ANNUAL REPORT

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– Annual Report 1997 –
CONTENTS
Introduction 1
Outline of Research Activities 2
Materials Science and Technology 2
Bioengineering 4
Information and Systems Science 6
Advanced Machine Technology 8
Energy and Environmental Technology 1 0
Manufacturing Technology 1 3
Robotics 1 6
Micromachines 1 9
International Cooperative Activity 2 1
Statistical Trends in Recent Years 2 3
Budget 2 3
Personnel 2 3
Publication and Presentation 2 4
Patent License 2 4
Joint Research 2 4
List of Publications 2 5
Materials Science and Technology 2 5
Bioengineering 2 6
Information and Systems Science 2 8
Advanced Machine Technology 2 9
Energy and Environmental Technology 3 0
Manufacturing Technology 3 2
Robotics 3 5
Micromachines 3 7
Organization of MEL 4 0
Introduction
The Mechanical Engineering Laboratory was established on August 13th, 1937 and
last year, in 1997, we celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of the laboratory. A commemo-
rative volume was published and we held a conference entitled: "The Future of Mechani-
cal Engineering:- Message to the 2lst Century". The age of sixty is of great significance
in the traditional Japanese calendar, which was organised on a sixty-year cycle so that
on the sixtieth birthday one returns to the calendar zodiac sign of one's birth starting a
new cycle with reaffirmation of hope and new resolution for the future. The laboratory
therefore began it's second cycle resolving to contribute to the progress of science and
technology in the world, and to the sustainable development of human society.
In spite of the economic recession, the Government increased the R&D budget in
1997 based on the Science and Technology Basic Law enacted by Parliament on
November 15th, 1995, and the Science and Technology Basic Plan adopted by the
Cabinet on July 2nd, 1996. It is our aim to contribute to economic and social development
in Japan, a country which has few raw material resources for the production of goods.
Over the past year, the laboratory established a new special research group for
"Quantum and Molecular Mechanical Engineering" in the hope of making a break-
through in the Mechanical Engineering. The members of this group were drawn together
from various research departments in the laboratory.
On December 4th, 1997 the Administrative Reform Panel issued it's final report
which recommended that some national institutions, including research institutes, should
become independent agencies modelled on the executive agency system in Great Britain.
We now have to examine how the research institutes of the Agency of Industrial Science
and Technology will be reformed, and their relationship with Government in the future.
The structure of this report is similar to that of last year, with the addition of a
section on our research work on micromachines and, of course, updated reports of our
activities in other areas. I hope that you will find the report interesting and helpful,
giving a clear account of the achievements of the past year and the issues we face.
Finally, I very much hope that it will aid international scientific cooperation.
Yoshinori Nakazawa, Dr. Eng.
Director General
Mechanical Engineering Laboratory
Materials Science and Technology
Current research and development in Materials
Science and Technology is mainly concerned with
materials design and the evaluation of materials
which are:
1) durable and reliable, maintaining useful prop-
erties in hostile environments, and
2) compatible with natural ecological systems.
Some current research topics are described in
more detail below.
Materials Properties
Work on materials properties is focused on dam-
age mechanics and mechanisms in advanced struc-
tural materials such as composites, engineering
ceramics, and functionally gradient materials.
Fracture mechanics and electron micro-fracto-
graphy have been used to investigate fatigue crack
growth resistance in alumina matrix composites
with SiC whiskers. New ideas about the toughening
of ceramics by incorporating a ductile metal phase
have been developed and used to improve fracture
toughness. These ideas have been successfully
applied to both functionally gradient materials and
titanium aluminide.
3,4,5,8,14)
The mechanical reliability of structural mate-
rials such as austenite stainless steel has been test-
ed at cryogenic temperatures (4.2K) and high
magnetic fields (up to 6T) .
Non-destructive tests using a SQUID and a
Magnetic Force Microscope have also been made
to qualitatively evaluate fatigue damage and
defects.
Work has been done on computer simulation
techniques to predict materials behaviour at the
atomic level, together with advanced research on
smart structures and information theory in order to
ultimately incorporate decision making and learn-
ing properties into materials and structural sys-
tems.
Materials Design
Research has also been done on the design and
improvement of the microstructure and properties
of new metallic materials such as intermetallic
compounds, titanium alloys for biomechanical
applications, superplastic single-phase stainless
steels, nickel-base superalloys, and nanostructured
alloys.
7,17,24
) For example, work was done on the
rheorefining of Al-Sn and A1-Ni alloys, in order to
develop methods for efficiently producing high
purity metallic materials.
7
) In one experirnent, an
alloy ingot with initial composition Al-50%Sn was
reheorefined by pressurising the ingot for 72ks at a
plunger speed of 2.8xlO
-4
mm/s, and the result was
a material with 98%AI and less than 0.01%Sn. This
experiment clearly showed that large amounts of
tin could be removed from the ingot, although a
small amount of eutectic was formed by a chemical
reaction involving the steel filter. A1-Ni ingots with
initial composition A1-2%Ni, Al-1%Ni, Al-0.5%
Ni, and Al-0.2%Ni were also rheorefined under the
same conditions, and it was found that the nickel
was effectively removed. Fig. 2 gives results which
show that when Al-0.5%Ni ingots are refined under
isothermal conditions the amount of exuded filtrate
increases and the nickel content decreases with
increasing refining temperature. It was found that
slow rheorefining (72ks at a plunger speed of 2.
8xlO
-4
mm/s) is superior to fast rheorefining (7.2ks
at a plunger speed of 2.8xlO
-3
mm/s) for removal of
impurities from Al-Sn ingots. We also found that if
single phase stainless steel (AISI304) was recrystal-
lised, the elongation to failure became greater than
300% and superplasticity was exhibited.
24)
Tribology
Tribology research at MEL has concentrated on
the study of physico-chemical phenomena at slid-
ing surfaces and the development of tribomaterials
which are useful in various different environments.
Triboelectromagnetism (which includes tribo-
charging, tribo-microplasma formation, and the
triboemission of electrons, ions, and photons) has
been studied in a tribosystem which simulates the
contact area between the head and disk in a com-
puter disk drive. Intense tribomagnetism, which
had been predicted at the head/disk interface, was
observed in the system.
11,15,25)
An EHL film tester and a friction and wear
testing chamber have been developed for studying
tribology problems associated with the use of envir-
onmentally-friendly refrigerants such as HFC134a.
The effect of refrigerants on the physical properties
of lubricants operating both normally and in the
mixed lubrication regime have been investigated.
1,2)
Self lubricating composites which can be used
over a wide temperature range from room tempera-
ture up to 1000 have been developed. It was found
that composites including Barium Chromates
(BaCrO
4
, BaCr
2
O
4
) and Aluminium Oxide (AI
2
O
3
)
have better friction and wear properties than gen-
eral ceramics, particularly at high temperatures.
The tribology of diamond-like carbon (DLC)
films has been investigated. DLC films have both
low friction coefficients (about 0.06) and very low
wear rates (about 10
-8
mm
3
/Nm) in dry air. It was
found, however, that the friction and wear rates are
strongly dependent on atmosphere.
