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McKay,
Updated August 2013

Page
1






Major Composition Errors

No thesis statement = F

Incomplete
assignment

= F

Length too short = deduction of 10% of the final grade


1.

Comma Splices

2.

Fragments

3.

Fused Sentences (Run
-
ons)


Fragment
: group of words with no main subject/verb combination


To Repair
: Add words to the fragment, or connect it to a sentence around it.


Fused sentence
: two independent clauses joined by nothing


Comma splice
:

two independent clauses joined by a comma with no coordinating conjunction or
transitional element

To Repair Comma Splices or Run
-
on Sentences:



Form two sentences if the ideas are separate.



Use a semi
-
colon between closely related sentences.



Use a conjun
ctive adverb (ex. therefore, however) if the ideas show a relationship. Place a
semicolon before the conjunctive adverb.



Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction.


4.

Pronoun Reference



Specify meanings of pronouns, especially “which,” “this,” “that,”
“those,” “these,” “it
.




Place a noun between “this,” “that,” “those,” “these” + a verb.




Use “that,” “which,” “who,” and “whom” correctly



Who
: subjective, refers to people



Whom
: objective, refers to people



Which
: refers to nonessential things
(uses a comma)



That
: refers to essential things


5.

Empty Expletives

Any form of “there” + “be”

“it” + “be” at the beginning of a clause without an antecedent


6.

P
assive Voice



Passive voice (“be” + a past participle of a verb) places the subject of the sent
ence in the predicate.
Revise into the active voice (subject + verb + object).


7.

Verb Tense Shift



Maintain a consistent verb tense.



Write about literature in the present tense.



Write about history in the past tense.


8.

Person Shift



Use third person to
analyze literature.



Use first person only when writing a personal narrative.



Never use first person in a literary analysis.



NEVER USE SECOND PERSON in an academic paper.


McKay,
Updated August 2013

Page
2

9.

Contractions


10.

Integrate quotes

into an original sentence (when applicable)


11.

Punctuate

literary titles correctl
y



Italicize or underline long works (novels, plays, epics, long poems)
,



Q
uote short works (poems, essays).


12.

Title all prompts and essays

creatively and originally.



The title MAY NOT be the name of the literary work.



Use capital

letters for only the first letters of the words; do not capitalize the articles (
a, an, the
) and
small prepositions (two letters) in titles unless the words are the first words of the titles.



Punctuate titles of literary works within an essay correctly.

Italicize or underline the titles of long works
(novels, plays); quote the titles of short works (poems, essays).



Center, but do not underline, the title. Exception: Titles literary works in essay titles are punctuated.
Examples follow:


Symbolism
of the Landscape in
Wuthering Heights

Historical Importance of “The Recessional”

Understanding Thematic Importance

Street
-
Wise Angels and Book
-
Smart Demons

Voices Within

The Ominous Warning in
1984

and
Brave New World


13.

Vague Words
not to use:



a lot



aspect, factor



get, gets, got



good



happy



interesting



okay



say, says, said



sort of, kind of
(for
somewhat
)



stuff



thing



very


14.

Format



ALL DOCUMENTS

MLA heading




TYPED DOCUMENTS

Times New Roman 12


Header with last name, a space, and page number

One
-
inch margins

Double spaced





Black Ink




HAND
-
WRITTEN DOCUMENTS

Front only




Write neatly

Obey paper margins


Loose leaf paper

Blue or black ink





McKay, updated August 2013

Page
3








EMAILING DOCUMENTS:



When emailing documents,
attach the file
. Documents pasted into an actual email message lose necessary
formatting.



Save a
WordPerfect

or
Microsoft Works

document as a
Rich Text File

(File/Save As/Files of Type).


CHANGING SETTINGS ON WORD:



Change Line Spacing
:


Word 2003: Format / Paragraph


Word 2007: Home / Paragraph



Change Margins
:



Word 2003: File / Page Setup



Word 2007: Page Layout / Margins



Search for Errors
:


Word 2003: Edit / Find


Word 2007: Home / Find



Page Numbers
:


Word 2007: Insert / Page Number



(To remove the number from the first page, click on “Different First Page.”)



Set Grammar Check:

Wor
d 2003: Edit / Find Tools / Options / Spelling & Grammar / Settings


Word 2007: Top Corner Icon / Word Options / Proofing / Settings







1.

Usage

Affect = (v) to move or influence, to pretend to have

Effect = (v)
to bring about, (n) the result of an action


Accept = (v) to agree to, to receive willingly

Except = (prep) not including


Altogether = completely

All together = as a group


Between = (prep) refers to two people or things

Among = (prep) refers to a group
of three or more


Different from = compares dissimilar items

Different than = nonstandard usage


Fewer = refers to numbers of things that can be counted

Less = refers to amount, degree, or value


Good = (adj)

Well = (adj) that means ‘in good health, (adv)
that modifies an action verb




McKay, updated August 2013

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4



Its = possessive pronoun

It’s = “it is” or “it has”


Lie = (v) to be in a certain place, to rest or recline (lie, lay, lain)

Lay = (v) to place or put (lay, laid, laid)


Lose = (v) to mislay or suffer the loss of

Loose = (adj)

free, not fastened


Could of / Should of = nonstandard usage

Could have / Should have = standard usage


Quite = (adv) truly, almost completely

Quiet = (adj) freedom from noise or disturbance


Raise = (v) to lift, to cause to go up

Rise = (v) to go upward


Set = (v) to place

Sit = (v) to occupy a seat or a place


Than = introduces a second part of a comparison

Then = next in order


Their = belonging to them

There = in that place

They’re = contraction for “they are”


Whose = possessive or “who”

Who’s = contr
action for “who is” or “who has”


Your = possessive of “you”

You’re = contraction of “you are”


2.

Hyphenate

all “
-
self” words


3.

The
subjunctive mood
would

does

not express an action in the past tense. Use the subjunctive only when speaking
of a possibility or a legal action.


4.

Proofread to confirm that your subject/verb combinations are
logical
. Can your subject actually do what your words
suggest?


5.

Do not use
a “be” verb (
am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
) if you can use another word in the place
of it. Use an action verb such as the following in the place of the vague “be”:



acknowledge
s




adds



admits



agrees




argues



asserts



believe
s



comments



compares



confirms



contends



declares




denies



disputes



emphasizes



endorses



grants



illustrates




implies



insists



notes



observes



points out



reasons



refutes



rejects



reports



responds



suggests



thinks



writes



McKay, updated August 2013

Page
5


Colloquial Language
.

Conversational language is not always incorrect. It is mostly unsuitable for formal
writing because it is too familiar and trite. Use direct language instead.



a lot, awful lot

many




blow money

spend money



break

unfortunate



bunch

surprise me



busted

caught



catch some z’s

sleep



cheap

inexpensive




cinch

easy



cop out

quit



cop

police officer



down in the dumps

depressed



figured out

decided



fixing to

about to




get a

kick out of

enjoy



get along

communicate



give a hard time

antagonize




goof off

waste time



gross

disgusting



gypped

cheated




hang in

persevere



hanging around

associate



hassle

bother




hit the books

study



kicks

enjoyment



kind of, sort of

somewhat, rather



mach
o

manly



mess up

make a mistake



out of it

confused



pinch pennies

save money



pretty good

acceptable



pumped up

excited




put down

insult



really into

interested



rub the wrong way

irritate



spilled his guts

told all



super

great



swell

excellent



wisecrack

joke


Conciseness
.
Brevity of expression aids emphasis no matter what the sentence structure. Unnecessary words detract
from necessary words. They clutter sentences and obscure ideas.



a certain length of time


a certain time



at all times


always



at the present time, at this point in time


now, today



because of the fact that, in light of the fact
that


because



before long


soon



call your attention to the fact that


remind
you, notify you



by means of


by




come in contact with


meet



destroyed by fire


burned



due to the fact that, by virtue of the fact that


because



during the time that


while



for the purpose of


for



I would appreciate it if


please






in a hasty manner


hastily



in order to


to




in order to utilize


to use



in the direction of


toward






in spite of the fact that


although, though



in the event that


if



in the final analysis

finally



in the month of


in



in view of the fact that, for the reason that


because




in the nature of


like



of an indefinite nature


indefinite



one of the things


one point



prior to


before



subsequent to


after






there is no doubt


no doubt, doubtless



until such time as


until



used for lighting purposes

used for
lighting



with the exception


except



would seem to be, is an example of


is


Delete the following phrases:



I believe



I feel



I figure



I mean



I think



in a very real sense



in as a matter of fact



in fact



in my opinion




it seems that



the point that I am trying to
make



type of, kind of



what I mean to say is




McKay, updated August 2013

Page
6


Redundancy
.
Eliminate needless repetition of words or ideas.



1:00 am in the morning



basic essentials



blue in color




circle around



c
lose proximity



consensus of opinion




cooperate together



fellow colleagues



final outcome




important essentials



inexperienced novice



large in size



new beginnings



puzzling in nature



repeat again



round in shape



square in shape



surrounding circumstances




the future to come



transparently clear



true facts



two in number



widow woman



TRITE AND SLANG EXPRESSIONS
.
Do not use
trite
/
cliche

(those phases that are dull due to overuse) or
slang

expressions (coined words and standard words used to mean something other than their standard
definition) in writing unless you are using them to make a point. Make every effort to use original phrases. Use
of clichés shows your audience that you have l
ittle ability to think for yourself.



