cloud computing prog aderounmu

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3 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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“Cloud Computing:

A Definition, Challenges and Opportunities”

BY


PROFESSOR G.A. ADEROUNMU

DIRECTOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS UNIT,
OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE
-
IFE. NIGERIA.

Mobile: +2348035177940

E
-
mail:
gaderoun@oauife.edu.ng


PRESENTATION AGENDA


INTRODUCTION


DEFINITION OF CLOUD


SERVICE MODELS


CLOUD DEPLOYMENT MODELS


OAU PRIVATE CLOUD


CHALLENGES


OPPORTUNITIES


CONCLUSION





INTRODUCTION


Cloud computing is not a new concept.


The

underlying

concept

dates

back

to

the

1950
s

when

mainframe

computers

became

available

in

academia

and

corporations

and

accessible

to

users

via

non

intelligent

terminals
.


The

concept

of


TIMESHARING


was

introduced

to

make

more

efficient

use

of

costly

mainframes
.



The

era

of

PERSONAL

COMPUTERS


COMPUTER

NETWORKS


INTERNET


GRID

COMPUTING


CLOUD

-

providing

unlimited

computing

power

as

against

the

finite

computing

power

of

the

mainframe

INTRODUCTION

6

“The Cloud”

What’s new?

Cloud

computing

is

model

for

enabling

network

users’

on
-
demand

access

to

a

shared

pool

of

configurable

computing

resources

that

can

be

rapidly

provisioned

and

release

to

the

client

without

direct

service

provider

interaction

Acquisition Model:
Based on purchasing
of services

Business Model: Based
on pay for use

Access Model: Over
the Internet to ANY
device

Technical Model:
Scalable, elastic,
dynamic, multi
-
tenant,
& sharable

Source
:

National

Institute

of

Standards

and

Technology

(NIST)

(United

States)

and

the

ITU

Focus

Group
.

THE CLOUD


Cloud

computing

is

the

result

of

evolution

and

adoption

of

existing

technologies

and

paradigms

(
autonomic

computing
,

Client

server

model
,

Grid

computing
,

Mainframe

computer
,

Utility

computing
,

Peer
-
to
-
peer
,

and

Virtualization)
.





Goal

of

Cloud

Computing
:

To

allow

users

to

take

maximum

benefits

from

all

of

these

technologies,

without

the

need

for

deep

knowledge

about

or

expertise

with

each

one

of

them
.



The

Cloud

aims

to

cut

costs,

and

help

the

users

focus

on

their

core

business

instead

of

being

impeded

by

IT

obstacles


four

essential

characteristics,

five

service

models
,

and

four

deployment

models
.






CLOUD CLIENTS


-

Web browser, terminal, thin client, mobile app etc




SaaS


CRM, E
-
mail, games, etc.




PaaS


Execution runtime, database, development tools. etc.




IaaS


Virtual machines, servers, storage, etc.


SERVICE MODELS

















CaaS


Audio/video collaborative services, unified communications


e
-
mail, instant messaging, data sharing (web conference).







NaaS




managed Internet (guaranteed speed, availability, etc.),




virtualized networks (VPNs)



flexible and on
-
demand bandwidth.


PROVIDERS


SaaS:
Google Apps, Microsoft Office 365,
Onlive, GT Nexus, Marketo, Casengo,
TradeCard etc.


PaaS:
Google App Engine, Salesforce.com, etc.


IaaS
:

Amazon

EC

2
,

Google

computer

engine,

HP

Cloud,

iland,

joyent,

lease

web,

oracle

infrastructure,

Rackspace

Open

Cloud,

Relia

Cloud

etc
.



11

4 CLOUD DEPLOYMENT MODELS


Private cloud


enterprise owned or leased


Community cloud


shared infrastructure for specific community


Public cloud


Sold to the public, mega
-
scale infrastructure


Hybrid cloud


composition of two or more clouds

CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN SOFTWARE
ENGINEERING BUILDING


Software studio, Telepresence, Cloud Computing


OAU PRIVATE CLOUD (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS)

OAU
NET

INTERNET

Users on
OAUNET

Users on
INTERNET

OAU PRIVATE CLOUD (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS)


For

OAU

Investment

on

IT

resources

too

high

(bandwidth

alone

is

N
131
m,

need

to

move

to

the

cloud

environment

and

share

these

resources

with

the

community

and

the

public)


Facilities



(cloud

server

7
.
7
TB

for

applications

and

OS,

Cloud

Storage

12
T),

fibre

optic

backbone(
40
Km?),

491

Mbps

(Aggregates)

(
245
.
5

/
245
.
5
)
.

