Case Study: River Tees and its landforms

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Case Study: River Tees and its landforms

River Tees, North
-
East England

Description of river course (Pg 6 text book

and see your small hand
-
out sheet
)

From Cross fell to Middleton



source at Cross fell (893m). precipitation of over 2000mm per year.
Poor
infiltration
due to impermeable rocks


peat bogs. Water drains out of the bogs slowly, creating streams.
Steep sided valleys
(V
-
shaped) and the long profile has a steep gradient
with rapids and waterfall

(High
force)
.

From Croft to Yarm


Low land un
der 60m

above sea level
. River meanders through a wide flood plain
.

From Middlesbrough to the North sea


The river enters the North sea through a tidal estuary. This has
sand banks and mud flats. Much heavy industry has been built on the flat land of the

estuary and the
features have been adapted to the needs of oil refineries and shipping.

Meander at Yarm
: Lower River
Tees












One of the meanders of the Tees encloses a whole town:
the town of Yarm. 250 years ago Yarm was the most important port on the Tees. It is only 18
kilometres from the sea as the crow flies.

In the flat lower section of a river, meanders are constantly changing their position. Erosion is most
rapid on the banks of the outside bends where the water is running fastest.

Yarm is particularly prone to flooding. The most recent serious flood was in

January 1995. Since
then a new flood defence scheme costing £2.1 million has been built w
ith
:




reinforced concrete walls with flood gates for access by people and vehicles.



earth embankments to contain the river.



gabions (baskets filled with stones) to

protect the walls and embankments from erosion.

High Force waterfall, Upper Teesdale

















21.5

metres high. Hard rock (Whin

Sill) lies on softer rock (Limestone) beneath. The soft rock has
been worn away and the hard rock above has collapsed. This has left a gorge 700m in length.
Boulders from the collapse of the Whin Sill rock lie in the gorge.


Yarm

River Tees meander