Trite Expressions



add insult to injury



after all is said and done



almighty dollar



as luck would have it



better late than never



bite the bullet



breakneck speed



burn the midnight oil



busy as a be
e



by the same token



cool, calm, collected



cut a long story short



dead as a doornail



depths of despair



diamond in the rough



easier said than done



eat like a bird / pig



face the music



fat as a cow



fate worse than death



few and far between



food for thought



from rags to riches



gentle/meek as a lamb



goes without saying



great minds think alike



hard as a rock



heavy as lead




hit the nail on the head



hour of need



in this day and age



it dawned on me



ladder of success



last but not least



leave no stone unturned



light

as day




long arm of the law



method in his madness



needle in a haystack



no place like home



point with pride



poor but honest



ripe old age



sadder but wiser



shadow of a doubt



sharp as a marble



sharp as a tack



shoulder the burden



sing like a bird



skinny as a
rail



slow as molasses



sneaking suspicion



sober as a judge



stand in awe



stands to reason



strong as an ox



tried and true



up the creek



wee small hours



went the extra mile



white as snow



wise as an owl



word to the wise



work like a dog




Slang Expressions



birdbrain

unintelligent



blow the whistle

tell



blow top

lose temper



blue/bummed

sad



broke

out of money



bum

doesn’t work



chewed out

scolded



chicken

coward



chick

girl



chow

food



cool

good



crashed

slept



creep

obnoxious



ditch

leave



dude

boy



dukes

fists



dumbbell

stupid



floored

surprised



flunked

failed



grand

thousand



jerk

foolish person



kick the bucket

die



kids

children



kiss off

brush off




kook

crazy person



loaded

drugged



neat

great



off the rocker

insane



rat race

job
market



ripped off

stolen



ritzy

classy



sharp

smart



shrink

psychiatrist



sweet talk

persuade



wheels

car





McKay, updated August 2013

Page
7






Use
transitions

between differing thoughts in the body of essays and paragraphs. Make sure that they provide your
intended meaning. One method of transition is the use of
key words

established in the introduction of a paper and
carried on throughout the paper. The pro
vide coherence and organization, though they should not be repeated so often
as to become obvious.



Addition



again



also



and



another



as a result



as well as



besides



both
-
and



consequently



equally important



finally



first, second, etc.



for example



for instance



further



furthermore



however



in addition to



in fact



in the same way



in the second place



last



likewise



moreover



next



not only
-
but also



otherwise



similarly



than



therefore



thus



too


Concession



although



at any rate



at least



even though



granted that



in spite of



of course



still



though



while it may be true


Consequence or Result



accordingly



as a result



because



conseque
ntly



due to



for this reason



hence



in other words



since



so



so that



then



therefore



thus


Contrast



at the same time



but



contrarily



conversely



however



in contrast



in spite of



nevertheless



nor



notwithstanding



on
one hand



on the contrary



on the other hand



or



rather



while this may be true



yet


Details



especially



in detail



in particular



including



namely



specifically



to enumerate



to explain



to list


Emphasis



above all



again



also



besides



certainly



furthermore



in addition



in fact



in truth



indeed



of course



really



surely



truly


McKay, updated August 2013

Page
8



Examples



as an illustration



for

example



for instance



in other words



in particular



thus



to illustrate



with the result that

Illustration




for example



for instance



in other words



in particular



namely



specifically



such as



thus



to illustrate


Space



above



across



adjacent



along the edge



around



at the bottom



at the front



at the left



at the rear



at the right



at the top



behind



below



beneath



beside



beyond



in front of



in the background



in the center



in the distance



in the forefront



in the foreground



nearby



nearer



next to



on the side



on top



opposite



out of sight



over



straight ahead



surrounding



under



under



within sight


Similarity or
Comparison



analogous to



in like fashion



in like manner



likewise



similarly


Suggestion



for this purpose



therefore



to this end



with this in mind



with this purpose in
mind


Summary



accordingly



as a result



consequently



finally



in brief



in conclusion



in short



therefore



thus


Time



after



afterward



afterwards



another



at first



at last



at length



at the same time



before



concurrently



during the morning,
day, week, etc.



eventually



finally



first, second, etc.



for a minute



formerly



generally



hour, day, etc.



immediately



in order to



in the meantime



last



later



meanwhile



most important



next



once



ordinarily



previously



rarely



simultaneously



soon



subsequently



then



to begin with



usually


McKay, updated August 2013

Page
9




CONJUNCTIONS THAT MAY FUNCTION AS TRANSITIONS


Coordinating Conjunctions
show that the elements it joins are similar
in importance and structure.



and



or



nor



but



for



so



yet



Common Subordinating Conjunctions
join

a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main clause.



after



although



as



as if



as much as



as

long as



as soon as



because



before



if




in order that



lest




since



so that



than




that




though



unless




until



when



whenever



where



wherever



whether



while



Correlative Conjunctions:
paired conjunctions that link balanced words, phrases,

and clauses



both/and



not only/but also



not/but




as/as



either/or



neither/nor



whether/or



Conjunctive Adverbs:
adverbs that act as a transition between complete ideas; normally show comparison,
contrast, cause
-
effect, sequence, or other relationships; usually occur between
independent clauses

or sentences,
but may be parenthetical



accordingly



afterward



also



anyhow



anyway




as a result



at last



at the same time



besides



certainly



consequently



earlier



eventually



finally



finally




for example



for instance



further



furthermore



hence




however



in addition



in any case



in fact



incidentally



indeed




instead



later



likewise



meanwhile



moreover



namely



nevertheless



next




nonetheless



now



on the contrary



otherwise



perhaps



similarly




so



still



subsequently



that is



then




thereafter



therefore




thus



undoubtedly






McKay, updated August 2013

Page
10








Following are simple formats for paragraphs. You do not have to use this format if you are
comfortable in your ability to adequately support the topic a
nd develop the paragraph in enough
sentences.


Long Paragraph Format

(such as prompts and discussion questions responses)

#1


Sentence 1: Topic sentence

Sentences 2
-
5: Introduce sub
-
point one. Discuss in 3 to 5 sentences.

Sentences 6
-
9: Transition into

sub
-
point two. Discuss in 3 to 5 sentences.

Sentence 10: Concluding sentence


#2
-

for critical analysis

Sentence 1: Topic sentence

Sentences 2
-
5: Introduce sub
-
point one. Integrate quote. Discuss in 3 to 5 sentences.

Sentences 6
-
9: Transition into
sub
-
point two. Integrate quote. Discuss in 3 to 5 sentences.


Sentence 10: Concluding sentence


Body Paragraph Format for Compositions

#1


Sentence 1: Topic sentence (TS)

Sentence 2: Introduce first sub
-
point

Sentences 3
-
5: Explain sub
-
point
(examples, statistics, etc.)

Sentence 6: Introduce second sub
-
point

Sentences 7
-
9: Explain sub
-
point (examples, statistics, etc.)


Sentence 10: Concluding sentence (CS)


#2
-

for critical analysis

(with quote integration)

Sentence 1: Topic sentence (T
S)

Sentence 2: Introduce first sub
-
point

Sentences 3
-
6: Integrate quote. Explain sub
-
point (examples, statistics, etc.)

Sentence 7: Introduce second sub
-
point

Sentences 8
-
11: Integrate quote. Explain sub
-
point (examples, statistics, etc.)

Sentence 1
2: Concluding sentence (CS)


o
r


Sentence 1: Topic sentence (TS)

Sentence 2: Integrate quote.

Sentences 3
-
6: Explain sub
-
point (examples, statistics, etc.)

Sentence 7: Integrate quote.

Sentences 8
-
11: Explain sub
-
point (examples, statistics, etc.)

Sentence 12: Concluding sentence (CS)




McKay, updated August 2013

Page
11






STEPS

1.

Understand the assignment

2.

Specify the topic

3.

Be mindful of the rhetorical situation

4.

Schedule time well

5.

Generate ideas (
b
rainstorming
, c
lustering
, f
reewriting
, d
rawing or sketching
, q
uestioning
)

6.

Draft the paper

7.

Revise

(content, sentence structure, paragraphs)

8.

Edit

(word choice, punctuation, grammar)

9.

Proofread

10.

Publish
(print and turn in)


INTRODUCTION

1.

4
-
5 sen
tences, ends with thesis statement

2.

Includes title of literary work and the author’s name

3.

Introduces the reader to the topic

and
d
efines and limits the discussion

4.

Clarifies the thesis or main idea of the essay

5.

May relate a brief story or anecdote, pose a

question, give an example, define a key term
,
include a
relative quotation
, or provide background information or important statistics


Strategies to Avoid

1.

Do not state your purpose.
--

“I am going to discuss … .”

2.

Do not apologize.
--

“I am not sure this is right, but my opinion is … .”

3.

Do not state everything that is in the essay; but, do not be overly brief. Usually, the longer the
paper, the longer the introduction.

4.

Do not be too general, starting from an unnece
ssarily large framework.

5.

Do not introduce points that will not be fully developed or not mentioned in the paper.

6.

Do not be vague.

7.

Do not be wordy, using overworked expressions.


Examples

The epic poem
Beowulf

reveals a constant battle not only with terrifying challengers, but
also with fleshly inclinations. In his various battles, Beowulf has choices to make and feelings to
stay away from. Being a great warrior with God
-
given strength, he has many opportunit
ies to fall
from good character and conduct. In the end, good obviously triumphs over bad in this epic
poem.