For

now

Power

backups

ok(

NEPA,

250
KVA/
50
KVA

generators

+

Inverters

+

Solar

Panels)

but

for

the

future

we

need

to

plan
.


OAU PRIVATE CLOUD (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS)


Iaas: file
-
based storage,


SaaS: Standard Application Software, In
-
house
software


ISIS, E
-
portal, Akowe, Interface for
ilab


PaaS: programming language execution
environment, development tools, (12
developers, about 3,000 students for now)


CaaS: web conference, video communication
services, e
-
mail


NaaS: flexible and on
-
demand bandwidth


OAU PRIVATE CLOUD DATA CENTRE

700 PCs Connected to the OAU Private Cloud


500 Thin Clients Connected to the
OAU Private Cloud


500 Thin Clients Connected to the
OAU Private Cloud

OAU SOFTWARE STUDIO

Developers using
PaaS

OAU TELEPRESENCE STUDIO (2)

FOR WEB CONFERENCE AND OTHERS

CHALLENGES

1
.

Nigeria

is

yet

to

derive

full

benefits

of

cloud

computing

services

due

to

a

number

of

challenges

confronting

the

nation’s

Information

and

Communication

Technology

industry

[
12
]
.

Nigeria,

like

other

developing

countries,

is

still

facing

challenges

in

full

adoption

of

cloud

computing

paradigm

due

specifically

to

the

inefficient

infrastructure,

and

cost

of

access

to

ICT

products

and

services
.



CHALLENGES

2.
Traditional



Lack

of

awareness

and

problem

of

control
:

Many

organizations

especially

Small

and

Medium

scale

(SMEs)

in

Nigeria

are

not

aware

if

cloud

technology

exists
.

For

organization

that

are

aware,

data

control

is

most

critical
.

It

is

the

belief

of

many

organizations

that

storing

and

processing

of

data

in

remote

location

is

a

compromise

in

data

control

and

that

the

world

of

data

computing

will

end

up

in

hands

of

massive

distributed

computing

companies

such

as

Google,

Amazon,

IBM

etc,
.






CHALLENGES

3.


Legal


Most

cloud

computing

vendors

fail

to

provide

a

guaranteed

level

of

data

security

and

for

the

cloud

‘users’

this

compromises

a

basic

requirement

they

are

obligated

to

fulfill

under

the

Data

Protection

Act

i
.
e
.

failure

to

ensure

an

appropriate

level

of

security
.

Hence,

many

cloud

users

are

of

the

opinion

that

there

are

a

lot

of

risks

if

data

is

accidentally

lost,

damage

or

lost

There

are

clouds

within

clouds

and

a

cloud

user

may

never

be

aware

of

their

geographic

location

and

knows

whether

data

protection

privacy

law

are

being

honor

or

not
.

CHALLENGES

4.

Security


Data

security

in

the

cloud

is

one

of

the

major

challenges

raised

by

prospective

cloud

users
.

Within

the

cloud

data

is

vulnerable

to

threats

during

transmission,

processing,

storage

and

downloading

stages
.

The

lack

of

robust

security

mechanism

within

the

cloud

computing

provides

opportunities

for

cyber

criminals
.

Secondly,

the

primary

concern

is

the

damage

that

a

criminal

can

cause

by

planting

a

virus,

from

a

normal

desktop

machine

of

an

office

using

cloud

services

which

could

spread

across

the

cloud

and

cause

data

damage
.

The

inability

of

most

organization

to

store

critical

data

on

the

cloud

as

a

result

of

lack

of

guarantee

mechanism

to

ensure

data

security

by

cloud

vendors

will

also

increase

the

cost

of

IT

resources

within

the

organization
.


CHALLENGES

5. Technical


The

fundamental

dependence

of

cloud

computing

on

the

internet

presents

a

set

of

technical

challenges

to

the

domain

[
13
]
.

The

first

technical

challenge

is

data

outage

due

to

interruption

in

Internet

services
.

