The History of Robotics

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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The History of Robotics

320 BC

Greek philosopher Aristotle made this famous quote:

“If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it...
then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of s
laves for the
lords.”


1495

Around 1495 Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a humanoid robot.


1700
-

1900

Between 1700 and 1900 a number of
life
-
sized automatons were created including a famous
mechanical duck made by Jacques de Vaucanson that could crane its neck, flap its wings
and even swallow food.


1913

Henry Ford installs the world’s first moving conveyor belt
-
based assembly line in his car
factory. A Model T can be assembled in 93 minutes.


1920

Karel Capek coins the word ‘robot’ to describe machines that resemble humans in hi
s play
called Rossums Universal Robots. The play was about a society that became enslaved by
the robots that once served them.

This idea is now a common theme in popular culture, ie Frankenstein, Terminator, The
Matrix etc.


1932

The first true robot toy

was produced in Japan. The ‘Lilliput’ was a wind
-
up toy which
walked. It was made from tinplate and stood just 15cm tall.


1937

Alan Turing rele
ases his paper “On Computable Numbers” which begins the computer

revolution.



1941

Legendary science fiction writer Isaac Asimov writes the short story ‘Liar!’ in which he
describes the Three Laws of Robotics. His stories were recompiled into the volume

“I,
Robot” in 1950


later reproduced as a movie starring Will Smith.

Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics:

1.

A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to
come to harm.

2.

A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings
, except where such orders
would conflict with the First Law.

3.

A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict
with the First or Second Law.




1950

Alan Turing proposes a test to determine if a machine truly has the power to think for itself.
To pass the test a machine must be indistinguishable from a human during conversation. It
has become known as the ‘Turing Te
st’.


1954

George Devol and Joe Engleberger design the first programmable robot ‘arm’. This later
became the first industrial robot, completing dangerous and repetitive tasks on an assembly
line at General Motors (1962).


1957

The Soviet Union launches ‘Sputnik’, the first artificial orbiting satellite. This marks the
beginning of the space race.


1964

The IBM 360 becomes the first computer to be

mass
-
produced.


1968

Stanley Kubrick makes Arthur C. Clark's, 2001: A Space Odyssey into a movie. It features

HAL, an onboard computer that develo
ps a mind of its own.

1969

The U.S. successfully use the latest in computing, robotic and space technology to land Neil
Armstrong on the moon.


1977

The first Star Wars movie is released. George Lucas‘s movie inspires a new generation of
researchers through his image of a human future shared with robots such as the now famous
R2
-
D2 and C
-
3PO.


1986

The first LEGO based educational products are

put on the market and Honda launches a
project to build a walking humanoid robot.


1994

Carnegie Universities eight
-
legged walking robot, D
ante ll, successfully descends into Mt
Spur to collect volcanic gas samples.


1997

On May 11, a computer built by IBM known as Deep Blue beat world chess champion
Garry Kasparov.

The first Robocup tournament is held in Japan. The goal of Robocup is to hav
e a fully
automated team of robots beat the worlds best soccer team by the year 2050.


1998

LEGO launches its first Robotics Inventions System.


1999

Sony releases the first version of AIBO, a robotic dog with the ability to learn, entertain and
communicate with its owner. More advanced versions have followed.


2000


Honda debuts ASIMO, the next generation in its series of humanoid robots.

2004

Epsom release the smallest known robot, standing 7cm high and weighing just 10 grams.
The robot helicopter is intended to be used as a ‘flying cam
era’ during natural disasters.


2005

Researchers at Cornell University build the first self
-
replicating robot. Each ‘robot’ is made
up of a sma
ll tower of computerized cubes which link together through the use of magnets.


2008

After being first introduced in 2002, the popular Roomba robotic vacuum cleaner has sold
over 2.5 million units, proving that there is a strong demand for this type of do
mestic
robotic technology.






























Robotics



The
Shadow robot hand

system

Robotics

is the branch of
technology

that deals with the design, construction, operation,
structural disposition, manufacture and application of
robots

[1]

and computer systems for
their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
[2]
[3]

The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to
classical times
, but research into the functionality and p
otential uses of robots did not
grow substantially until the 20th century.
[4]

Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as
we continue to research, design, and build new robots that s
erve various practical
purposes, whether
domestically
,
commercially
, or
militarily
. Many robots do jobs that are
hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines.

History

Main article:
History of robots

See also:
Robot



A scene from
Karel Čapek
's 1920 play
R.U.R.
, showing three robots

Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to c
reate them have a long
history.

The word
robot

was introduced to the public by the
Czech

writer
Ka
rel Čapek

in his play
R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)
, published in 1920.
[5]

The play begins in a factory
that makes artificial people called
robots

creatures who can be mistaken for humans


though they are closer to the modern ideas of
androids
. Karel Čapek himself did not coin
the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an
etymology

in the
Oxford English
Dictionary

in which he named his brother
Josef Čapek

as its actual originator.
[5]

In 1927 the
Maschinenmensch

("machine
-
human")
gynoid

humanoid robot

(also called
"Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria impersonator") was the first and perhaps
the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German
actress
Brigitte Helm

in
Fritz Lang
's
film

Metropolis
.