9,l0,18)
Laser-assisted plasma spraying and laser assist-
ed gas deposition techniques are under develop-
ment for synthesising high performance tribo-mate-
rials, high temperature multi-functional coatings,
and novel allotrope films.
16,22
) A novel photon tech-
nology for the preparation of well-controlled ultra
-fine particles using a high energy-density laser is
also under development. Technology is also
required to assemble the particles into new micro-
scopic structures which have useful optical and
electrical properties. An advanced spectroscopic
analysis and monitoring technique was studied for
measuring the states of the plasma field.
23)
A project to detect the transient electric currents
associated with crustal failure (towards prediction
of earthquakes) is currently in progress. Geo-cur-
rents are detected at multiple sites and several
abnormal signals which may be related to recent
earthquakes have been detected. In addition to field
experiments, Iaboratory work on the fracturing
and friction phenomena associated with rocks
under extreme conditions is also under way.
21
)
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: kiso0@mel. go. jp
Bioengineering is concerned with the application
of engineering to the biological sciences and medi-
cine. Research in this field at MEL aims to improve
our basic knowledge of living beings and apply that
knowledge to the development of health care sys-
tems. An advanced understanding of biomechanics
is a prerequisite for successful research in bioen-
gineering. MelÕs research includes the following
topics :
1) The biomechanics of bone and muscle
2) Biocompatibility evaluation techniques
3) Development and standardisation of advanced
biomaterials
4) Artificial heart development
5) Optical tomography
6) N on-invasive measurement of brain function
7) Novel MRI/S techniques
8) Development of laser ablation techniques
9) Computer aided surgery
Some of these are described below.
Development and standardisation of advanced
biomaterials
Several different materials are currently used for
body implants. The use of Ti-6%Al-4%V ELI alloy
is currently increasing. The biological effects of
various metallic ions on the cell growth ratio of
fibroplasts L929 and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1
cells were investigated using various different
Bioengineering
metallic powders (Fig.1). It was found that tough
Ti, Zr, Sn, Nb, and Ta appear to have no effect, but
Al and V ions exhibit cytotoxicity at high concen-
trations. A newly developed Ti-15%Zr-4%Nb-4%
Ta-0.2%Pd alloy was found to have improved
corrosion resistance in physiological saline solu-
tion. By adding 0.2%O and 0.05%N and applying
heat treatment, the ultimate tensile strength was
improved to 1000MPa, the total elongation im-
proved to more than 10%, and the fatigue strength
was found to be 950MPa after 10
8
cycles. Cell
growth ratios were found to be almost normal up to
10
5
cycles, but a sharp decrease was observed when
V ions were released into EagleÕs MEM solu-
tion.
26,28,31,32,36,44)
Work has also been done on the
transport properties of biomembranes, and the
structures of films of polymers such as polyvinyl
alcohol gel, and the interactions between the film
and transporting material in a hydrophobic envi-
ronment have been investigated.
Artificial heart development
A centrifugal blood pump incorporating a perma-
nent magnet and ceramic mono-pivot bearing is
under development for application as an implanta-
ble artificial heart. Satisfactory pump performance
was obtained from a recently developed model
(Fig.2) with an impeller 50mm in diameter and a
drive unit 8mm thick. By improving the impeller
geometry, the required pressure (100mmHg) and
flow rate (5L/min) were obtained at reasonable
speed (1,900 rpm) and total efficiency (13%). The
secondary and boundary layer flows - which are
important in thrombus formation and haemolysis -
are currently under investigation using flow
visualisation techniques with a high speed video
camera and laser light sheet. Haemolysis tests
using animal blood and equivalent slurries showed
that mechanical cell damage was at a similar level
to that found in commercial centrifugal blood
pumps.
33,34,35,43)
Optical tomography
Optical tomographic imaging using near infrared
light has potential as a non-invasive measurement
technique for determining the oxygenation state of
living tissue. Unfortunately, Iight is strongly scat-
tered by tissue and an understanding of photon
migration in living organisms is necessary. Com-
puter codes have been developed to simulate photon
migration, and a new algorithm based on inversion
techniques has been devised for optical tomogra-
phy. Solid phantoms simulating the human head
have been designed and fabricated using an optical
rapid prototyping technique. These will be used to
validate the photon migration model and the new
algorithm.
27,38,39,40,41,47,48)
Novel MRI/S techniques
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
(MRI/S) techniques can be used to measure the
concentration of nuclei such as hydrogen and phos-
phoric acid in biological tissue, and give images of
their concentration distribution in two- or three-
dimensions. We have developed several novel MRI/
S techniques including: Fast three-dimensional T2
weighted imaging with high S/N ratio, and two-
dimensional perfusion imaging with chemical selec-
tion. These techniques are useful as diagnostic
techniques in medicine and biology.
49,50)
Computer aided surgery
Computer Aided Surgery (CAS) uses techniques
from both clinical medicine and engineering, for
example, mechatronics, optics, and information
technology. Demand for intra-operative simula-
tion, registration, and navigation is driving the
development of techniques for handling soft organs
such as: non-rigid registration, interventional imag-
ing, and surgical robots. This work requires
mechanical models of the soft organs such as the
brain and the liver. We have proposed new equa-
tions for modelling the properties of brain tissue
which use a single-phase non-1inear visco-elastic
model derived from in-vitro examination. The
model has been validated by comparison with in-
vivo indentation tests on pig brain tissue.
The combination of interventional MRI and sur-
gical robots is a promising but challenging project.
We are developing MRI-compatible machines for
biomechanical studies, and one of these, a MRI-
compatible surgical manipulator which uses no
ferromagnetic materials, is shown in the Fig.5
below.
51
)
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: kiso0@mel. go. jp
Intelligent Transport Systems
The Mechanical Engineering Laboratory has a
long history of research on Intelligent Transport
Systems (ITS), beginning in the 1960s. Recent
activities include work on lateral control algorith-
ms for vision-based vehicles and longitudinal con-
trol algorithms for platoons. Experiments on lat-
eral control for lane changing, obstacle avoidance,
and lane following have been conducted with a full
scale test vehicle on a test track, using an algorithm
whose key feature is the use of whole references in
the field of view (Fig.1). Studies of cooperative
driving in platoons, compatible with both safety
and energy-saving requirements, have also been
made. Merging is a form of cooperative driving,
and simulations of longitudinal control on merging
have been made towards the design of optimal
merging control algorithms for platoons on a ramp
and in traffic. Design studies of algorithms for
cooperative driving between vehicles in formation
(like a school of fish or a flock of birds) have been
made and will be evaluated using full-scale test
vehicles on a test track in a few years.
Information and Systems Science
Topics in Optical Engineering
A new interferometer for mirror testing using a
synthesised scatter plate has been developed, and
its fringe resolution shown to be very much im-
proved compared to conventional scatter plate
interferometers (Fig.2). Computer simulations
predicting the experimental results have also been
developed.