Vendor

lock
-
in

and

lack

of

transition

mechanism

when

cloud

consumers

intends

to

change

their

respective

cloud

vendors

based

on

better

offers

provided

by

other

vendor

are

other

two

major

technical

challenges
.


If

cloud

computing

intends

to

attain

a

status

in

computing

domain

similar

to

the

‘utility

providers’

in

the

general

world

then

they

have

to

address

the

issues

mentioned

above
.


OPPORTUNITIES



Among

the

specific

benefits/opportunities

of

cloud

computing

in

Nigeria,

two

in

particular

are

liable

to

make

a

significant

contribution

to

reducing

the

digital

divide,

namely
:



the

ability

to

have

immediate

access

to

the

latest

innovations
;


-

the

possibility

for

an

organization

to

do

away

with

heavy

investment

in

infrastructure



Particularly

where

computation

centres

are

concerned,

given

the

unreliability

of

the


electric

power

supply

in

Nigeria
.

According

to

the

Minister

of

Communication


Technology,

the

federal

government

intends

to

cut

down

its

spending

on

Information


Communication

Technologies

(ICTs)

by

embracing

cloud

computing

services
.


‘’Given

our

plans

for

e
-
Government

and

the

increased

use

of

ICT

by

government


Ministries,

Departments

and

Agencies

(MDAs),

this

is

an

unsustainable

practice

that

must

be

managed
.

A

Government

cloud

will

provide

some

economic

savings”
.



In

view

of

this,

Galaxy

Backbone

is

currently

building

a

major

cloud

computing


infrastructure

with

the

aim

of

bringing

significant

cost

savings

to

the

running

of

the


federal

government
.

The

government

cloud,

according

to

the

Communication


Technology

Minister

is

expected

to

not

only

to

improve

cost

savings

but

drive

efficiency


and

productivity

across

all

its

MDAs
.


The

higher

institutions

in

Nigeria

will

also

benefits

from

this

lovely

concept
.


Job/wealth

creation?




CONCLUSION


The

essential

value

of

this

new

way

of

using

IT

resources

known

as

cloud

computing

resides

in

the

fact

that

IT

services,

from

the

storage

and

processing

of

data

to

software

applications,

are

now

available

and

accessible

to

everyone,

instantly,

without

commitment

and

on

request
.

It

is

my

believe

that

the

cloud

computing

model

has

already

come

to

represent

a

solution

to

IT

under
-
equipment

problems

in

Nigeria,

and

the

trends

indicate

that

this

model

is

set

for

major

development

provided

most

of

the

challenges

raised

are

properly

tackled
.



Management of Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile
-
Ife


World Bank Step
-
B


Skye Bank Plc


Hicos Technology

REFERENCES


1.

Voas

and Zhang, 2009 “Cloud Computing: New Wine or Just a New Bottle? “,
ITPro
, vol. 26, no. 2,
2009, PP.15
-
17

2.

Erdogmus

Hakan
, “Cloud Computing: 1. Does Nirvana Hide behind the Nebula?”
IEEE Software
, vol.
26, no.2, 2009, pp. 4

6

3.

Ian Foster, Yong Zhao,
Ioan

Raicu
,
Shiyong

Lu Cloud Computing and Grid Computing 360
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Degree
Compared. Online publication. 1
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4.

HAMDAQA, Mohammad (2012).
Cloud Computing Uncovered: A Research Landscape
. Elsevier Press.
pp.

41

85.
ISBN

0
-
12
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396535
-
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5.

Weiss Aaron, “Computing in the Clouds,”
netWorker
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25

6.

Cloud computing in Africa Situation and perspectives ITU 2012

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Shubham

Sidana

and
Bhart

S. (2013). Cloud Computing : A Review. International Journal of Advance
Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, pp 814
-
819. Available online at :
www.ijarcsse.com

8.

"The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing"
. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Retrieved 24 July 2011.

9.

"Is a Private Cloud Really More Secure?"
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11
-
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Metzler, Jim; Taylor, Steve. (2010
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-
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Rouse, Margaret. "Definition:
Cloudbursting
," May 2011. SearchCloudComputing.com.

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Angaye
, C.O (2013).
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NITDA. National Mirror,
February 22, 2013.

13 Cloud Computing: Prospects and Challenges
TEK
-
TIPS

ON SEPTEMBER 11, 2009IN


CLOUD COMPUTING

14


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Prasad,
Lakshman

Naik
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