etc.

13. Water Vapor Test

based on test result of 138.0 ng/Pa•s•m2 (200ng/
Pa•s•.m2, max.)

14. Water Absorption Test

Result .35% by Volume.

15.

Meets requirements for
“Standard Specification for Rigid, Cellular
Polystyrene Thermal Ins
ulation”
, as a Type II Thermal Insulating Material
per ASTM C578.

16. Code Compliance



ICC ESR 1479: The ICC ES Report documents
compliance to the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), the 2006
International Residential Code (IRC) the International One and Two Family
Dwelling Code and the 2007 Florida Building Codes for Residential and
Building including use in High Velocity Hurricane Zones(HVHZ).

17. Polypropylene Reinforcing

webs meet requirements for plastic
materials when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, UBC 26,
ASTMD635, ASTMD2843.

18. Fastener withdrawal resistance

in accordance with ASTM D 1761 and
fastener lateral resistance testing.

Finish Requirements:



EPS Compatible, Damp proofing/waterproofing as required by local
code.



Exterior surface shall be covered with approved finish materials.
(i.e.,
Brick, Stucco, Si
ding, Etc.)

19. Concrete Usage:



2
-
4
-
2 system:

1 yd.

per

81 wall sq. ft.



Fixed
-
Web 6”

1 yd.

per

54 wall sq. ft.



Fixed
-
Web 8”

1 yd.

per

40 wall sq. ft.



Gblox 6”

1 yd.

per

54 wall sq. ft.



Gblox 8”

1 yd.

per

40 wall sq. ft.



Gblox 10”

1 yd.

per

32½ wall sq. ft.



Gblox 12”

1 yd.

per

27 wall sq. ft.

20. Wind Speed rating:

by P.E. design per ACI 318 and ACI 347 as
required for specified use and as required by local code.

21. Seismic Rating:

by P.E. design per ACI 318 and ACI 347 as required
f
or specified use and as required by local code.


NOTE: Construction of a GREENBLOCK built structure may
require P.E. stamp structural drawings & determination of air
exchange requirements/equipment.
It is recommended
consulting your local building
official.

Some testing and evaluations performed by Intertek Testing Services.



What is the R
-
Value of

Greenblock ICFs?

With increasing energy costs and a renewed interest in energy
-
efficiency and green
building, R
-
Values have become a major focus of
homeowners as well as building
professionals. Traditionally, R
-
value has been measured as the resistance to heat flow of a
given material, in a steady state. Of course, the real world has more variable temperatures
and to test the true effectiveness of an
ICF wall assembly, three factors must be considered:

1.

R
-
value

2.

Reduced air infiltration

3.

Thermal mass

R
-
Value:

The EPS foam in a Greenblock

ICF has an actual, consistent and stable R
-
Value of
approximately 4.4/inch of foam. In our Fixed Web and GBLOX products this equates to
approximately R
-
23, and in our 2
-
4
-
2 product approximately R
-
18. The concrete used in an
ICF wall has an R
-
Value of .1/
inch.

Reduced Air Infiltration:

Over half the energy loss in a stick built home is due to the amount of air that is allowed to
infiltrate the walls through gaps between the insulation and the studs. This air must then be
heated/cooled thus increasing energ
y use. The solid, monolithic concrete core in a
Greenblock ICF wall creates an air tight barrier. Any penetrations, i.e. doors and windows,
are readily identifiable and easily sealed thus reducing the rate of air exchanged which
results in less energy use.

Thermal Mass:

Studies conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Housing
and Urban Development (HUD), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) have confirmed that concrete mass in exterior walls reduces annual

energy costs in
structures. This data has been incorporated into the International Energy Code (IECC), as
reduced R
-
values required for mass walls.

Greenblock ICF walls demonstrate these characteristic thermal mass qualities including
heat absorption and
thermal lag, the delay in the distribution of heat energy throughout a
system. The additional insulation on the interior of an ICF wall further delays the transfer
of heat to the inside of the building which serves to moderate indoor temperature swings
and

reduce the amount of heating/ cooling needed.

Studies conducted by the Portland cement Association have concluded that homes built
with ICF exterior walls require an estimated 44% less energy to heat and 32% less energy
to cool than a comparable wood
-
fram
e structure. When built with the proper compliment of
windows, doors, HVAC systems, and methods, these structures typically realize a 50%
-

80% savings in heating and cooling costs.

Stated R
-
Value

The R
-
Value of an Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) is derived
from Expandable Polystyrene
(EPS) foam. The R
-
Value of EPS foam is specified in ASTM C578
-
95:

Specification Reference

(ASTM
-
C578
-
95)

Type I

(1#)

Type
VIII

(1.25#)

Type II

(1.35#)

Type
IX

(2#)

Property:

Units

ASTM

Test






Density, Min.