A new phase shifting algorithm which compen-
sates for both non-linear phase shifts and higher
order harmonics in the fringe signal has been
applied to a Ronchi interferometer for measuring
highly aberrated wavefronts. The dynamic range
was found to be improved by a factor of three
compared to conventional methods.
Self-reconfiguring algorithms for 3-D structures
A reconfiguration algorithm for 3-D structures
composed of many identical units has been devel-
oped. The algorithm is distributed through the
units, each of which can change its connections to
others on its own, and has a microprocessor and
local communication channels. Each unit has identi-
cal software and can play any role in the structure.
The algorithm enables the units to transform into
any desired structure from an arbitrary initial
state. A stochastic relaxation process, built into the
algorithm, enables the system to converge to the
target structure by searching for the required
movement of units over many degrees of freedom.
Applications of the system include autonomous
planetary exploration vehicles or satellite anten-
nae. Transported in compact folded form, the sys-
tem developed in this work will allow them to
deploy to the correct structure when operating and
repair themselves if they are damaged. A simula-
tion showing a self-reconfiguration sequence is
shown in the Figure. The target structure is a 12-
unit box which is successfully constructed in a
decentralised manner.
61
)
FDL - A new language for machine design
A constraint-based object oriented language
called FDL has been developed for machine design.
It has the capability to dynamically modify its own
structure so that it can solve problems involving
unpredictable design model structure changes. It
was found to be not yet flexible enough to solve all
dynamically changing problems and so a set of
biogenetic algorithms - by which further sophisti-
cated object modification is possible - was
introduced. These algorithms include structure
merging, dynamic inheritance, object division,
object apoptosis, and configuration operators. The
structure merging operation creates a new object
by merging two objects, where the set of slots and
constraints of the new object is derived from the
union of the two original objects. The Figure shows
a gear drive in which a new pair of gears has been
introduced by the structure merging operation. The
dynamic inheritance mechanism enables an
instance object to refer class objects dynamically
when necessary, object division is used to divide an
object without information loss, object apoptosis is
used to selectively delete objects, and the configura-
tion operator is for automatic object reorganisa-
tion.
62)
Advanced aerospace control technologies
A DC-9 aircraft belonging to the NASA Lewis
Research Center was used for a series of micro-
gravity experiments. During more than 200 para-
bolic flights, two research topics were investigated:
bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer in micro-
gravity. In the bubble dynamics experiment, the
photochromic method was used to visualise
detailed flow patterns around growing gas bubbles
in silicon oil. The experiments showed that the size
and frequency of detachment of the bubbles are
affected by fluctuations in gravity. In the boiling
experiment, the thickness of the liquid film beneath
the growing bubbles was successfully measured
using a laser focus displacement meter. Images
obtained with a high-speed camera showed that,
unlike in boiling under normal gravity, bubbles
grow through coalescence on the heating surface.
ldentifying the contribution of buoyancy to the
bubble detachment mechanism and heat/momen-
tum transfer in boiling is essential not only for
developing techniques for processing highly homo-
geneous materials in space, but also for improving
the efficiency of ground-based heat exchangers.
57,58)
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: butsuri0@mel. go. jp
Advanced Mechanical Technologies are essential
not just for development of the field of Mechanical
Engineering itself, but also for progress in almost
every other field of industrial engineering and sci-
ence.
Research in the Department of Advanced
Machinery, carried out in close cooperation with
other departments in the laboratory, aims to
develop these technologies and includes work in the
following areas:
1) Investigations into the basic properties of
mechanical components and machines, with a
view to creating completely new designs and
mechanisms. This work includes the develop-
ment of mechanisms for micromachines, and the
design of high precision mechanical compo-
nents.
2) Development of new processing methods and
technologies for measurement and evaluation of
processing results. Here, we are working on
ion-beam and hybrid processing techniques, and
methods for nondestructive testing and process
evaluation.
3) General inprovements in mechanical devices
and systems. This includes work towards im-
proving safety and reliability (for example;
predictive maintenance) , and sound and vibra-
tion control.
Some specific projects are described in more
Advanced Machine Technology
detail below.
Laser guided discharge
A new method of guiding low-pressure electrical
discharges using a laser beam has been developed.
Thermoelectrons are emitted from a metal plasma,
generated by the laser beam, and the discharge path
is controlled by the flight path of the ther-
moelectrons. The Figure shows a spectacular dem-
onstration of the method, where a discharge
between facing anode and cathode is guided from
the anode, through a hole in the cathode, and round
to the back of the cathode. A feasibility study has
been made on a new technique for electric ~ dis-
charge machining using this method.
Molecular dynamics of ice crystal growth
Slurry ice is often used in air-conditioning sys-
tems. Addition of Antifreeze Protein (AFP) helps
create needle crystals which are resistant to recrys-
tallisation and therefore help storage and transpor-
tation. The influence of AFP on ice crystal surfaces
has been observed using a Scanning Tunnelling
Microscope (STM), and the mechanism of crystal
growth when AFPs are adsorbed onto the crystal
surface has been investigated by a molecular
dynamics simulation. It was found that crystal
growth does not easily occur close to the AFP, but
rather at sites where water molecules can easily
create at least two hydrogen bonds onto the crystal
lattice. The result is a curved ice surface, which
corresponds well with STM observations. A Silane
coupling agent has been experimentally approved
as a substitute additive for making ice slurry,
providing molecules of artificially high molecular
weight.
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication characteristics
of Electrorheological fluids
Electrorheological fluids (ER fluids) are new
materials which undergo fast reversible changes in
viscosity on application of an external electric field
(electro-rheology). They have potential applica-
tion in industrial tribology problems - particularly
those where control of tribological characteristics
is desirable.
A ball-on-disk tribo-testing machine was made
to observe the thickness and shape of an Elastohy-
drodynamic Lubrication (EHL) film, and to inves-
tigate the possibility of control of triboelement
performance using ER fluids. A Iiquid crystal was
used as the lubricant and the Figure shows results
obtained during the experiment which confirm that
an applied electric field causes changes in the
tribological conditions. These results indicate that
there is potential for control of triboperformance
using ER fluids.
introduction of a new parameter: the Òacoustic
power modeÓ, initially intended for application to
flat planar strctures, and obtained by grouping
structural vibration modes in order of acoustic
radiation efficiency. The parameter allows the
noisiest modes to be targeted for suppression, and
will theoretically make it possible to guarantee
that overall suppression in the spectrum of interest
will be optimum. A new type of distributed parame-
ter sensor using a PVDF film with an optimised
shape has been developed, which gives an output
voltage proportional to the acoustic power mode
amplitude, together with a compact actuator incor-
porating PZT ceramic stacks and steel columns
which is capable of applying bending moments.
Because the structure condition may change with
time, an adaptive controller which minimises sen-
sor output using DSP techniques with a filterde-x
LMS algorithm has also been devised.
This project is one stage in the development of
smart structures incorporating distributed parame-
ter sensors, bending moment actuators, and
adaptive control algorithms. Although the develop-
ment of smart structures initially began with work
on large space structures, we anticipate these ideas
will find new application in achieving a quiet every-
day environments.