In
Frankenstein
, Mary Shelley creates two extremely memorable, diverse main
characters. Victor Frankenstein and his Creation differ in a myriad
of ways, causing them to
constantly rival with each other. Their incredibly hateful relationship is a result of their many
differences. This diversity causes them to interfere greatly in each other’s lives and to have a
strong influence on the other’s acti
ons. Despite the fact that Victor works laboriously to form the
Creation, they are complete opposites with differing ideas, feelings, and actions.



Brave New World

by Aldous Huxley and
1984

by George Orwell are dystopian novels.
A dystopian novel repres
ents a society under strict control of a powerful central government and
its oppression of the citizens. The theme of
Brave New World

and
1984

is a warning to humans
of a powerful centralized government in total control of the lives of its citizens.
The
authors of
t
hese novels

obviously

make ominous predictions of the future.
1984

and
Brave New World

show a dystopian society through technology, drugs and alcohol to control citizens, and the
elimination of the past.


McKay, updated August 2013

Page
12




THESIS STATEMENTS

1.

Appears in the
first paragraph of the essay, most often as the last sentence

2.

States the essay’s subject

the topic that the writer

will discuss

3.

Conveys the essay’s purpose

either informative or persuasive

4.

Indicates the focus

the assertion that presents your point of view

5.

Uses specific language, not vague words

6.

May briefly state the main subdivisions of the essay

7.

Must be a statement, not a question





Weak Thesis Statements



I am writing my essay about Beowulf’s bravery in battle.



My essay is about Beowulf’s bravery in batt
le.



Paintings by women are getting more attention.



Deceptive advertising can cause many problems for consumers.





Good Thesis Statements



Beowulf demonstrates magnificent bravery in the sight of battle, both with men and with
pagan monsters.



During the
past ten years, the works of the artists Mary Cassatt and Rosa Bonheur have
finally gained widespread critical acclaim.



Deceptive advertising costs consumers not only money but also their health.



BODY PARAGRAPHS

1.

Each contains 10
-
15 sentences

2.

Begin with t
opic sentence that states the main idea of the paragraph
.

3.

Follow one of the paragraph models
provided in this packet.

4.

Body paragraphs must contain about twice as much opinion as factual details.

5.

Use transitional words or phrases whenever necessary.

6.

All
sentences in each paragraph must directly relate to the topic sentence.

7.

End with a concluding sentence the reiterates the main point of the paragraph.



CONCLUSION

1.

4
-
5 sentences, should be structurally parallel to the introduction

2.

May provide an

analogy that summarizes the thesis
, summarize the main points (
only if the writing is
longer than three or four pages
),
or urge the readers to be aware (
especially in an argument essay
)


Strategies to Avoid

1.

Do not begin with “In conclusion.”

2.

Do not introd
uce new ideas or facts that belong in the body of the essay.

3.

Do not
simply
reword your introduction
, write in generalities
,

or summarize.



4.

Do not announce what you have discussed.


“In this paper, I have explained . . . .”

5.

Do not apologize.


“Even thoug
h I am not an expert, I feel my position is correct.”

6.

Do not be abrupt, stopping with no final focus.

7.

Do not be desperate, providing a conclusion that shows the writer has nothing more to say.


Examples

In the epic poem
Beowulf
, the battles of external and

internal matters are quite evident.
Beowulf fights both of these battles and maintains heroic values. Though times appear difficult,
he perseveres. Beowulf is a wonderful warrior who sees many victories.



McKay, updated August 2013

Page
13


The numerous differences between Victor and his

Creation are a crucial feature in Mary
Shelley’s
Frankenstein
. These differences cause extreme hatred between the two characters. This
animosity fuels their lives for many years, creating clashes and rivalries. Because they have such
opposing views and ju
dgments, they become severe enemies. Victor and his Creation differ so
greatly that the results of their differences take over their lives and affect all that they do.



Brave New World

and
1984

examine the horrors of a dystopian society. Both novels
h
ave the same theme of a warning to man where the world is heading. With technology, drugs
and alcohol, and elimination of the past the two novel’s governments oppress the citizens and
suppress their thoughts. The sense of humanity is lost when man become
s like animals. The goal
of both novels is to show the extremities of an over
-
powerful central government.







Use literary quotations within essay

body paragraphs to s
upport the argument of an essay. Select,
present, and discuss material from the text specifically to “prove” your point

to make your case

in
much the same way a lawyer brings evidence before a jury. Quoting for any other purpose is
c
ounterproductive.


1.

Be
selective
. Use only t
he information that is specifically relevant to your point
.
Think of the text in terms
of units

words, phrases, sentences, and groups of sentences

and use only what you need.
Using too
many quotations can bore

readers and might lead them to conclude that you are neither an original thinker
nor a skilled writer.


2.

Keep quotations as
brief

as possible. The paper should be your thoughts supported by other people’s ideas.


3.

Comment upon quotations
. Do not place the
m in a sentence just to use a quote.


4.

Do not allow a quotation to stand alone as a sentenc
e
. Int
roduce it or incorporate it into an original
sentence, or introduce with a tag phrase.


5.

Do not use two quotations in a row, without intervening material of you
r own.


6.

Do not allow a quote to be a fragment
, just standing with no main idea.


7.

Do not include a literary or scholarly quotation in an introduction
. Use the introduction to demonstrate your
style of writing and intent for the paper.


8.

Do not begin or end
a paragraph with a quotation of any kind
. Topic and concluding sentences should
always

be your own words. Quotes need to appear within the writer’s paragraphs because they follow and
support a claim and must be explained.


9.

Provide a context for each quot
ation. Do not rely on quotations to tell your story for you. It is your
responsibility to provide your reader with a context for the quotation. The context should set the basic scene
for when, possibly where, and under what circumstances the quotation was

spoken or written.


10.

Attribute each quotation to its source. Tell your reader who is speaking. Here is a good test: try reading
your text aloud. Could your reader determine without looking at your paper where your quotations begin? If
not, you need to
attribute the quote more noticeably.

Avoid getting into the “he/she said” attribution rut!
Alternatives are available
.




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14


11.

Explain the significance of each quote. Once you have inserted your quotation, along with its context and
attribution, do not stop. Your reader still needs your assessment of why the quotation holds significance for
your paper.


12.

Cite each quotation. I
f a
quote ending a sentence

requires a
citation
, place the sentence period after the
citation. Place question marks and exclamation points before the citation.


If a
prose quotation

runs
no more than four lines

and requires no special emphasis, put it in
quotation marks
and incorporate it into the text. Place the
page number(s) parenthetically at the end of the quote
. You may place
a quotation at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, or divide it by your own words.


Vary methods of incorporating q
uotes into sentences.



Introduce a quotation by either indicating what it is intended to show or by naming its source, or both. For non
-
narrative poetry, it is customary to attribute quotations to the speaker; for a story with a narrator, attribute to t
he
narrator. For plays, novels, and other works with characters, identify characters as you quote them.


NOTE: While the quotes in t
h
e following examples do use “the narrator,” students should not use “the
narrator” as the subject unless the noun fits
the specific situation. Scan the remainder of the handout to
see other examples.


1.

Introduce with a tag followed by a comma:



The storyteller maintains, "All who know me consider me an eminently safe man" (Melville 117).



Goleman states, “Ordinarily, there
is a balance between emotional and rational minds [. . .] reflecting
the operation of distinct, but interconnected, circuitry in the brain” (9).



Joseph Conrad writes of the company manager in
Heart of Darkness
, “He was obeyed, yet he inspired
neither love
nor fear, nor even respect” (62).



According to Jonathan Clarke, "Professional diplomats often say that trying to think diplomatically
about foreign policy is a waste of time” (45).



Calvin Coolidge’s tendency to fall asleep became legendary. As H. L. Mencke
n commented in the
American Mercury in 1933, “Nero fiddled, but Coolidge only snored.”



Hamlet denies Rosencrantz’s claim that thwarted ambition caused his depression.


He states, “I could be
bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space”
(
Hamlet
2.2).



When faced with a twelve
-
foot mountain troll, Ron gathers his courage, shouting, “
Wingardium
Leviosa!”
(Rowling, p. 176).



The Pirate King sees an element of regality in their impoverished and dishonest life.

“It is, it is a
glorious thing/To

be a pirate king,” he declares (
Pirates of Penzance
, 1983).

Alternatively, ending a sentence in a like fashion (
though this method used often becomes awkward
):



“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” (1), writes Charles Dickens of the eighte
enth
century.



“Books are not life,” Lawrence emphasized.


Identifying tag phras
e in the middle of the sentence. Dividing the quote may highlight a particular
nuance of the quote’s meaning.



“He was obeyed,” writes Joseph Conrad of the company manager in
He
art of Darkness
, “yet he inspired
neither love nor fear, nor even respect” (62).



“There is nothing either good or bad,” Hamlet argues, “but thinking makes it so” (
Hamlet
2.2).



“And death shall be no more,” Donne writes, “Death thou shalt die” (“Death, Be N
ot Proud,” l. 14).

Introduce with a prepositional tag statement followed by a comma:



According to the narrator, "All who know [him] consider [him] an eminently safe man" (Melville 117).

For accuracy of the sentence, the pronouns “me” have been changed
to “him.” When making
such
changes, ALWAYS write the changes in
square

brackets.

(More details later in the handout packet.)


McKay, updated August 2013

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15





Wiglaf

admonishes his fellow thanes when he declares, “death / [w]ould be better [. . .] than the kind /
[o]f life you can lead, brand
ish
ing with disgrace!” (860
-
862)

Capital letters “w” and “
o” are changed to lower case.
Some words
are left out between “better
” and “than.”


Quote incorporated into the sentence:



The storyteller reveals that "[a]ll who know me consider me an eminently safe man" (Melville 117).