(pcf)

C303

or

D1622


0.90

1.15

1.35

1.80

Thermal

Conductivity

“K Factor”

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“R Value”

C518

@ 40º F

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

@ 75º F

3.60

3.80

4.00

4.20



The EPS used in Greenblock

ICF’s is Type II, 1.5 minimum density which has an R Value
of approximately 4.4/inch of foam. Based on this data, the R
-
Value of the foam panels in
Greenblock products is as follows:

Greenblock 2
-
4
-
2 Panel System: R 18

Greenblock Gblox Panel System: R 23

Greenblock Fixed Web Systems: R 23

Source: American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Insulated Concrete Forms

(
ICFs
) are
formwork

for concrete that stays in place as
permanent
building insulation

for energy
-
efficient, cast
-
in
-
place,
reinforced concrete

walls,
floors, and roofs.

The forms are interlockin
g modular units that are dry
-
stacked (without mortar) and filled
with concrete. The forms lock together somewhat like
Lego

bricks and serve to create a
form for the structural walls or floors of a building.

ICF forms are currently manufactured from any the following materials:



Polystyrene

(Expanded or Extruded)
-

most common



Polyurethane

(including soy
-
based ones
[1]
)



Cement
-
bonded wood fiber



Cement
-
bonded polystyrene beads

Concrete

is pumped into the cavity to form the structural element of the walls. Usually
reinforcing steel (
rebar
) is added before concrete placement to g
ive the concrete
flexural
strength
, similar to bridges and high
-
rise buildings made of concrete (see
Reinforced
concrete
). Like
other concrete
formwork
, the forms are filled with concrete in 1

4 foot
"lifts" to manage the concrete pressure and reduce the risk of blowouts. After the concrete
has
cured
, or firmed up, the forms are

left in place permanently for the following reasons:



Thermal

and
acoustic insulation



Space to run
electrical conduit

and
plumbing
. The form material on either side of
the walls can easily accommodate electrical and plumbing

installations.



Backing for
gypsum

boards on the interior and
stucco
, brick, or other siding on the
exterior

Content



1 Benefits



2 Disadvantages



3 Construction costs



4 References



5 External links

Benefits

Manufacturers
commonly cite the following advantages compared to traditional building
materials, especially in residential and light commercial construction.



ICF structures are much more comfortable, quiet, and energy
-
efficient than those
built with traditional construc
tion methods.



Minimal, if any, air leaks, which improves comfort and reduces heat loss compared
to walls without a solid
air barrier



Thermal resistance

(
R
-
value
) typically above 3 K∙m²/W (in American customary
u
nits: R
-
17
[2]
); this results in saving energy compared with uninsulated masonry
(see
comparison
)



High sound absorption, which helps produce peace and quiet compared with framed
walls



Structural integrity for better resistance to forces of nature, compared with framed
walls

o

Higher resale value due to longevity of

materials

o

More insect resistant than wood frame construction

o

When the building is constructed on a concrete slab, the walls and floors
form one continuous surface; this keeps out insects.

o

Concrete and Polystyrene do not rot when they get wet



Reduces
HVAC

operating costs from 30%
-
70%



Construction methods are easy to learn, and manufacturers often have training
available



Designing and Building with ICFs help your construction project attain Leadership
in Ener
gy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building status.



Insulating Concrete Forms create a structural concrete wall (either monolithic or
post and beam) that is up to 10 times stronger than wood framed structures.



Interior ICF polystyrene wall surfaces
can be coated with gypsum drywall or a
number of other wall coatings.





Disadvantages



Adding or moving doors, windows, or utilities is somewhat harder once the building
is complete (requires concrete cutting tools).



Cost
-

Depending on design, an average home will cost about five dollars per square
foot more than a conventional wood built home. This usually amounts to about 5%
of the cost of the home. For high
-
end wood homes this percentage decreases to
about 2% or 3%
. For high
-
end homes constructed of concrete
-
based materials like
CMU
, the insulating concrete form solution is usually less expensive.



During the first weeks imm
ediately after construction, minor problems with interior
humidity may be evident as the concrete cures. Dehumidification can be
accomplished with small residential dehumidifiers or using the building's air
conditioning system.



Depending on the form materi
al, concrete mix and pouring procedures,
honeycombing may occur during the pour, where gaps are left in the concrete. This
can be resolved with the use of a vibrator, using free draining form materials or
self
-
consolidating concrete
, though the latter option is much more expensive and not
necessary.



With polystyrene based forms, the exterior foam insulation provides easy access for
groundwater and insects. To help prevent these problem
s, some manufacturers make
insecticide
-
treated foam blocks and promote methods for waterproofing them.

Construction costs

The cost of using ICFs rather than conventional construction techniques is most sensitive to
the price of labor, wood, and concrete.
Building using ICF can add 3 to 5 percent in
construction cost over building using wood frame. However, the energy savings of an ICF
home usually result in far lower cost for utilities compared to most conventional
construction.