Smart structures for active noise control
Work is in progress to develop novel active noise
control systems for sound fields carried by three-
dimensional structures. This project began with the
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: kyoku0@mel. go. jp
The Energy Engineering Department works on
technologies related to new energy, energy conser-
vation, and environmental protection. Some of the
latest research topics are described below.
Silicon melt convection studies for development
of high efficiency solar cells
Technology for the production of high quality
silicon substrates is fundamentally important in the
development of high efficiency solar cells. The
Floating Zone (FZ) process is known to be better
than other crystal growth processes (eg. Cochralski
and Bridgeman methods) because it does not
involve a crucible process. The main purpose of the
research described here is to understand the effect
of radio frequency (RF) heating, which is widely
used in industry, on the flow and temperature fields
in the melt.
Flow and temperature fields in the silicon melt in
the FZ process have been investigated both numeri-
cally and experimentally. A typical numerical sim-
ulation result is shown in the Fig. 1. It is clear that
RF induced convection is dominant and opposite to
Marangoni convection which can be seen near the
feed and the crystal. RF induced convection is
about 10 times that of Marangoni convection, and
strong fluctuations are observed in both tempera-
ture and flow fields. Strong crystal striations are
therefore to be expected. Experiments using X-ray
radiography confirmed the numerical results.
Energy and Environmental Technology
Clearly a melt convection control system is
required to achieve high quality silicon crystals and
an external system to apply a magnetic field during
the RF-FZ crystal growth process is currently
under development.
115)
Low Reynolds number flow problems in ceramic
gas turbines
The Agency of Industrial Science and Technol-
ogy is involved in a project to develop a 300kW
ceramic gas turbine with target efficiency up to
42% and turbine inlet temperature of 1350 The
high inlet temperature gives rise to low Reynolds
numbers in the vicinity of the turbine section with
consequent separation of the flow from the blade
surface and end walls. The fundamental aerodyna-
mic characteristics of turbine cascades at low Re
are under investigation at MEL in order to improve
turbine performance.
Cascade wakes were measured using a hot wire
probe and a five-hole pressure tube at Re numbers
ranging 2x10
4
to 12x10
4
. The Fig. 2 shows the flow
pattern on the suction surface of the annular tur-
bine nozzle blade at Re=6x10
4
, obtained using oil
film visualization. At low Re, the flow structure in
the annular cascade is three-dimensional and quite
complex. Moreover, the flow separation and bound-
ary layers are strongly influenced by Re. The
overall pressure loss increases significantly as Re is
reduced, for example at Re = 2x10
4
the pressure
loss is 1.67 times that at Re= 12x10
4
. These results
show the importance of correct design of turbine
blades for low-Re conditions.
lgnition control of H
2
-O
2
mixtures using an ultra-
violet laser (WE-Net Research)
Fundamental technologies for clean and efficient
power generation systems have been developed at
MEL as part of the WE-NET (International clean
energy network using hydrogen conversion) pro-
ject. WE-NET is a large-scale project which will
provide a comprehensive solution to the global
dilemma of producing and using energy while
simultaneously preserving the environment.
Combined turbine systems using H
2
-O
2
combus-
tion with steam recirculation have potential to
achieve high thermal efficiencies - up to 60%. Basic
data for developing this type of turbine system
have been obtained at MEL through research on the
combustion characteristics of stoichiometric H
2
-O
2
- H
2
O mixtures. In this work, chemical kinetics
simulations showed that burning velocities
decrease monatonically as the pressure increases,
even at high temperatures. Control of combustion is
clearly important.
120)
As part of this work, techniques for combustion
initiation using photochemical reactions are also
under development. It was found that the threshold
laser energy required to initiate combustion
decreases drastically if ozone is added to the H
2
-O
2
mixture. Using a sheet of light from a UV Iaser we
were able to achieve simultaneous ignition over a
wide flat plane using a photochemical reaction, as
shown in the Fig.3. The method has potential for
control of bulk ignition using UV light.
fluid which may be hydrogen or helium. Combus-
tion provides thermal input to the engine and the
cycle finishes when water is removed from the
engine at the cooler.
A GPU-3 Stirling engine equipped with a conven-
tional catalytic combustor was simulated using an
adiabatic model. It was assumed that the catalytic
combustion was diffusion controlled and that there
was no interaction between the flow pattern
predicted by the adiabatic model and the small
amount of injected gas. The simulation showed that
a conventional catalytic combustor has sufficient
performance to suppress O
2
concentrations to a
safe level but that high H
2
O concentrations may
cause condensation in the regenerator. The work
also showed that, while an increase of 5% in boiler
efficiency is possible due to direct thermal input to
the working fluid, the work required to compress
the injected gases is not negligible for this type of
engine. Several problems remain to be solved in-
cluding condensation in the regenerator and the
work necessary to compress the injected gases. The
simulations are continuing together with experi-
mental studies in order to assess the feasibility of
this engine.
124)
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Stirling Engine
A new hydrogen internal combustion Stirling
engine has been proposed for efficient, small scale
power generation in the future. Shown in the Fig.4,
this engine uses catalytic combustion of a stoi-
chiometric H
2
-O
2
mixture injected into the working
Tyre characteristics on icy roads
Tyre performance on an icy road depends very
much on the characteristics of the ice, and tests on
different ice tracks can give rise to different results.
It is important to find a scale to provide reliable
characterisation of the ice to make tyre perfor-
mance tests consistent.
Work of MEL showed that the electrical conduc-
tivity of water made by melting ice on the road
surface may be used as an indicator of the prop-
erties of the ice. An even quicker measure is to
simply measure the surface resistivity of the ice.
The Fig.5 shows crystals in two different ice sam-
ples and their conductivities ( S/cm) .
Tests on an indoor tyre test rig confirm that the
tyre characteristics are affected by the ice (Fig.6
(a)) . In order to understand this phenomenon better,
it was simulated numerically using a model based
on the friction heat generated between the tyre and
the ice. Here, friction is mainly determined by the
thickness of the thin film of water generated under
the tyre by friction. The results of the simulation
agree well with test results (Fig.6 (b))
.102)
DeNOx catalysts for diesel engines
Studies of selective deoxidisation catalysts
(DeNOx catalysts) are in progress towards devel-
opment of techniques to control nitrogen oxides in
diesel exhaust emissions. Ag/Alumina catalytic
converters with a trap oxidiser have been tested in
an attempt for simultaneous reduction of NOx and
particulate emissions. The effects of reaction tem-
perature, the hydrocarbons used as reducing
agents, space velocity, and gas velocity on the
reaction characteristics were analysed experimen-
tally. The Fig.7 shows the surface profile of an Ag/
Alumina catalytic converter obtained with a STM.
It was found that the NO reduction ratio of the
converter approaches 100% under ideal conditions,
and that space velocity has the most critical effect
on reduction ratio.
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: energy0@mel. go. jp
Wind turbine generator performance in complex
terrain
The Wind energy group at MEL has measured
the performance of the NEDO 500kW prototype
wind generator at Tappi. The average annual wind
speed is about 10m/s, but it is very difficult to
obtain an accurate performance measurement due
to the complex terrain, and even the IEC standard
for performance measurement to be published in
1998 is unable to describe this situation adequately.