The narrator of the story describes himself as "an eminently safe man" (Melville 117).



In an essay on
urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of
learning every recent rumor or tale [...] and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).



For Charles Dickens, the eighteenth century was both “the best of times
” and “the worst of times” (1).



After Grendel’s first rampage in Herot, Hrothgar knows that the “beginning might not be the end” (49).



The poet refers to Grendel as the “shepherd of sin, guardian of crime” (273).



Beowulf had lived a life of great merit, as

he had taken every chance to demonstrate his strength and
prowess. When he died, all the land honored him as one “deserving of praise” (897).



Historian John Doe has argued that in 1941 “almost all Americans assumed the war would end quickly”
(Doe 223). Y
et during the first six months of U.S. involvement, the wives and mothers of soldiers often
noted in their diaries their fear that the war would drag on for years.



When Hamlet tells Rosencrantz that he “could be bounded in a nutshell and count [him]self a
king of
infinite space” (
Hamlet
2.2), he implies that thwarted ambition did not cause his depression.

2.

A complete sentence introduces the quotation. In these cases, follow the introductory sentence with a
colon.

Use this method sparingly.



The narrator describes himself in blunt terms: "All who know me consider me an eminently safe man"
(Melville 117).



In
Wuthering Heights
, Catherine finally admits her feelings for Heathcliff while she is in the kitchen
speaking to Nelly: “He’s more myself

than I am” (202) are the words she uses to describe how her love
takes her.


Quoting Dialogue i
n Drama

If you quote
dialogue between two or more characters in a play
, set off the quotation from your text. Begin each
part of the dialogue with the
appropriate character’s name indented one inch from the left margin and written in all
capital letters. Follow the name with a period, and start the quotation. Indent all subsequent lines in that character’s
speech an additional quarter inch. When the d
ialogue shifts to another character, start the new line indented one
inch from the left margin. Maintain this pattern throughout the entire quotation.




SEYTON. The Queen, my lord, is dead.

MACBETH. She should have died hereafter;

There would have been

a time for such a word.

Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,

Creeps n this petty pace from day to day.

To the last syllable of recorded time,

And al

l our yesterdays have lighted fools

The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!

Life’s but a walking

shadow, a poor player

That struts and frets his hour upon the stage

And then is heard no more; it is a tale

Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury

Signifying nothing. (V.v.16
-
28)





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16


Quoting Poetry

Quotations of up to 3

lines of poetry should be integrated into your sentence.



In
Julius Caesar
, Antony begins his famous speech with "Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your
ears; / I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him" (III.ii.75
-
76).


Notice that a slash (/) with a space on either side is used to separate lines.



The Pirate King argues that “it is, it is a glorious thing/to be a pirate king” (
Pirates of Penzance
, 1983).


More than 3 lines of poetry

should be indented. As with any extende
d (indented) quotation, do not use quotation
marks unless you need to indicate a quotation within your quotation.


Parenthetical Citations

When quoting from a prose work, cite with
page

number.

When quoting from a poetic work, cite with
line

number.


The quotation is followed by its source author's name within parentheses and
then

by a period. No periods or
commas should be placed
within

the quotation marks even if they were part of the statement in its original
location.


However, if the original s
tatement concluded with a question mark or explanation point, that punctuation
should
be included within the quotation marks, and your
own

sentence should still end with a period
after

the
parentheses.


NOTE: If the written document discusses only one wor
k of literature, include only the number in the
citation. No name is necessary because the audience understands who the author is.



Punctuating Quotations

Place
periods

and
commas

inside quotation marks, unless a literary quote is at the end of a sentence.



Using a quotation that needs a citation
.

w
ord” (#),

word” (#).



Using a quotation without the need for a citation


perhaps quoting dialogue
.

word.”
word,




According to Professor Jones, Lincoln “feared the spread of slavery,” but many of his aides advised him
to “watch and wait” (Jones 143).

Place
semicolons

and
colons

outside quotation marks.

word”:

word” (#):

word”;
word” (#);



Lawrence insi
sted that books “are not life”; however, he wrote exultantly about the power of the novel.


Place
question

marks

and
exclamation points

outside quotation marks when the entire sentence is a
question or exclamation .



Why does Lawrence point out that

“Books are not life”?




Place
question marks

and
exclamation points

inside

quotation marks when the
quote itself

is a question or
exclamation .



According to the report, the lawyer asked the woman, "Why did you say, 'I'm glad,' after the accident?"
(Jones

21)


Precede the quotation with no punctuation if it is a part of the sentence.



In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of
learning every recent rumor or tale [...] and in a short time a lively exchang
e of details occurs" (78).





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17


Precede the quotation with a comma if the quote is introduced with a fragment.



Goleman

states, “Ordinarily, there is a balance between emotional and rational minds [. . .] reflecting
the operation of distinct, but interconnected, circuitry in the brain” (9).


Precede the quotation with a colon if the quote is introduced with a complete sent
ence.



In
Wuthering Heights
, Catherine finally admits her feelings for Heathcliff while she is in the kitchen
speaking to Nelly: “He’s more myself than I am” (202) are the words she uses to describe how her love
takes her.


When quoting lines of poetry up
to three lines long, separate one line of poetry from another with a slash
mark.



Wiglaf admonishes his fellow thanes when he declares, “death / [w]ould be better [. . .] than the kind /
[o]f life you can lead, branding with disgrace!” (860
-
862)


If for the sake of brevity you wish to omit material from a quoted passage, use ellipses points to indicate
omission.



In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of
learning every recent rumor or tale [...] a
nd in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).


Use single quotation marks for the embedded quotation (a quote within a quote).



According to Hertzberg , Dahl gives the U. S. Constitution "bad marks in 'democratic fairness' and
'encouraging c
onsensus'" (90).

The phrases "democratic fairness" and "encouraging consensus"
are already in quot
ation marks in Dahl's sentence.




In “The Emperor’s New Clothes,” Hans Christian Andersen wrote, “‘But the Emperor has nothing on at
all!’ cried a little
child.”


Explaining the Quoted Material

You not only need to integrate each quotation within a sentence of your own, but also you usually need to write
another sentence after the quotation in order for you to comment on the quotation's relevance to your
point.
This step is necessary because quotations do not speak for themselves.



The narrator describes himself in blunt terms: "All who know me consider me an eminently safe man"
(Melville 117). This statement is ironic because the narrator does not seem t
o realize that his cautious
attitude might limit his meaningful interaction with other members of society.


Keep in mind that your own sentence which contains a quotation does not need to end immediately after the
quote; instead, you can simply follow the
parenthetical citation with a comma or semi
-
colon and then continue
your sentence.



When the narrator describes himself in blunt terms as "an eminently safe man" (Melville 117), the
reader almost immediately perceives the irony of the statement. In other wo
rds, the narrator does not
seem to realize that his cautious attitude might limit his meaningful interaction with other members of
society.


If what you are quoting originally contained quotation marks itself, then those original double quotation marks
sho
uld become single quotation marks when the statement is repeated within your own sentence inside new
double quotation marks.



According to the report, the lawyer asked the woman, "Why did you say, 'I'm glad,' after the accident?"
(Jones 21)


A comment or an explanation that immediately follows the closing quotation mark appears in
parentheses
.





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18


Use
sic

(from the Latin for “thus” or “so”) to assure readers that you have quoted accurately even the
spelling, logic, or grammar may be incorrect.



Shaw admitted, “Nothing can extinguish my interest in Shakspear” (sic).



Twelve
-
year
-
old Betsy Smith wrote in her diary, “Father is afraid that he will be guilty of beach [
sic
] of
contract.”

Use italics or quotation marks to
emphasize

important words or phrases.



Lincoln specifically advocated a government “for the people” (emphasis added).



Lincoln specifically advocated a government
for the people

(emphasis added).


Block Quotes

Sometimes,

you need to quote long passages. However, you should use block quotations only when you fear that
omitting any words will destroy the integrity of the passage. If that passage exceeds four lines (some sources say
five), then set it off as a block quotatio
n.


1.

Block a quotation if it runs
more than four typed lines
.

2.

RETURN after the introductory comment for the quotation.
Indent one inch

from the left margin.

3.

Type the quoted material
without quotation marks

and maintain
double
-
spacing
.

4.

Precede a block
quote with a colon if the introductory material is a complete sentence or a tag such as “Dickens
cites.”

5.

Precede a block quote with no punctuation, if the quoted material continues the sentence that was begun in the
body paragraph.

6.

If you quote only a sing
le paragraph or part of one, do not indent the first line more than the rest.

7.

To quote
two or more paragraphs
, indent the first line of each paragraph an additional quarter inch. If the first
sentence quoted does not begin a paragraph in the source, how
ever, do not indent it the additional amount.
Indent only the first lines of the successive paragraphs.

8.

A
parenthetical reference

to a prose quotation set off from the text follows the last line of the quotation. In this
instance, the period follows the
last word of the sentence, not the last parenthesis mark.



THE ELLIPSIS

In quoting a passage, you frequently want to omit words, phrases, or sentences in the original that are not useful
to the paper. Whenever you omit material from a quoted passage, be
guided by two principles: (1) fairness to
the author quoted and (2) the grammatical integrity of your writing.


Never present a quotation in a way that could cause a reader to misunderstand the sentence structure of
the original source. If you quote only

a word or a phrase, it will be obvious that you left out some of the original
sentence. But if omitting material from the original sentence or sentences leaves a quotation that appears to be a
sentence or a series of sentences, you must use ellipsis poin
ts, or spaced periods, surrounded by brackets to
indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original.