This also depends on the us
e of the ICF:



Below grade, in most cases ICF construction will come in about 40% less than
conventional (basement) construction because of the labor savings from combining
multiple steps into one step.



Above grade, ICF Construction is typically a little mo
re expensive. But when
adding large openings, ICF construction becomes very cost effective. Large
openings in conventional construction require large headers and supporting posts
whereas ICF construction reduces the cost because all you need is additional
reinforcing steel directly around the window and large openings; and large openings
reduce the materials needed (concrete, rebar, ICF).



Typical new U.S. homes cost $60

100 per square foot. According to one estimate,
building walls of ICFs adds $1.00
-
$4.00 to this figure. But since ICF houses are
more energy
-
efficient, the heating and cooling equipment can be up to 50% smaller
than in a fra
me house.This can cut the cost of the final house by an estimated $.75
per square foot. So the net extra cost is about $.25
-
$3.25.According to a 2001 HUD
report, the additional cost is $2.00
-
$4.00 per square foot
.



In the
United States
, a house built to the Passive House standard results in a
building that requires space heating energy of 1
BTU

per square foot per heating
degree day
, compared with about 5 to 15 BTUs per square foot per heating degree
day for a similar building built to meet the 2003 Model Energy Efficiency Code.
This is between 75 and 95% less energy for

space heating and cooling than current
new buildings that meet today's US energy efficiency codes. The Passivhaus in the
German
-
language camp of
Waldsee
, Minnesota uses 85% le
ss energy than a house
built to Minnesota building codes.
[33]



In the
United Kingdom
, an average new house built to the
Passive House standard
would use 77% less energy for space heating, compared to the
Building
Regulations
.
[34]



In
Ireland
, it is calculated that a typical house built to the Passive House standard
instead of the 2002 Building Regulations would consume 85% les
s energy for space
heating and cut space
-
heating related
carbon emissions

by 94%.
[35]


Lighting

and electrical appliances




To minimize the total primary energy consumption, the many
passive

and
active

daylighting

techniques are the first daytime solution to employ. For low light level
days, non
-
daylighted spaces, and nighttime; the use of creative
-
sustainable
lighting
design

using low
-
energy sources such as 'standard voltage'
compact fluoresc
ent
lamps

and
solid
-
state lighting

with
Light
-
emitting diode
-
LED lamps
,
organic light
-
emitting diodes
, and
PLED
-

polymer light
-
emitting diodes
; and 'low voltage'
electrical filament
-
Incandescent light bulbs
, and
compa
ct Metal halide
,
Xenon

and
Halogen lamps
, can be used.



Solar powered exterior circulation, secur
ity, and
landscape lighting

-

with
photovoltaic cells

on each fixture or connecting to a central
Solar panel

system, are
available for
gardens

and outdoor needs. Low voltage systems can be used for more
controlled or independent illumination
, while still using less electricity than
conventional fixtures and lamps. Timers,
motion detection

and
natural light

operation sensors reduce energy consumption, and
light pollution

even further for a
Passivhaus setting.



Appliance

consumer products

meeting independent energy efficiency testing and
receiving
Ecolabel

certification marks

for reduced electrical
-
'natural
-
gas'
consumption and product manufacturing
carbon emi
ssion labels

are preferred for
use in Passive houses. The ecolabel certification marks of
Energy Star

and
EKOenergy

are examples.



Airtightness

Building envelopes under the Passiv
e
h
o
us
e

standard are required to be extremely
airtight

compared to conventional construction. Air barriers, careful sealing of every construct
ion
joint in the building envelope, and sealing of all service penetrations through it are all used
to achieve this.
[30]

Airtightness minimizes the amount of warm
-

or cool
-

air that can pass through the
structure, enabling the mechanical ventilation syste
m to recover the heat before discharging
the air externally.


Ventilation

Passive methods of
natural ventilation

by singular or cross ventilation; by a simple opening
or enhanced by the
stack effect

from smaller ingress
-

larger egress windows and/or
clerestory
-
openable
skylight

use; is obvious when the exterior temperature is acceptable.

When not, mechanical
heat recovery ventilation

systems, with a heat recovery rate of over
80% and high
-
efficiency
electronically commutated motors

(ECM), are employed to
maintain air quali
ty, and to recover sufficient heat to dispense with a conventional central
heating system.
[2]

Since the building is essentially
air
-
tight
, the rate of air change can be
optimized and carefully controlled at about 0.4
air changes per hour
. All ventilation ducts
are insulated a
nd sealed against leakage.