In this work, a reference meteorological mast was
used to obtain accurate site calibration data. By
calibrating the wind characteristics and process-
i n g
the generator performance data with the "method
of bins", the performance of the generator was
successfully analysed even in this complex terrain
(black half-circles on the power curve in the Fig.
8) . This method of performance measurement will
be used to help complete the IEC Standard on
Power Performance Measurement in complex ter-
rain.
110
)
Manufacturing technology is essential for
mechanical engineering. Pioneering and fundamen-
tal technologies necessary for the creation of new
industries and for existing industries are being
developed. This R&D is being carried out domesti-
cally while keeping close relations with academic
and industrial partners. Internationally, the depart-
ment is responsible for technology transfer to
developing countries and joint research projects
with advanced countries, and is playing an impor-
tant role in the development of environmentally
conscious manufacturing technologies.
New truing and dressing system for a super-abra-
sive surface honing disk
In order to maintain high precision in surface
honing operations, it is essential that the surface of
the honing disk be kept flat and sharp. Truing and
dressing super-abrasive honing disks is particular-
ly difficult and this gives great problems in the
practical application of this type of disk. A new
truing and dressing system for super-abrasive hon-
ing disks has been developed (Fig.1). The system
consists of a metal-bonded honing disk, an abrasive
conditioning ring, a disk-flatness inspection device
(not shown) and an electrochemical dressing
device.
Manufacturing Technology
The technique maintains both flatness and sharp-
ness during the honing operation. The flatness of
the honing disk is maintained mechanically by the
conditioning ring, and the disk surface is dressed
electrochemically by removing bonding metal.
Experimental results show that the system is capa-
ble of maintaining the flatness of a 300mm diameter
super-abrasive honing disk to better than 10 m.
Development of high performance Magnesium
alloys
Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attractive materials
for automotive and aerospace applications because
of their low density. However, applications so far
have been limited by their relatively low strength
and poor corrosion resistance. Improvement of
mechanical and corrosion properties is essential to
increase the range of applications of these mate-
rials.
Mechanical properties such as hardness, ultimate
tensile strength (UTS) , proof stress, and YoungÕs
modulus may be improved by reinforcing Mg
alloys. Mg composites reinforced with SiC particles
(SiCp) were produced by powder metallurgy
methods and their mechanical properties were
examined.
The starting materials for the study were AZ91
(Mg-0.9mass%Al-0.8mass%Zn) (38 m powder)
and SiCp (0.47 m powder) . SiCp was mixed with
the metal powder in a ball mill using a mechanical
mixer, and the mixture was then hot pressed and
extruded.
Tensile tests carried out at room temperature
showed that SiCp reinforced metal alloys have
excellent mechanical properties. Results given in
the Fig.2 show that UTS and 0.2% proof stress
increase with SiCp content up to 15vol%, but UTS
decreases when SiCp content reaches 20vol%.
YoungÕs modulus increases linearly with SiCp con-
tent, and Vickers hardness is also increased. The
preparation process is currently being optimised to
further improve mechanical properties.
Smart materials integration for Micro Electro
Mechanical Systems
Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) will
be an important new industrial field and are cur-
rently under investigation at MEL with particular
emphasis on smart materials integration. PZT
(PbZr0.52Ti0.48) thin films are of importance for
applications such as micro pumps and PZT-driven
micro scanners. These devices will be basic compo-
nents in future micro (and nano) systems for liquid
handling and optical processing.
Materials are the key to smart MEMS. The
electrostatic actuators used in conventional MEMS
have large energy dissipation, poor control charac-
teristics, and require high accuracy machining for
their manufacture. Piezoelectric materials are
attractive in this application and, in addition, the
use of smart materials has great potential for fur-
ther miniaturisation because materials such as
piezoelectric thin films have several different prop-
erties and multi-functional devices can be made
with one unit.
Thick films also have applications in MEMS.
Piezoelectric PZT films with thicknesses in the
range I 100 m are of great interest for MEMS
applications, but it is very difficult to deposit them
using conventional techniques. Our work on film
preparation includes development of gas phase
(pulsed excimer laser ablation deposition), Iiquid
phase (sol-gel method) and solid phase (jet mould-
ing system) techniques.
Sliding characteristics of ceramics
An experimental investigation into the sliding
characteristics of ceramics operating at high speed
in plane-plane contact conditions has been carried
out. Ceramics such as Alumina-Ceramics or Silicon
Carbide have potential for application as lubricant
-free sliding surfaces in machine tools. We inves-
tigated their characteristics experimentally under
conditions almost equivalent to those which would
be found in the slide of a machine tool. Fig.6 shows
how the coefficient of friction varies with contact
pressure and Fig.7 shows how it changes with
sliding velocity. When Alumina-Ceramics are used
on both faces of the slide, the coefficient of friction
increases with both contact pressure and sliding
speed - very similar to the characteristics found in
metal-to-metal contact. Alumina Ceramics there-
fore have few advantages over metals in this appli-
cation. On the other hand, when Silicon Carbide
was used in the slide faces it was found that the
coefficient of friction can be as low as 0.2. It is also
stable against variations in contact pressure and
sliding velocity and so has potential application on
slide surfaces. However, Fig.7 also shows that a
combination of Alumina-Ceramics and Silicon
Carbide has a coefficient of friction which is more
stable than when Alumina-Ceramics alone are
used. The work shows how frictional characteris-
tics may be improved by using an appropriate
combination of different materials.
Tele-manufacturing
The Internet and other similar networks may be
used to provide low cost, high quality, remote
operation and maintenance of machine tools, thus,
helping to overcome space and time constraints. A
prototype machine tool which may be monitored
and controlled remotely over the Internet has been
developed with the aim of establishing the basic
technology necessary for development of manufac-
turing systems suited for use with the Internet.
The prototype system consists of a small three-
axis milling machine equipped with PC-based
numerical control, and a CCD camera and micro-
phone for monitoring the area around the machin-
ing position. The system is provided with both
client and server functions for the Internet. An
important feature of the system is that it uses
distributed monitoring architecture which provides
a dynamic remote user interface and allows modifi-
cations to be made at the client site using only a
small number of parameters.
Another feature proposed is a Virtual Reality
(VR) model driven monitoring system which has
potential to provide a man-machine interface with
excellent real-time characteristics without the use
of multimedia information. The system consists of
three elements: a VR model capable of 3D graphical
representation of the state of the actual machining
system, a number of parameters representing the
state of the actual machining system to drive the
model, and an engine for driving the model by 3D
animation using parameters received from the
machine site. The time required for transfer of new
parameters depends on the state of the network, but
until new parameters are transferred the VR model
generates a ÒcurrentÓ operating state based on the
parameters last received. This method overcomes
the practical limitations of the standard Web for
remote monitoring of machining processes.
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: seisan0@mel. go. jp
The aim of robotics research at MEL is to
develop advanced robotics technology using know-
ledge obtained by analyzing the way in which tasks
are performed by living beings. Current work
includes the engineering implementation of skills
found in humans and animals such as dynamic
walking and manipulation, and behavior develop-
ment by learning, virtual reality, tele-robotics, and
human friendly machines. A selection of robotics
topics is introduced in more detail below.