To omit a quotation within a sentence and to omit words within a sentence, use the ellipsis. For an
ellipsis

within a sentence, use
three periods in brackets with a space before and after each [. . .].



In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of
learning every recent rumor or tale [...] and in a short time a lively exchange of detai
ls occurs" (78).


If a reference follows the ellipsis at the end of a sentence, use three periods with a space before each, and
place the sentence period after the final parenthesis.



drama” [. . .].



drama” [. . .] (101
-
02).


The ellipsis is a mark of
punctuation that consists of three spaced periods. It has primarily two usages:


1.

The main usage of ellipsis dots is to indicate an omission within quoted material. Ellipsis periods are
usually not needed

at the beginning of quotations because the reader generally is aware that the quotation
has come from a larger context. Writers use the ellipsis to eliminate material from the quotation because the

McKay, updated August 2013

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19


information is not needed for the current context; howeve
r, care must be taken not to obscure or change the
intended meaning of the original author.


2.

The one other usage for an ellipsis mark is to show a break or hesitation in dialog.



“She just doesn’t care . . . She just doesn’t care.”



“Watch out, Bill! If you
do that we’ll. . . .”


The Modern Language Association (MLA) style for documenting with ellipsis dots requires that the writer place
square brackets around the three periods to show that the ellipsis is the writer’s ellipsis and not part of the
original ma
terial. When the ellipsis is in the middle of the sentence, a space must be placed before the first
bracket and after the last bracket. Proper punctuation from the original passage and with the added text is
expected. If the ellipsis falls at the end of th
e sentence, a space comes before the first bracket and a period
comes immediately after the last bracket. If the ellipsis is at the end of the quotation, the closing quotation marks
come immediately after the last bracket followed usually by the parentheti
cal citation and then the final period.


Original passage



In the movie
As Good As It Gets
, the character played by Jack Nicholson suffers from obsessive
-
compulsive behavior as seen in the way he avoids cracks in the pavement and locks and relocks his
apart
ment door five times.



In his essay “A Hanging,” Orwell laments the “unspeakable wrongness” of taking the life of another human.


Ellipsis in the middle of the quote



Sometimes movies promote stereotypical attitudes about mental disorders such as the obsessive
-
compulsive
behavior in
As Good As It Gets

when “Jack Nicholson [. . .] avoids cracks in the pavement and locks and
relocks his apartment door five times” (Mohr on
line).



As the prisoner is marched to the gallows, Orwell reports, “All the organs of his body were working [...] all
toiling away in solemn foolery” (47).


Ellipsis at the end of the quote



Sometimes movies promote stereotypical attitudes about mental diso
rders by portraying disorders such as
obsessive compulsion in outlandish ways like “[i]n the movie
As Good As It Gets

[. . .]” (Mohr).



In his essay “A Hanging,” Orwell laments the “unspeakable wrongness” of taking the life of another human.
As the
prisoner is marched to the gallows, Orwell reports, “His eyes saw the yellow gravel and the grey
walls, and his brain still remembered, foresaw, reasoned [...].”



SQUARE BRACKETS

Use square brackets whenever inserting words into an original source to
clarify, simplify, or identify. Consider
the following guidelines:


Place square brackets around ellipsis dots to show omission of words or phrases in a

quotation. Put a space before the first bracket and after the last bracket.



“In 1981, when President
Benjamin Harrison proclaimed the first forest reserves [. . .] his action was called
undemocratic and un
-
American” (Smith 59).


Place square brackets when clarifying a pronoun in the quotation because the antecedent is not in the
quote that you are using.



“At that time he [Lindbergh] had not yet flown the Atlantic.”



“The principal of the school told Billy [William Smith] that his contract would be terminated.”


Place square brackets when you need to clarify information in the quote you are using.



“The
sampling records [from the mountain weather stations] were examined for levels of the same
atmospheric gasses.”



Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends]
make a point of learning every rumor or
tale" (78).


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20




He claimed he could provide “hundred of examples [of court decisions] to illustrate the historical tension
between church and state.”


Place square brackets after obvious errors made by the original author and put the Latin word
sic

[meaning
th
us it is
] inside the brackets.



“The general’s words, however, should be understood in the contrext [sic] of the surrounding battle.”


Change pronouns:



When he hears Cordelia's answer, Lear seems surprised, but not dumbfounded. He advises her to "mend
[her
] speech a little." He had expected her to praise him the most; but compared to her sisters', her remarks
seem almost insulting (1.1.95).



Esther Hansen felt that when she came to the United States “nobody understood [her].”


Enclose stage directions:



Miranda [sipping her coffee]: Are you glad to see me?



Ernest [glaring at her]: Of course, not!


When enclosing parts within passages already enclosed in parentheses, use square brackets.



Have you read this translation of the Bible (the one by Tyndale [died

in 1536])?





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21







THE SENTENCE


The sentence is the basic unit of thought. Its grammar consists of words with specific forms and functions arranged
in specific ways.



Subject

Predicate



Art

can be controversial.


Its meaning and value to society

are often the focus of debate.



SENTENCE TYPES

Sentences may be
simple, compound, complex
, or
compound
-
complex
. Overuse of simple sentences makes
choppy, monotonous writing. One way to avoid this error is to read writing aloud to make sure that is sound
smooth. Another way is to have someone else proofread the assignment. Use conjunctions and pronouns to vary

sentence structure.


Simple
: one main clause, no subordinate clause



Last summer was unusually hot.



The summer made many farmers leave the area for good or reduced them to bare existence.

Compound
: two or more independent clauses, no subordinate clause



Last July was hot, but August was even hotter.



The hot sun scorched the earth; the lack of rain killed many crops.

Complex
: one main clause and one or more subordinate clause



Rain finally came, although many had left the area by then.



Those who remained
were able to start anew because the government came to their aid.

Compound
-
Complex
: two or more main clauses, one or more subordinate clause



Even though government aid finally came, many people had already been red
uced to poverty, and
others had
been
forced to move.


CLAUSES

A
Clause

is a group of related words containing both a subject and a verb and functions as a sentence or part of a
sentence.


An
Independent Clause

contains a complete subject
-
verb combination and can stand alone as a complete sent
ence.


A
Dependent Clause

(or subordinate clause) begins with a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun and
cannot stand alone as a sentence.


Restrictive Clauses

are essential to identify nouns or to complete the meaning. These clauses simply foll
ow the
nouns or ideas they are modifying. No commas are used to offset restrictive clauses.



In the line, the young woman
who was wearing a red bandana and hoop earrings

needed a ticket.

Most clauses beginning with
that

are restrictive clauses and are not
set off with commas.



Where is the report
that he left on the desk this morning
?


Nonrestrictive Clauses

are not essential to complete the meaning of the sentence. You can remove them from the
sentence, and the basic meaning of the sentence will remain cle
ar. Because they are nonessential, these clauses are
always offset by commas.



Linda and Burt,
who just returned from Alaska
, would go on another vacation tomorrow.



The cockatiels,
which were chirping loudly to the music of the nearby television
, should li
ve for up to
twenty years.



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22



Noun Clause
: Clauses may function as the subject, direct object, predicate nominative, object of a
preposition, or appositive.



Noun Clause Markers:


That

Whether

If

Who

Whom

Whose


Which


What

When

Where

Why

How

Whoever

Whomever

Whichever

Whatever


Subject
:
Whether we travel by train or plane has not been decided.

Direct

Object
:
We did whatever was necessary.

Predicate Nominative
:
Painting portraits is what she enjoys most.

Object of the Preposition
:
He said nothing a
bout where he would go next.

Appositive
:
The idea that he could succeed carried him through.


Sometimes the introductory word that is omitted when the noun clause is used as a direct object:



They thought (that) Thursday was a holiday.


Adjective Clause
:
Clauses may modify nouns or pronouns. Relative Pronouns introduce adjective clauses. A
relative

(1) serves a grammatical function within its own dependent clause; (2) joins the dependent clause that it
introduces to anther clause; and (3) refers to an an
tecedent in another clause.






Relative Pronouns
:

Who

Whom

Which

That

Whoever


Whomever




God,
Who created the universe
, also controls it. (
Who

is the subject of
created
)



That is a battle about
which much has been written
. (
Which

is the object of the preposition
about
)



A Chopin nocturne was the first piece
that he played
. (
That

is the direct object of
played
.)



A hemophiliac is one
whose blood does not clot
. (
Whose

is an adjective modifying the noun
blood
)



We just passed a place
wh
ere we could have eaten breakfast
. (
Where

is an adverb, modifying the
verb
could
have eaten
)


Sometimes the relative pronoun is omitted, but this understood pronoun still serves its usual functions.

The flight I needed was canceled.


Adverb Clause
: Clau
ses may modify a verb, adjective, or adverb. Subordinating Conjunctions (listed under
Conjunctions) introduce Adverb Clauses. Adverb clauses answer the questions
where, when, how, why, to what
extent
, and
under what condition
.



We will leave
when the stor
m subsides
. (modifies the verb
will leave
)



He is certain
that his request will be granted
. (modifies the adjective
certain
)



Their boat rides smoother
than ours does
. (modifies the adverb
smoother
)


Essential parts of an adverb clause may properly be
omitted if no misunderstanding will occur. Such a clause is
called an elliptical clause.



Scott can swim better
than I

(can swim).



