Remote manipulation/telerobotics - Faculty.mercer.edu

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Remote manipulation/telerobotics

Aut onomous
Robot s
Teleoperat ed
Robot s
Telerobots
Manipulators
Vehicles
Robotics
adapted from: <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>

Sources:


Wickens et al.



<http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>


a good site from the Oak Ridge National Lab


contains several essays on the human factors aspects of
telerobotics and teleoperation



Milgram, P., Zhai, S., and Drascic, D. (1993)
Applications
of augmented reality for human
-
robot communication.

Proceedings of IROS’93: International Conference on
Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Yokohama, Japan.
<http://vered.rose.utoronto.ca/people/david_dir/IROS93/IROS93.full.h
tml>


Definitions


telerobots


robots that are not autonomous, but are controlled to some degree
by human operators


teleoperator


“… robotic devices that synergistically combine human and
machine.”


operator replication

metaphor


provide display and control systems through which the human
operator observes and controls the robot in an attempt to replicate
the operator’s motor and cognitive capabilities at the remote site.


telepresence
-

3 definitions


simple

-

“the ability to operate in a remote world”


cybernetic
-


an index of the quality of the human
-
machine interface”


experiential
-


a mental state in which a user feels physically
present within the remote world.”

Applications


Remote manipulation


undersea


planetary


Hazardous manipulation


hazardous materials


hazardous environments

Teleoperation tasks


The tasks involved in teleoperation include a mix of ...


programming


teaching


controlling


commanding


monitoring


Depending on the location and nature of the task, issues
involve


level of control


time delays


situation awareness (including depth perception and image
quality)


force proprioceptive feedback

Level of control

Increasing machine responsibilities
Increasing human responsibilities
Human
Tasks
Machine
Role
Control tasks
Control
subtasks
Modify
Inputs/outputs
Communicate
Monitoring &
Commanding
Controlling &
monitoring
Controlling &
teaching
Controlling
Type of
Control
Supervisory
Traded
Shared
Manual
Strategic
Control
Total
Control
Level of control continuum
Type of Control
adapted from: <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>

Time delays


Transmission delays


information from remote site


control action and response


Sluggish response of system being controlled


Time to translate control actions into appropriate
machine activities

Situation awareness
(telepresence)


Depth perception


3D stereoscopic displays


display enhancements


Image quality


improving camera / display technology


enhanced image


Field of view


wide angle lens / large display


scanning


Absolute vs relative judgements of distance, size, etc.


display aiding


control aiding


virtual reality technology

Force & proprioceptive feedback


Control force and speed of movement of telerobot


1
st

and 2
nd

order control issues


Proprioceptive feedback
-

force “reflection”


magnitude of forces or torques acting on an object
-

kinesthetic


distribution of forces on the manipulator
-

tactile


Advantages:


when forces applied to the remote area are important (e.g., to
prevent damage to telerobot or the objects being manipulated)


when visual display of task components require guidance or
assembly in areas are obscured for some reason


Disadvantages:


Requires additional processing, increasing delays


Increases system friction and inertia, reducing responsiveness

HF Design of teleoperated systems


Understand the requirements, constraints, and
environmental factors


Model the system, task, and environment


Determine the information and action requirements
(including level of control) of the operator


Based on an understanding of the system, task,
and environment


Determine appropriate displays, controls, and aiding


Based on an understanding of human cognitive,
information processing, and response, as well as
design guidelines and issues


Understand the tradeoffs involved.

Ecological Approaches


Appropriate for design of systems to support
human operators in complex, dynamic
environments.


Founded on ecological psychology


“Simon’s Ant” example


Contrast with
cognitivist

approaches


Requires understanding of the system and
environment within which the operator is
working.


Ecological Interface Design (EID)


Based on the SRK
taxonomy





Focus is on
environmental
constraints and
system function



Understanding Work:

Abstraction Hierarchy

MEANS
-
ENDS
RELATIONS

PROPERTIES
REPRESENTED

EXAMPLE (ISE 412 CLASS)

Functional Purpose

Purposes and values;
constraints imposed by the
environment

Abstract Function

Flow of mass, energy,
information, people,
monetary value, etc.

Generalized
Functions

General activities that
achieve the functions
described above

Physical Function

Specific work processes,
physical processes, and
equipment

Physical Form

Appearance, location, and
configuration of objects,
components, etc.

Using the AH in Interface Design

MEANS
-
ENDS RELATIONS

EXAMPLE (ISE 412 CLASS)

Functional Purpose

instill competence in applying the methods and knowledge of hfe to the
design of systems; course objectives

Abstract Function

presentation of facts and procedures; demonstration of problem solving
and design; information flow between instructor and student

Generalized Functions

lecture, demonstrations, text, notes, homework, projects, etc

Physical Function

specific class structure (question/answer at start, lecture, demonstration,
in
-
class exercise); electronic communication methods (email, web site);
homework assignments; lab assignments (group); design project

Physical Form

physical classroom in traditional configuration; overhead transparencies
and notes; paper assignments and submissions; informational web site;
listserv for communication outside of class; team and individual
assignments (in class and out of class)

An Example


DURESS (DUal REservoir Simulation System)


Process control example



Small feedwater stream



6 valves, 2 pumps, 2 heaters


(from: Vicente, K.J. and Rasmussen, J. (1990) The ecology of human machine systems II: Mediating direct
perception in complex work domains.
Ecological Psychology
, 2(3), pp.207
-
249)

DURESS (cont.)

MEANS
-
ENDS
RELATIONS

EXAMPLE (ISE 412 CLASS)

Functional Purpose

Demand1, Demand2, Temparature1, Temperature2

Abstract Function

Mass (conservation of mass)

Energy (conservation of energy)

Generalized Functions

6 water flows, 2 heater temperatures, 2 volumes, 2 output flows,
2 output temperatures

Physical Function

PFn: 2 pump settings, 6 valve settings, 2 output valve settings, 2
heater settings

Physical Form

N/A (simulated system.)

DURESS “Standard” Configuration

DURESS Redesign Based on EID

Your Turn: Car Dashboard

MEANS
-
ENDS
RELATIONS

PROPERTIES
REPRESENTED

EXAMPLE (CAR)

Functional Purpose

Purposes and values;
constraints imposed by the
environment

Abstract Function

Flow of mass, energy,
information, people,
monetary value, etc.

Generalized
Functions

General activities that
achieve the functions
described above

Physical Function

Specific work processes,
physical processes, and
equipment

Physical Form

Appearance, location, and
configuration of objects,
components, etc.