Mobile robots with dynamic behaviour
We have proposed a new method for achieving
autonomy in mobile robots. We define robustness
to the changing environment and various dynamic
skills in terms of ÒDynamic behaviour modulesÓ,
and aim to achieve autonomy on mobile robots by
a non-hierarchical combination of these modules.
A wheeled inverted pendulum type robot known as
the ÒVariable structure 4-wheeled robotÓ has been
developed and used in experiments in which a step
of unknown height was negotiated in as little as 3
seconds. We have also developed a ÒBiped leg-
wheeled robotÓ which has succeeded in climbing
stairs using dynamic trajectories with nominal
reference to static gait.
201)
Work using a biped walking robot ÒMELTRAN
IIÓ (a two-dimensional biped robot which can
walk on a flat floor and go up and down stairs)
lead to theoretical studies of a three-dimensional
biped. First results indicate that even fewer
actuators are necessary to attain three-dimen-
sional walking capability that were used in previ-
ous research.
Robotics
which helps when negotiating rough terrain, where-
as wheeled mechanisms enable fast efficient move-
ment over a flat surface. A Ieg-wheel hybrid mobile
robot which combines the advantages of these two
types of robot has been developed. The robot has
two front legs with three joints and a passive wheel,
and has two active wheels mounted on links with
one degree of freedom at the rear.
A quadruped robot with coordinated leg opera-
tion, known as ÒMELHORSEÓ has been developed.
The fore and rear legs of the robot perform differ-
ent functions in that the forelegs mainly support the
body against gravity while the rear legs thrust the
body forward. Experiments testing the thrust were
done using an apparatus with a fuselage and rear
legs, and fundamental experiments on redundant
leg behaviour were also made with this appara-
tus.
186,209)
Dynamic control of robot systems
Nonholonomic robot systems have nonlinear con-
straints formulated as non-integrable differential
equations involving velocity or acceleration. By
applying these dynamics, robotic tasks involving
more degrees of freedom than the number of con-
trol inputs can be realised. We are investigating
control of a 3-axis horizontal underactuated
manipulator which has a nonholonomic constraint
at the passive joint. Motion planning and feedback
stabilisation of the manipulator have been success-
fully achieved.
178,187)
Casting manipulators are a new type of manipu-
lator which include flexible elements, for example
Legged mechanisms have high adaptability
flexible cord. These manipulators have a large
working space for their size and complexity. Cur-
rent research interest centres around utilisation of
the dynamics of the system to achieve suitable
manipulation capability. A casting manipulator
incorporating a rigid link, a cord, and a gripper has
been proposed and methods for control of this
manipulator (in particular swing control) are cur-
rently under investigation.
196)
A general framework for supporting skill discov-
ery during the execution of robotic tasks has been
developed. We define skill as a time varying func-
tion which generates control information from sen-
sory information so that skills cover dynamics as
well as kinematics and statics. Skill functions were
approximated with polynomial expressions and
skill discovery was reduced to a combinatorial
optimisation of the polynomial coefficients. The
technique was demonstrated using the visual servo
problem of a robot baseball player catching a fly-
ing ball.
A vibration control system using wave control
theory has been developed for a robot crane. Load
transference and vibration control are realised by
lateral motion of the load-supporting point,
controlled by a travel input and a vibration control
input. Experiments on this system have shown the
effectiveness of vibration control.
A synchronous motor with three-dimensional
motion has been developed for application to shoul-
der joints, and tests done to determine the its con-
trol characteristics.
Human modelling and the human interface
A mathematical model of the learning processes
going on in human hand-eye coordination is under
investigation. The coordinate transformation gain
of the visual feedback controller is set by a novel
learning model which uses the change in the square
of the hand position error norm. A parallel link
manipulator system is under development in order
to analyse human hand control and evaluate the
learning model using virtual reality technologies.
Virtual reality has attracted considerable atten-
tion as a new human interface technology. A new
head mounted display is under development in
which a small high resolution image is displayed in
the centre of the operatorÕs field of vision, on top of
a wide-angle low-resolution image which fills the
periphery. A wide angle image capture and display
system has been developed and evaluation experi-
ments carried out.
180)
A cooperative multiple robot system is under
development. In this work, a human operator gives
a single instruction to the system. Each robot in the
system refers to this and generates an evaluation
function to realise overall cooperation which is
achieved by learning appropriate behaviour.
172,202)
In research on emotional robot behaviour for
human-machine interaction, the robot generates its
motivation depending on its internal state and
stimulation. To a human interacting with it, the
robot then appears to display emotion.
184,213)
Integration of locomotion and manipulation
Integration of locomotion and manipulation
requires that both locomotion and manipulation
tasks are considered together so that the design,
mechanics, and control of legs and arms are inte-
grated together in the final robot. The ÒIntegrated
Limb MechanismÓ is a mechanism that may be used
either as a leg or an arm. It usually performs as a
leg with a large force output for supporting the
body of the machine, but sometimes transforms to
an arm with faster motion than a leg in upper
motion space.
188)
Experiments were done using
ÒMELMANTIS-1Ó to demonstrate the enhanced
mobility achievable with active intervention to
move obstacles in the path of the robot.
Tele-robotics
Tele-robotic research has been in progress since
1993. The objective is to develop methods for gener-
ating commands for control of a slave robot, by
manipulating simulations of the slave environment
which are displayed to the operator. In these sys-
tems, discrepancies between the simulated environ-
ment and the real environment can lead to un-
expected awkward states during task execution.
To solve this problem, a new method for automatic
command generation based on a sub-goal concept
is under investigation.
The remarkable advances currently seen in com-
munication network capabilities have stimulated
research into networked tele-robotics and have
opened new potential for tele-robotic systems in
other projects. Tele-robotics experiments have
been carried out with LRP/CNRS in France and
Toshiba in Japan where multiple robots and joys-
ticks, all at different locations, were connected
through ISDN.
206)
Technology to assist humans
ÒHuman Friendly MachinesÓ are machines which
are physiologically and psychologically ÒfriendlyÓ
to human beings.
An new type of stair lift for wheelchair users has
been developed with the aim of providing a system
which is both inexpensive and practical. A Òcrawl
typeÓ mechanism has been developed for this pur-
pose, in which rotational motion of a disk is conver-
ted to linear motion of the hoist carrier plate. The
hoist carrier plate is equipped with a disk driven by
an electric motor. Several rollers are attached to
the rim of the disk and the hoist carrier plate can
move up and down by engaging the rollers with
drive guides. A prototype model was fabricated to
demonstrate the characteristics of this mechanism
which can go up and down the inner side of a stair
with a 180 turn.
212)
Arm disabilities prevent full participation in
everyday activities, and an upper limb motion
assistance system has been proposed which uses
flexible cords to provide assisted movement. The
arm is suspended on a parallel arrangement of
cords, and is moved by changing the length of the
cords. An experimental prototype has been built
and is under evaluation.