MODIFIERS

Misplaced Modifiers

modify the wrong word in a sentence or are placed

so that it is not clear which word is being
described.
Modifiers should be placed as close as possible to the words they modify. When they are not, they may
make the sentence seem confusing or even ridiculous to the reader. To correct a misplaced modif
ier, place the
modifier near the word it modifies, so that there cannot be any confusion.


The underlined phrase in each sentence below should be placed where the ^ appears.



He ^ wants someone to wash the windows
badly
.



The courier delivered the material ^ to the vice president
in the red envelope
.



The magician ^ produced the rabbit
with the black mustache and silken cape
.



The pheasants ^ were eaten by the hunters
killed the day before
.


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23



Hints for dodging misplaced modi
fiers:



Place modifiers where they will clearly modify the words intended.



Place limiting modifiers carefully:
almost, even, exactly, hardly, just, merely, nearly, only, scarcely, simply



Make each modifier refer to only one grammatical element.




Position
adverbs with care.

Awkward:

In automobile manufacturing, robots have been
useful especially
.




In automobile manufacturing, robots have been
especially useful
.


Keep subjects, verbs, and objects together.


Awkward:
The wreckers,
soon after they began
demolishing the house
, discovered a large box of coins.




Soon after they began demolishing the house
, the wreckers discovered a large box of coins.


Awkward:
Three wreckers lifted,
with great effort
, the heavy box.




With great effort
, three wreckers l
ifted the heavy box.




Keep parts of infinitives or verb phrases together

Awkward:
The weather service expected temperatures
to not rise
.



The weather service expected temperatures
not to rise
.


Awkward:
Many students had,
by spending most of their time
on the assignment
, completed it.





By spending most of their time on the assignment
, many students had completed it.





Many students had completed the assignment
by spending most of their time on it
.


Dangling Modifiers

do not seem to modify anything in the sentence, or they may appear to describe a word in a
way that makes no logical sense. They
usually occur at the beginning of a sentence. To correct a dangling
modifier, rewrite the sentence. Either provide a subjec
t that the modifier can sensibly modify, or reword the
modifier itself.

To sew efficiently, your needle must be sharp.




To sew efficiently, you must use a sharp needle.


While washing my hair, the drain got clogged.





While I was washing my hair, the drain got clogged.


After painting the house, the furniture was rearranged.




After painting the house, we rearranged the furniture.





SUBJUNCTIVE
MOOD OF THE VERB

The
subjunctive mood

appears in clauses following statement of request, demand, suggestion, or recommendation.
In the abstract, you may find these occasions hard to identify; in practice, they are easy to spot.


Wishes
:


I wish it
were

bedtime.


“If” clauses

that describe si
tuations contrary to fact, hypothetical, or improbable
:



If Bertha
were

to call, Benjamin would pretend not to hear the phone.



If it
were

to rain, the protestors would move their meeting indoors.



We all wish the theater
were

not so decrepit.


“That” clauses

that make demands, requests, recommendations, or motions
:



General Campo asked that his troops
be

silent.



“I ask only that all soldiers
give

their best,” he said.



The board urged that everyone
contribute
.



The members insisted that they themselves
contribut
e
.



They suggested that each
donate

both time and money.


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24



Common Expressions:



Be

that as it may . . .



As it
were

. . .



Come

what may . . .



Peace
be

with you . . .


The present subjunctive is the base form of the verb

that is, the present infinitive form without
to
:




Verb


Present subjunctive

to be


be

to give


give

to send


send

to bless


bless


For
be
, the past subjunctive is always
were
. This is true even in the

first and third person singular, where you might expect
the form to be
was
:

First person
:


I wish I
were

the director.

Second person
:


Suppose you
were

the director
.

Third person
:


I wish she
were

the director.



PARALLEL STRUCTURE

Parallel structure

means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of
importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use
of coordinating conjunctions such as "a
nd" or "or."


Words and Phrases



Mary likes hik
ing
, swimm
ing
, and bicycli
ng
.



Mary likes
to hike
,
to swim
, and
to ride

a bicycle.



Mary likes to
hike
,
swim
, and
ride

a bicycle.


Do not mix forms:

Not Parallel:
The production manager was asked

to write his report
quickly
,
accurately
, and
in a detailed

manner
.




The production manager was asked to write his report
quickly
,
accurately
, and
thoroughly
.


Not Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he
waited until the last m
inute to study for the
exam
,
completed his lab problems in a careless manner
, and
his motivation was low
.




The teacher said that he was a poor student because he
waited until the last minute to study for the exam
,
completed his lab problems in a
careless manner
, and
lacked motivation
.


With Correlative Conjunctions
: Whenever you join parts of a sentence with correlative pairs, use the same grammatical
form in both parts.



Not Parallel:

Explorers can be both
afraid of the unknown

and,
when they en
counter something new, they want to
understand i
t.





Explorers can be both
afraid of the unknown

and
curious about it
.


Clauses
: A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses. Changing to another pattern or changing
the voice
of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism.

Not Parallel
:
The coach told the players
that they should get a lot of sleep
,
that they should not eat too much
, and
to do some warm
-
up exercises
before the game.



The coach
told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that
they should do some warm
-
up exercises before the game.



The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not each too much, and do some warm
-
up
exercises before the game.



McKay, updated August 2013

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25


Not Parallel
:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for
him to s
how his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers. (The last clause is
passive.)



The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would

be time for him to
show his slide presentation, a
nd that prospective buyers would ask him

questions.


Lists after a Colon
: Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.

Not Parallel
:
The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find

word meanings
,
pronunciations
,
correct
spellings
, and
looking up regular verbs
.





The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations,




correct spellings, and irregular verbs.


Proofreading Strategies:



Check on each side of coordinating conjunctions to see whether

the items joined are parallel.



If you have several items in a list, put them in a column to see if they are parallel.



Listen to the sound of the items in a list or the items being compared. Do you hear the same kinds of sounds? Or do
you hear a rhythm

being repeated? If something is breaking that rhythm, check for parallelism.



PHRASES

A
Phrase

is a group of related words within a subject, verb, or both subject and verb. Phrases are used

in sentences to
complete thoughts or add descriptive detail. To avoid problems with ambiguous meaning or errors in punctuation, phrases
must be placed near the noun, verb, or other part of speech to which the phrase refers.


Prepositional Phrases

contain

a preposition and its object.



He waited
for the train
.



The cat prefers to stay
in the house
.



They enjoy going out for pizza
after the football games
.


Absolute Phrases

consist of a noun or pronoun and a participle plus any other completing words. Absolute phrases
modify the entire sentence and cannot be punctuated as a complete sentence.



Their project nearly completed
, the painters began to clean their equipment.



The v
iolinist,
her arms and shoulders aching with pain
, practiced long hours every night.


Appositives

are words or phrases that rename the preceding words or phrases. They are often identified as noun phrases.
The punctuation of an appositive follows the rul
es for restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.



My friend
Mary

loves to cook with chocolate.



Mary,
a chocolate lover
, shops carefully for the best chocolate in town.



The novel
The Grapes of Wrath

is often studied in college English classes.


Gerunds

are ver
b forms ending in

ing
and functions as a noun in a sentence.
Gerund phrases

include a gerund and its
completing words.



Dancing

is her favorite activity.



Writing a collection of poems

remains Sophia’s secret hobby.



Employees will not be paid without
completing the weekly projects
.



In some cases, the
possessive form

of a noun or pronoun precedes a gerund.



The parents were not thrilled with their son’s
tattooing a snake on his arm
.



Her
dancing in the moonlight

amazed the children.


Infinitive Phrases

are groups of words consisting of to plus a verb and its completing words. An infinitive phrase can
function as a noun, adjective, or adverb.



To read

is the best way to study grammar.



Disneyland is one of the best places
to visit while on vacation
.



Her daughter was too nervous
to play the piano in front of an audience
.


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26



Participial Phrases

are groups of words consisting of a participle and its completing words. All verbs have present
participle and past participle forms.



Staring at the blank compute
r screen
, Martin found himself unable to finish his essay.



Interrupted by the demands of his hungry two
-
year
-
old
, he could not finish reading the paper.



Walking down the hall
, she was hit by the door as it flew open at the end of class.



Bewildered by the q
uestion
, the student could not finish the test.



PRONOUN REFERENCE

The word or word group that a pronoun replaces is called the
antecedent
. In order for your writing to communicate its
message clearly, each pronoun must relate precisely to an antecedent.

Pronoun reference is clear when readers know
immediately to whom or what each pronoun refers.


Guidelines for Clear Pronoun Reference:



Do not overuse
it
.



Place pronouns close to their antecedents.




Use
that
,
which
, and
who

correctly.

Who

Used

as a subject in reference to people

Which

Used as a subject in reference to things

That

Used as a subject in reference to things




Reserve
you

for only direct address.

Prison uprisings often happen when
you

allow overcrowding.



Prison uprisings often
happen when prisons are overcrowded.


In Russia,
you

usually have to stand in long lines to buy groceries.



Russian consumers usually have to stand in long lines to buy groceries.




Make a pronoun refer to a specific antecedent.

Comets usually fly by the

earth at 100,000 mph, whereas asteroids sometimes collide with the earth. This interests
scientists.



Comets usually fly by the earth at 100,000 mph, whereas asteroids sometimes collide with the earth. This
difference interests scientists.


I

told my friends that I was going to major in geology, which made my parents happy.



My parents were happy because I discussed my major with my friends.



My parents were happy because I chose to major in geology.


This subject unites the sciences of physics, biology, and paleontology.



Geophysics units the sciences of physics, biology, and paleontology.


They say that earthquak
es are becoming more frequent.