Although not compulsory,
earth warming tubes

(typically ≈200

mm (~7,9 in) diameter, ≈40
m (~130

ft) long at a depth of
≈1.5 m (~5

ft)) are often buried in the soil to act as earth
-
to
-
air heat exchangers and pre
-
heat (or pre
-
cool) the intake air for the ventilation system. In
cold weather the warmed air also prevents
ice

form
ation in the heat recovery system's
heat
exchanger
.

Alternatively, an earth to air heat exchanger, can use a liquid circuit instead of an air
circuit, with a heat exchanger (battery) on the supply

air.

Superinsulation

Passiv
e
h
o
us
e

buildings employ
superinsulation

to significantly reduce the heat transfer
through the walls, roof and floor compared to conventional buildings. A wide range of
thermal insulation

materials can be u
sed to provide the required high
R
-
values

(low
U
-
values
, typically in the 0.10 to 0.15 W/(m².K) ra
nge). Special attention is given to
eliminating
thermal bridges
.

A disadvantage resulting from the thickness of wall insulation required is that, unless the
external dimensions

of the building can be enlarged to compensate, the internal floor area
of the building may be less compared to traditional construction.

In Sweden, to achieve passive house standards, the insulation thickness would be 335

mm
(about 13 in) (0.10 W/(m².K))
and the roof 500

mm (about 20 in) (U
-
value 0.066
W/(m².K)).

Advanced window technology



Typical
Passive House

windows

To meet the requirements of the Passiv
e
h
o
us
e

standard, windows are manufactured with
exceptionally high
R
-
values

(low U
-
values, typically 0.85 to 0.70 W/(m².K) for the entire
window including the frame). These normally combine triple
-
pane
insulated glazing

(with a
good solar heat
-
gain coefficient,

low
-
emissivity

coatings,
sealed

argon

or
krypton

gas filled
inter
-
pane voids, and 'warm edge' insulating glass spacers) with air
-
seals and specially
developed

thermally broken window frames.

In
Central Europe

and most of the
United States
, for unobstructed south
-
facing Passivhaus
windows, the h
eat gains from the sun are, on average, greater than the heat losses, even in
mid
-
winter.









Design and construction



The
Passiv
e
h
o
us
e

uses a combination of
low
-
energy building

techniques and technologies.

Achieving the major decrease in heating energy consumption required by the standard
involves a shift
in approach to building design and construction. Design is carried out with
the aid of the 'Passivhaus Planning Package' (PHPP) , and uses specifically designed
compu
ter simulations
.

To achieve the standards, a number of techniques and technologies are used in
combination:

P
assive solar design and landscape

Passive solar building design

and
energy
-
efficient landscaping

support the Passive house
energy conservation and can integrate them into a
neighborhood

and environment.
Following
passive solar building techniques
, where possible buildings are compact in shape
to redu
ce their surface area, with principle windows oriented towards the equator
-

south in
the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere
-

to maximize passive
solar
gain
. However, the use of

solar gain, especially in
temperate

climate

regions, is secondary
to minimizing the overall house energy requirements. In climates a
nd regions needing to
reduce excessive summer passive solar heat gain, whether from the direct or reflected
sources, can be done with a
Brise soleil
,
trees
, attached
pergolas

with
vines
,
vertical
gardens
,
green roofs
, and other techniques.

Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal
thermal mass

is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain
stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over
-
heating in spring or autumn before
the higher
sun angle

"shades" mid
-
day wall exposure and window penetration. Exterior
wall color, when the surface allows choice, for reflection or absorption
insolation

qualities
depends on the predominant year
-
round ambient outdoor temperature. The use of
deciduous

trees and wall
trellised

or self attaching vines can assist in climates not at the temperature
extremes.

Construction costs

In Passiv
e ho
us
e

buildings, the cost savings from dispensing with the conventional heating
system can be used to fund the upgrade of the building envelope and the heat recovery
ventilation system. With careful design and increasing competition in the supply of the
specifi
cally designed Passiv
e ho
us
e

building products, in Germany it is now possible to
construct buildings for the same cost as those built to normal German
building standards
, as
was
done with the Passiv
e
h
o
us
e

apartments at
Vauban, Freiburg
.On average, however,
passive houses are still up to 14% more expensive upfront than conventional buildings.

Evaluations have indicated
that while it is technically possible, the costs of meeting the
Passiv
e
h
o
us
e

standard increase significantly when building in
Northern Europe

above 60°
latitude
.
]
European cities at approximately 60° include Helsinki in Finland and Bergen in
Norway. London is at 51°; Moscow is at 55°.

These facts have led a number of architects to construct buildings tha
t use the ground under
the building for massive heat storage to shift heat production from the winter to the
summer. Some buildings can also shift cooling from the summer to the winter. At least one
designer uses a passive thermosiphon carrying only air, s
o the process can be accomplished
without expensive, unreliable machinery
.












'Passivhaus Planning Package' (PHPP) Charts