A new, efficient, assist power control system has
been proposed which uses two different assist
power ratios: one for static loads and one for
dynamic loads. This technique has proved to very
effective in avoiding actuator saturation and
achieving stable power control. A new mobile
power assist system is planned for working over a
wide area.
204)
Human friendly robotics
One of the results of a two-year feasibility study
entitled ÒFriendly Network RoboticsÓ, carried out
under the auspices of the Industrial Science and
Technology Program, was a MEL proposal for a
five year research project to develop technologies
for making robots that provide services to humans
in the home, factories, and disaster areas. The
debut of the Honda humanoid robot at the end of
1996 made this proposal more realistic, and now
one of the targets in the first two years of the
project is to develop a humanoid robot as a com-
mon research platform. The research agenda
includes: Mechanisms for human-friendly robotics,
human-robot collaborative control methods, and
distributed intelligence technologies.
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: robot0@mel. go. jp
Micromachines, which are very much smaller
than conventional machines, are expected to bring
about dramatic technological innovation in many
areas including plant maintenance and medical
science. Recognising the future importance of mi-
cromachines, the Agency of Industrial Science and
Technology began work on micromachines early
on in the development of the field in 1991, with a 10
-year Industrial Science and Technology Pro-
gramme entitled: "The Research and Development
Project on Micromachine Technology". In this
project, w~ are studying nine selected core themes
considered essential for developing practical and
reliable micromachines and covering processing,
assembly technology, mechanism configuration,
microoperation, control technology, and evaluation
technology.
Machines for producing microparts are far larger
than the parts which are made, and this generates
much wastage. The concept of the "Microfactory"
was therefore developed in which production
machines are made srnaller - sirnilar to the size of
the product - in order to save energy, space, and
resources. For example, a new micro-lathe was
proposed which demonstrates the feasibility and
effectiveness of this concept. Work will continue on
developing basic cornponent technologies, system
technologies, and methods for evaluating the eco-
nomic effects of microfactories.
Four of the nine research themes are described in
more detail below.
220,233.234,238)
Direct wafer bonding at room temperature
Bonding technology is important in the fabrica-
tion of three-dimensional micro-structures and in
realizing flexible fabrication processes using vari-
ous combinations of materials. Application of bond-
ing so far has been limited to simple silicon struc-
tures because most methods require heat and/or
high voltage, both of which may damage the mate-
rials and microstructure.
A new method of bonding silicon wafers at room
temperature has been developed. As shown in the
Fig.1, the surfaces to be bonded are etched by Ar
beam sputtering which creates a clean surface with
high bonding capability. The surfaces are then
Micromachines
bonded in vacuum, without prior exposure to the
atmosphere, and bonding strength equivalent to
bulk strength is achieved at room temperature. It is
also not necessary to load the components in order
to force them together during the bonding process.
This method has significant advantages over con-
ventional techniques.
A mesh pattern micro structure with 100 m line
width was successfully bonded using the technique.
The specimen fracture surface is shown in the Fig.
2, and fracture from the silicon bulk indicates
strong bonding. These results demonstrate the
potential of the method for many different applica-
tions.
218,224)
Tensile tests of microfabricated thin films
A novel tensile testing machine has been used to
measure the mechanical properties of 0.5 m thick
titanium films and 1.0 m thick aluminium films.
The films are difficult to handle because they are so
fragile and were fabricated in a protective silicon
frame using semiconductor manufacturing technol-
ogy. The test section was 300 m wide and 1000 -
1400 m gauge length. The specimens were gripped
with a new device using a micrometer so that they
could be easily mounted on the testing machine.
Stress-strain diagrams were measured continuous-
ly at room temperature. The results showed that
both titanium and aluminium thin films had smaller
breaking elongation but larger tensile strength than
pure bulk material at room temperature.
219,223,228,237)
Micro fabrication using a micro manipulation
system
Micro-manipulation technology has many poten-
tial applications, including microscopic surgery
and the assembly of complete micro-machines from
miniature components. We have developed a two-
fingered micro hand based on sequentially arran-
ged parallel mechanisms with six degrees of free-
dom. Precise manipulation of microscopic objects
has been achieved using tele-operation control and
an auto-focus microscope.
Assembly of micromachines from miniature com-
ponents requires the application of adhesive drops
which are smaller then the components themselves.
These ultra-low volumes of adhesive are achieved
by making use of capillary phenomena in a glass
pipette. After heating and drawing a glass pipette
to shape the tip, a glass fibre is inserted into it and
a microdrop of adhesive created by pressurising.
This simple technique does not require precise
pressure control, and a micro-scarecrow only 25 m
in height was successfully assembled as a demon-
stration.
231,232)
Micro-lathe development
A Iathe much smaller than conventional
machines has been developed. It comprises an x-y
stage driven by laminated piezo-actuators, a main
shaft driven by a micromotor, and a tool rest. It
measures 32mm long by 25mm deep by 30.5mm
high. The machine weights 100g and power con-
sumption of the main shaft drive is approximately
1.5W. The lathe is approximately 1/50th of the size
of the conventional lathe, 5000 to 10,000 times
lighter, and the power consumption is reduced by a
factor between 500 and 1000.
In tests, a brass rod 2.0mm in diameter was cut on
the lathe. Surface roughness in the feed direction
was Rmax=1.5 m, and the roundness was 2.5 m.
The cutting accuracy is equal to or better than that
of a conventional lathe. By using very small
machine tools, production systems for small compo-
nents and mechanical devices will become consider-
ably smaller with concomitant savings in space and
energy consumption.
We are currently working on a high-speed, high
-precision spindle with integrated motor, an inch-
ing worm feed mechanism with improved accuracy
and control, microposition sensors (encoders) , and
an integrated numerical control system - all of
which are necessary for developing micro-machine
tools.
220,233,234,238)
Any enquiries regarding this project should be
directed to e-mail: kyoku0@mel. go. jp
International Cooperative Activity
The laboratory actively encourages its members to be involved with overseas research organizations,
and each year several staff members leave to stay overseas government or university laboratories for one
year. A considerable number of staff member regularly attend overseas conference and research seminars.
The laboratory also makes active use of the many Invitation programs such as STA and AIST
fellowship, to enable guest researchers to visit Japan and work at MEL.
The figures show the statistics for international scientist exchange over the past few years, and the
table shows some examples of research projects done with the researchers accepted in 1997 fiscal year.