In 1942 the science fiction writer
Isaac Asimov

formulated his
Three Laws of Robotics

and, in the process of doing so, coined the word "robotics" (see details in "Etymology"
section below).

In 1948
Norbert Wiener

formulated the principles of
cybernetics
, the basis of practical
robotics.

Fully
autonomous robots

only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first
digitally operated and programmable robot, the
Unimate
, was installed in 1961 to lift h
ot
pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and
industrial
robots

are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, or more accuratel
y
and reliably, than humans. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous,
or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in
manufacturing
, assembly,
packing and packaging, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry,
laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods.
[8]

Date

Signific
ance

Robot Name

Inventor

Third
century
B.C. and
earlier

One of the earliest descriptions of
automata appears in the
Lie Zi

text, on a
much earlier encounter between
King Mu
o
f Zhou

(1023
-
957 BC) and a
mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi,
an 'artificer'. The latter allegedly
presented the king with a life
-
size,
human
-
shaped figure of his mechanical
handiwork.
[9]


Yan Shi

First
century
A.D. and
Descriptions of more than 100 machines
and automata, including a fire engine, a
wind organ, a coin
-
operated machine,

Ctesibius
,
Philo
of Byzantium
,
Heron of
earlier

and a steam
-
powered engine, in
Pneumatica

and
Automata

by
Heron of
Alexandria

Alexandria, and
others

1206

Created early humanoid automata,
programmable automaton band
[10]

Robot band, hand
-
washing
automaton,
[11]

automated moving
peacocks
[12]

Al
-
Jazari

1495

Designs f
or a humanoid robot

Mechanical knight

Leonardo da
Vinci

1738

Mechanical duck that was able to eat,
flap its wings, and excrete

Digesting Duck

Jacques de
Vaucanson

1898

Nikola Tesla demonstrates first radio
-
controlled vessel.

Teleautomaton

Nikola Tesla

1921

First fictional automatons called "robots"
appear in the play
R.U.R.

Ro
ssum's
Universal Robots

Karel Čapek

1930s

Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939
and 1940
World's Fairs

Elektro

Westinghouse
Electric
Corporation

1948

Simple robots exhibiting biological
beha
viors
[13]

Elsie and Elmer

William Grey
Walter

1956

First commercial robot, from the
Unimation

company founded by
George
Devol

and
Joseph Engelberger
, based on
Devol's patents
[14]

Unimate

George Devol

1961

First installed indus
trial robot.

Unimate

George Devol

1963

First
palletizing robot
[15]

Palletizer

Fuji
Yusoki
Kogyo

1973

First
industrial robot

with six
electromechanically driven axes
[16]

Famulus

KUKA Robot
Group

1975

Programmable universal manipulation
arm, a Unimation product

PUMA

Victor
Scheinman













2007:

1,389,000 people purchased iPhones.

2011:

72,300,000 people purchased iPhones. That's 52x as many as when it
was launched.

2008

That year saw Apple's highest revenue in history:

2011

1.
MINING

Coltan
Coltan contains a heat
-
resistant substance that can hold a high electrical charge,
and is a staple component of every iPhone.

Coltan


Up to 80% of the world's coltan reserves are located in the Democratic Republic of
Congo.

$108.25 Billion

2.
PROCESSING

In 2011, Apple conducted 229 audits amongst its 158 global suppliers.

58

did not monitor and control air emissions.

69

did not recycle o
r dispose of hazardous waste as required by law.

112

had not properly stored or handled hazardous chemicals.

43.2%


of China's state
-
monitored rivers are classified as unsuitable for human contact.

Each year, 750,000 Chinese citizens die from air pollution
.

By the year 2030, China's
carbon dioxide emissions could equal the entire world's C02 production today.

3. MANUFACTU
RING

One of Apple's most notorious supplier plants is manufacturing titan Foxconn.

At a single
factory in Shenzhen, China, 90 iPhones are
produced every minute.

That's $17,910 worth
of iPhones: 11 times what a Foxconn factory worker makes in a year.

2007:


18 Workers attempted suicide at a Foxconn plant.

ONE YEAR LATER, 50 W
ORKERS
THREATENED TO DO THE

SAME.

4.

CONSUMPTION

There are over 5 milli
on iPhone apps available
.
About 1 billion apps purchased each
month. At an average cost of $1.37 per app, that's about $16.4 billion in apps each year.

From 2007 to the release of 2011's 4s, Apple's iPhone profits have grown by over 137%

This growth is exp
ected to continue with the release of the iPhone 5 in 2012.

As iPhones
have gained popularity, over half the population has developed nomophobia: fear of
being without a cell phone
.

5.

WASTE

With iPhone generations appearing, it's estimated that in the U.S.
in 2011, as many as
36,750,000 iPhones were discarded in favor of the newer model.

Up to 80% of recycled iPhones are shipped to places like Guiyu, China, where they're
stripped of valuable parts.

Because of the waste in Guiyu:

Pregnant women there are six
times more likely to miscarry.

7 out of 10 children have too much lead in their blood.

Guiyu has the highest levels of cancer
-
causing dioxins in the world.