Seismologists say that earthquakes are becoming more

frequent.


It said in the newspaper that California has minor earthquakes almost daily.



The newspaper reported that California has minor earthquakes almost daily.


NOTE
: Never use the words “this” + a verb to begin a sentence. Instead, place a noun b
etween the two words, thus
making meaning clearer.






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27


SUBJECT
-
VERB AGREEMENT



In any inverted sentence or question, the subject appears after the verb.



A subject is never in a prepositional phrase.



Word or phrases that separate subjects and verbs do not
affect agreement.

Singular



Titles of movies, books, plays, etc.



Names of cities, countries, states, etc.



Subjects modified by each or every



Does, Is, Was, Has



Subjects joined by
and

relating to one person



Certain indefinite pronouns:
each, either,
neither, one, no one, nothing, nobody, anyone, anything, anybody,
someone, something, somebody, everyone, everything, everybody



Certain words that end in s:
mumps, measles, rickets, shingles, diabetes, AIDS, molasses, news



Words with foreign origin:
stam
ina, phenomenon, medium

Plural



Compound subjects joined by
and



Do, Are, Were, Have



Certain indefinite pronouns:
many, both, few, several



Words with foreign origin:
phenomena, media

Either Singular or Plural



Units of Measure

weight, money




Singular
:
unit




Plural
: separate parts



Collective Nouns




Singular
: group as a unit




Plural
: individuals acting separately



Certain nouns that end in s:
civics, dramatics, ethics, linguistics, mathematics, physics, politics, statistics,
harmonics, hydraulics
, aeronautics, tactics




Singular
: study; science




Plural
: qualities, behavior, physical activity



Compound subjects joined by correlative conjunctions. Look at the last word in the series; if that word is singular,
use a singular verb; if that word i
s plural, use a plural verb



Relative pronouns
--
Look at the word to which the relative pronoun refers



Certain indefinite pronouns agree with the word to which the pronoun refers or the word in the prepositional
phrase:
all, most, some, any, none



Certain wo
rds agree with the word in the prepositional phrase:
half, part



PRONOUN
-
ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT

Follow the same rules as Subject
-
Verb Agreement.



VERBALS

Verbals

are verb parts that function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.


Gerunds

are verb forms used as nouns. Like nouns, gerunds can be used as subject, direct objects, predicate nominatives,
objects of the preposition, and appositives. The gerund always ends in

ing
.


Subject
:

Jogging is a popular exercise. ~~ Eating in diners o
n the road is an adventure.

Direct

Object
:
Our pastor enjoys preaching.

Object of the Preposition
:
Faith comes by hearing the Word of God. ~~ I am tired of editing.

Predicate Nominative
:
Her favorite chore was feeding the chickens.

Appositive
:
Her prob
lem, overspending, was resolved when she re
-
evaluated her finances.


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28



Participles

are verb forms used as adjectives. They end in

d,
-
t,
-
n
, or

ed
.


Present Participle

Running

water may not be safe.

The man
editing

your manuscript is Max Perkins.



Past
Participle

Boiled
,
filtered

water is safe

She cut her hand on the
broken

vase.

The
burnt

chicken tasted disgusting.


Infinitives

are verb forms used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Like nouns, infinitives can be used as subjects, direct
objects, predica
te nominatives, objects of the prepositions, and appositives. The infinitive is usually, but not always,
preceded by the word
to
; the word may be implied.


Subject
:
To eat

now is inconvenient.

Direct

Object
:
Kelsey likes
to listen

to opera.

Object of th
e Preposition
:
He gave me advice about how
to begin
.

Appositive
:
God’s command, not
to lie
, must not be ignored.

Predicate

Nominative
:
To learn self
-
discipline is
to conquer

one’s self.

Adjective
:
The person
to edit

your work is Max Perkins. ~~ They have a truckload of tomatoes
to sell
.

Adverb
:
He waited
to edit

the manuscript. ~~ He studied
to show

himself a changed person.



VOICE

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

Most academic writing is in the
Active Voice

for direct, concise expression. Writers choose the
Passive Voice

when the
actor of the sentence is not important or when the writer wishes to avoid naming the subject.


In the
Active Voice
, the subject acts. In the
Passive Voice
, the object of an active

verb becomes the subject of a passive
verb. The form of the verb becomes
be + past participle
.

Active
:


Carol tells the story.

Passive
:

The story was told by Carol.


In the
Active Voice
, the subject of the sentence does the acting. In the
Passive Voice
, the subject is acted upon.

Active
:


The students finished the project.

Passive
:

The project was finished by the students.


Although the active voice is usually preferred, the passive voice is useful in certain circumstances:

1.


When the doer of the action
is unknown or unimportant.



My car was stolen. (The doer, the thief, is unknown.)

2.


When the receiver of the action is more important than the doer.



My neighbor was permanently disabled by an irresponsible drunk driver. (The neighbor’s suffering is the focu
s,
not the drunk driver.)





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29


PUNCTUATION AND MECHANICS

ABBREVIATIONS



Use standard abbreviations for titles immediately before and after proper names. Spell them out in the absence of a
proper name.



We learned to trust the doctor.



We learned to trust Dr.
Kaplan.



Use certain abbreviations with dates and numbers only.



Use certain abbreviations for official names of business firms.



Reserve Latin abbreviations for source citations and comments in parentheses.



Units of measurement, place names, and other elements are usually abbreviated in technical writing but should be
spelled out in other academic writing and general writing.



The dog is thirty inches (not in.) high.



The building is 150 feet (not ft.) tall.



Th
e publisher is in Massachusetts (not Mass.).



He came from Auckland, New Zealand (not N.Z.).



She lived on Morrissey Boulevard (not Blvd.).



The truce was signed on Tuesday (not Tues.), April (not Apr.) 16.



The Christmas (not Xmas) holidays are uneventful.



I’m majoring in political science (not poli sci).



Economics (not econ) is a difficult course.


An
Acronym

is an abbreviation that spells a pronounceable word, such as AIDS. These and other abbreviations using
initials are acceptable in most writing as lon
g as they are familiar. Abbreviations of three or more words are usually
written without periods.



When using a common acronym repeatedly in a composition, write the words and place the abbreviation in
parentheses the first time the term is used; then, u
se the acronym only.


APOSTROPHE



To form a contraction



To indicate possession for nouns and indefinite pronouns

Singular nouns and

indefinite pronouns




The boys tore the book’s first page in the fight.



Anyone’s eyes would widen.



Bill Smith’s card tricks
amaze children.

Singular nouns ending

in s



Henry James’s novels reward the patient reader.



The business’s customers filed suit.



Los Angeles’s weather is mostly warm.
Plural nouns not ending in

s

Plural noun ending in
-
s



The bill establishes children’s righ
ts.



Publicity grabbed the media’s attention.



Many students benefit from several years’ work after high school.



The Jameses’ talents are extraordinary.



Workers’ incomes are stagnant.

Figures, letters, words

treated as words



Many students made C’s on the
paper.



Do not use so many “okay’s” in your speech.



He scored 98’s on both tests.



The sentence has too many
but’s
.



Remember to dot your
i
’s and cross your
t’
s.

Singular compound

word or word groups



The council president’s address was a bore.



The
brother
-
in
-
law’s business failed.



Taxes are always somebody else’s fault


McKay, updated August 2013

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30


Two or more words that

show joint possession



The child recovered despite her mother and father’s neglect.

Two or more words that show individual possession



Youngman’s and Mason’s come
dy techniques are similar.


BRACKETS



To set apart editorial explanations.

Explain:
The tenor sang ‘Angel of Music’ [original version sung by Michael Crawford] for his encore.

Explain:
That Texaco Station [just outside Chicago] is one of the busiest in th
e nation,” said a company
spokesperson.

Add capitalization
: [O]ne of the busiest in the nation” is how a company spokesperson described the station.

Clarify:
Despite considerable achievements in other areas, [humans] still cannot control the weather and
probably
will never be able to do so.



To indicate editorial corrections to quoted material.



The dean wrote, “All faculty must teach sumer [sic] school.”



According to the newspaper report, “The car slammed thru [sic] the railing and into the oncoming
traffic.”


NOTE
: The word “sic” (which means “thus”) placed in brackets next to an error in quoted material means that the
mistake appeared in the original text and that it is not the writer’s error.


CAPITALIZATION



Days of the week




Names of months



Titles of holidays



First word of every sentence



The pronoun
I

and the interjection
O



Proper nouns and adjectives
--
names of specific people, places, and products



Common nouns used as essential parts of proper nouns



Trade names



Name of a course that is a lan
guage or is followed by a number



Compass directions only when they refer to a specific geographical region

Directions/no caps
:

The storm blew in from the northeast and then veered south along the coast.

Region
:
Students from the South have trouble adjust
ing to the Northeast’s bitter winters.



Most words in titles and subtitles of works (except articles

a, an, the

and short connectors in the middle of a title)

A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court

Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative
Minds



Names of relationships only when they form part or substitute for proper nouns

I remember how Father scolded us.

The father of my friend has a minor traffic accident.


COLON



To separate titles and subtitles (
Charles Dickens: An Introduction to His
Novels
)



To separate the divisions of time (
1:30 A.M.)



To separate the parts of biblical citations (
Romans 8:28
)



To introduce a concluding explanation, series, appositive, or long or formal quotation.

Concluding explanation
:
Soul food is a varied cuisine:

it includes spicy gumbos, black
-
eyed peas, and collard
greens.

Series
:
At least three soul food dishes are familiar to most Americans: fried chicken, barbecued spareribs, and
sweet potatoes.

Appositive
:
Soul food has one disadvantage: fat.

Formal quot
ation
:
One soul food chef has a solution: “Soul food doesn’t have to be greasy to taste good. . . .
Instead of using ham hocks to flavor beans, I used smoked turkey wings. The soulful, smoky taste remains, but
without all the fat of pork.”





McKay, updated August 2013

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31


COMMA



To
separate main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction




To set off most introductory elements

Even when identical twins are raised apart
, they grow up very like each other.

Explaining the similarity
, some researchers claim that one’s genes are one’s de
stiny.

Concerned
, other researchers deny the claim.




To set off nonrestrictive elements

The empty building symbolizes a weak local economy,
which affects everyone
.

The company,
which is located in Oklahoma
, has an excellent reputation.




To separate items i
n a series

The city needs healthier
businesses, new schools, and improved housing
.




To separate coordinate adjectives that modify the same word

A
tall, sleek

skyscraper is not needed.

Eventually, only
wealthy, fashionable

French women wore high heels.




To
set off absolute phrases

Domestic recycling having succeeded
, the city now wants to extend the program to business.

Many businesses,
their profits already squeezed
, resist recycling.




To set off phrases expressing contrast

The essay needs less wit, more pi
th.

His generosity, not his good looks, won him friends.

It is not light that is needed, but fire; it is not the gentle shower, but thunder.


Frederick Douglas




To set off parenthetical expressions

explanatory, supplementary, or transitional words or phra
ses

Few people would know,
or even guess
, the most celebrated holiday on earth.

That holiday is,
in fact
, New Year’s Day.




To separate quotations and identifying words

Eleanor Roosevelt said, “You must do the thing you think you cannot do.”

“Knowledge is p
ower,” wrote Francis Bacon.

People should always say, “Excuse me,” when they bump into fellow pedestrians.




To prevent misreading

Soon after, the business closed its doors.

To Laura, Ann symbolized decadence.




To set off yes or no, tag questions, words of
direct address, and mild interjections

Yes
:

Yes, the editorial did have a point.

Tag question
:

Jones should be allowed to vote, should he not?

Direct address
:

Cody, please bring me the newspaper.

Interjection
:

Oh, they forgot all about the baby.




To
separate parts of dates, addresses, long numbers

Dates
:

The bombing of Pearl Harbor on Sunday, December 7, 1941, prompted American entry into World War II.

Addresses
: Use the address 5262 Laurie Lane, Memphis, Tennessee, for all correspondence. ~~ Columb
us, Ohio,
is the capital of Ohio and the location of Ohio State University.

Numbers
: A kilometer is 3,281 feet.





McKay, updated August 2013

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32


DASH



To indicate sudden shifts in tone, new or unfinished thoughts, and hesitation in dialogue

Shift in Tone
:

He tells us

does he really
mean it?

that he will speak the truth from now on.

Unfinished Thought
:
If she found out

he did not want to think what she would do.

Hesitation
: “I was worried you might think I had stayed away because I was influenced by

“ He stopped and
lowered his eyes
.




To emphasize nonrestrictive elements, especially those that include internal commas

Appositive
:
The qualities Monet painted

sunlight, rich shadows, deep colors

abounded near the rivers and
gardens he used as subjects.

Modifier
:
Though they are close t
ogether

separated by only a few blocks

the two neighborhoods could be in
different countries.

Parenthetical Expression
: At any given time there exists an inventory of undiscovered embezzlement in

or more
precisely not in

the country’s businesses and banks
. ~~ Her new teacher

a dynamic teacher

helped her to
understand American society.




To set off introductory series and concluding series and explanations

Introductory Series
:
Shortness of breath, skin discoloration or the sudden
appearance of moles, persis
tent
indigestion, the presence of small lumps

all these may signify cancer.

Concluding Series
:
The patient undergoes a battery of tests

CAT scan, bronchoscopy, perhaps even biopsy.

Concluding Explanation
:
Many patients are disturbed by the CAT scan

by
the need to keep still for long periods
in an exceedingly small space. ~~ He studied for the exam for two days

then fell asleep before he finished!


ELLIPSIS MARKS




To indicate omissions within quotations

NOTE:
A regular ellipsis mark consists of three pe
riods with a space between each. However, if the punctuation is
needed at the end of a sentence, use four periods

one standing for the end punctuation.


HYPHEN



To form compound adjectives before a noun (
a well
-
written play, a forty
-
year
-
old woman
)



To form

compound numbers (
twenty
-
one, ninety
-
nine
)



Certain compound words always require a hyphen. Check the dictionary. (
good
-
for
-
nothing, father
-
in
-
law, president
-
elect, self
-
reliance
) NOTE: all “self
-
“ words are hyphenated



Certain words with prefixes always

require a hyphen. Check the dictionary. (
ex
-
husband, non
-
English
-
speaking
)



To break a word at the syllable at the end of a line of writing

NOTE
: Do not use a hyphen after an adverb that ends in

ly

(
quickly changed opinion, beautifully designed home
)


NUMBERS



Use figures for numbers that require more than two words to spell out. Use words to write numbers that are fewer
than three digits (
one, ninety
-
nine
).



Be consistent when using both large and small numbers; that is, if you have a large number (
2, 5
87
) and a small
number (
45
) in the same sentence, you would use numerals for both to maintain consistency.



Use Words



for time used with the phrase o’clock (
one o’clock in the afternoon
)



Use Arabic numerals (instead of words)



for dates (
August 8, 1970
)



fo
r street addresses (
1234 Gulliver Avenue
)



for page numbers (
page 43
)



for time stated in terms of a.m. and p.m. (
1:00 p.m.)



for scores (
21 to 7
)



for statistics (
a ratio of 8 to 1
)



exact amount of money
($4.50
)



in a short passage in which several numbers
are used



Never begin a sentence with a number.



McKay, updated August 2013

Page
33


PARENTHESES



To enclose letters and figures labeling items in lists within sentences



To set off explanations, facts, digressions, and examples that may be helpful or interesting but are not essential to
meanin
g

Many students name famous athletes as heroes (Sammy Sosa and Mark McGuire, for example).

Tom Sawyer

(1876) is one of Mark Twain’s most enduring works.

The population of Philadelphia (now about 1.6 million) has declined since 1950.

Ariel

(published in 196
5) contains Sylvia Plath’s last poems.


NOTE:
Place the period for the sentence outside the parentheses when the enclosed information occurs at the end of the
sentence and is not a complete sentence itself. If the enclosed information is a complete sente
nce, the period is placed
inside the parenthesis.

Many students name famous athletes as heroes (for example, Sammy Sosa).

Many students name famous athletes as heroes. (One example is Sammy Sosa.)


QUOTATION MARKS



Place periods and commas inside quotation

marks



Place semi
-
colons and colons outside quotation marks



Place dashes, question marks, and exclamation points inside quotation marks only if they belong to the quotation.



If the quoted material is part of a longer sentence that asks a question, put the
question mark outside the quotation
marks




To enclose direct quotations.

Direct Quotation
: “Life,” said the psychoanalyst Karen Horney, “remains a very efficient therapist.”

Indirect Quotation
:
The psychoanalyst Karen Horney remarked that life is a good
therapist.



To set apart certain titles that are part of larger works: Essays, Magazine articles, Short stories, Short poems,
Chapters, Subdivisions of Books, Episodes of Television or Radio Programs, Songs



To set apart a word, phrase, or letter being disc
ussed



Descriptive words such as “brilliant,” “glowing,” and “illuminating” support the dominant impression of
“light.”



To set apart uncommon nicknames and words used in irony or sarcasm, or in a special sense.



James “Melon Ball” McCarthy prefers to shave h
is head.



His crime made him “public enemy number one.”



By “charity,” I mean the love of one’s neighbor as oneself.



Use single quotations to indicate a quotation within a quotation.



Jennifer said, “My favorite short story is ‘A Rose for Emily’ by Faulkner.”


SEMICOLON



To separate main clause not joined by a coordinating conjunction



The side
-
effects are not minor; some leave the patient quite ill.



To separate main clauses related a conjunctive adverb



The Labor Department lawyers will be here in a month; there
fore, the grievance committee should meet as
soon as possible.



Springfield’s population makes it an average American town; thus, pollsters often flock there for samples.



To separate main clauses if they are long and complex or if they contain commas, even
when a coordinating
conjunction joins them



By a conscious effort of the mind, we can stand aloof from actions and their consequences; and all things,
good and bad, go by us like a torrent.


Henry David Thoreau



To separate items in a series if they are lon
g or contain commas



The custody case involved Amy Dalton, the child; Ellen and Mark Dalton, the parents; and Ruth and Hal
Blum, the grandparents.


SLASH



To separate lines of poetry that are run in to the text



Between options


McKay, updated August 2013

Page
34




I don’t

know why some teachers oppose pass/fail courses.


UNDERLINING OR ITALICIZING



Foreign words and phrases that have not been absorbed into the English language



To set apart certain titles: Books, Magazines, Journals, Movies, Works of art, Television program
s, CDs, Ships, Plays,
Airplanes, Trains



For emphasis, especially when reporting how someone said something



“Why on earth would
you

do that?” she cried.



A word used as a word or a letter used as a word.



Do not follow the conjunction
although

with a comma.



S
tudents should not expect an
A

on every assignment.



T
he word
syzygy

refers to a straight line formed by three celestial bodies, as in the alignment of the earth, sun,
and moon.


NOTE
:
Underline in hand print; Italicize in type print
.