Country
France
Korea
Bulgaria
India
Malaysia
Thailand
Mexico
Germany
France
U.S,A,
Pakistan
U .S.A,
China
Russia
Italy
Belarus
China
Argentina
Egypt
Korea
U.K
U.S,A,
Poland
Germany
Korea
France
Germany
Counterpart Research Institute
Universite Paris-Sud
Hankuk Aviation University
Central Laboratory of Optical Storage
and Processing of Information
National Physical Laboratory
Standards and Industrial Research
Institute of Malaysia
Chulalongkorn University
Autonomous University of Queretaro
Technical University Chemnitz
University of Versailles
Kansas State University
University of the Punjab
Massachusetts Institute of Technol-
ogy
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Science
University of Florence
Chemical Physics Laboratory
Xing Jang Institute of Technology
National Institute of industrial Tech-
nol ogy
General Organization for Industrializa-
tion
Konyang University
University College London
University of Arizona
University of Western Australia
Dresden University of Technology
Korea Institute of Machinery & Mate-
r'al s
Ecole Centrale de Lyon
Fachhochschule des Saarlandes
Name of Research Project
Simulation of Flows Around Aerofoils Aer-
ogenerator Using Computational Dynamics
Low Emission Diesel Engine by Using Low
Cetane Fuel Combustion
Diffraction Enhanced Polarization Study of
Two-Dimensional Structures and Birefrin-
gent Materials
Precision Forging Technology to Manufac-
t ure Net -Shape Part s
High Performance Metal Matrix Composite
Materials
High Performance Metal Matrix Compos-
ites
Open-architecture Controller for Advanced
Machine Tool System
Monitoring Technology for Micro-Grinding
Telepresence World Experiment
Abrasive Mi cr o - Machi ni ng Processes
Study
Improvement of Properties of Magnesium
Alloy by Powder Metallurgy
Performance Characteristic of Hydrogen
Direct Injection Engine with Rapid Com-
pression Machine
Tribology of Diamond Like Carbon Films
Development of Intelligent Cutting Tools
Measurement s of Opt i cal Propert i es of
Biological Tissues
Energy Transfer Processes at the Interac-
tion of Diatomic Molecules with a Solid
Surface-Infl uence of Anext ernal Fi el d-
Study on EV Battery Management System
for Practical Applications
Robot Programming and Control
Integrated Mechanism of Leg and Arm
Development of Non-contact Probe for 3-
dimensional Workpieces using a Laser
High Density Assembling Technology by
Low Temperature Direct Bonding
Study of Diagnosis and Therapeutics Using
Lasers
Soft Tissue Biomechanics
Eval uat i on of Charact eri st i cs of Li qui d
Handling Micro Systems
Laser Processing and its Application for
Microactuator Devices
Tribology
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow around
an Ai rfoi l i n t he Low Reynol ds Number
Range
Da ys Fellowship
198 AIST
333 AIST
357 AIST
18 ITIT
45 ITIT
45 ITIT
349 ITIT
40 STA
61 STA
65 STA
92 STA
148 STA
182 STA
212 STA
289 STA
354 NEDO
365 NEDO
40 J I CA
197 J I CA
239 JKF
14 Other
16 Other
26 Other
60 Other
8
72
183
Example of research projects done with accepted researchers
FY1997
Statistical Trends in Recent Years
Bu d g e t
Per s onnel
Pu b l i c a t i o n a n d Pr e s e n t a t i o n
J o i n t Re s e a r c h
Pa t e n t Li c e n s e
Ma t e r i a l s Sc i e nc e a nd Te c hnol ogy
1) M. Akei and K. Mizuhara
The Elasthydrodynamic Properties of Lubri-
cants in Refrigerant Environments
Tribology Trans. 40-1(J;an. 1997), pp. 1-10
2) K. Mizuhara and M. Tomimoto
The Effect of Refrigerants in the Mixed Lubri-
cation Regme
ASTM. STP. 1310 C/an. 1997), pp. 38-48
3) F. Tamai and K. Hirano
Cyclic Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics
of Alumina Matrix Composites Trans
JSME, 63-610 (Jun. 1997), pp. 1172-1177
4) K.Hirano, A. Sakamoto and M. Sunakawa
Leading Research R&D of Srnart Structural
Systems in Industrial Science and Technology
Frontier Program in Japan
The Minerals, Metals & Mater. Soc. (Mar.
1997), pp. 19~25
5) K. Hirano
Future Prospects for R & D of Smart Struc-
tural System
Proc. Int. Symp. on Smart Structural System
(Mar. 1997), pp. 113-122
6) K. Manabe, M. Kiuchi, J. Endow,
Y. Nakazawa, M. Ono and S. Matsubara
A Survey of Systems on FMS/FA/CIM for
Metal Forming Processes in Japan
Proc. Int. Conf on Manuf Milestones Toward
the 2lst Century MM21 (Jul. 1997), pp. 61
~66
7) K. Ichikawa, M. Katoh, F. Asuke and
Y. Nakazawa
High Efficient Recovery of Pure Aluminum
from A1-Sn and Al-Ni Alloys by Rheorefining
Process
Mater. Trans., JIM. 38-7 (Jul. 1997), pp. 622
- 6 2 9
8) K. Hirano, T. Suzuki and A. Tezuka
Damage Tolerant Behaviour of High Perfor-
mance Composite Materials for Severe Envi-
ronments
8th Symp. on High Performance Materials for
Severe Environments (Sep. 1997), pp. 419
List of Publications
(1997)
- 4 2 6
9) A. Tanaka, M. Ko, S. Kim, S. Lee and
T. Kumagaya
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Triboelectromagnetism in the Atmospheres of
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13) K. Nakayama
Triboelectromagnetism in Head / Disk Sliding
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14)K. Hirano
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16)S. Sasaki
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17) M. Horihata and Y. Torisaka
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S. Kim, S. Shin and S. Lee
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19)Y. Enomoto, A. Tsutsumi, Y. Fujinawa,
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Chemical Analyses of Mechanochemical Reac-
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22)S. Kanou, H. Shimura and H. Iwamoto
Laser Glazing of Pure Iron Osing High-Power
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23)S. Kanou and Y. Enomoto
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Bi oengi neer i ng
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Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Prop-
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29)S. Xulin, A. Ito, T. Tateishi and A. Hoshino
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New Mechanism to Reduce the Size of the
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34)M. Nishida, T. Yamane, T. Orita, B. Asztalos
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Corrosion Resistance and the Relative Growth
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37) K. Hyodou, M. Yamada and T. Tateishi
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38) I. W. Kwee, Y. Tanikawa, S. G. Proskurin,
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39) S. Takahashi, D. Imai,
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Fundamental 3D FEM analysis of light propa-
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45) K. Onunra, A. Ito, I. Tabe and T. Tateishi
In situ atomic force microscopy study of the
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Application of the zooming method in near
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Rotational Symmetry: The Lie Group SO(3)
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Design of Local Communication for Coopera-
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55) K. Martinsen and T. Kojima
EXPRESS definition of Vectorial Tolerancing
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56) H. Kurokawa
Constrained Steering Law of Pyramid-Type
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57) M. Misawa, N. Ichikawa and M. Kawaji
Bubble Growth and Detachment in Shear Flow
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59) M. Onda and J. Teraki
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60) T. Kojima, S. Enomoto, S. Ohtani and
H. Yokota
Use of Reference Data Representations for
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61) E. Yoshida, S. Murata, K. Tomita,
H. Kurokawa and S. Kokaji
Self-assembly of a Distributed Mechanical
System
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An Object Oriented Language Introducing
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67) K. Hibino, D. I. Farrant, B. K. Ward and
B. F. Oreb
Dynamic Range of Ronchi Test with a Phase
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H. Kurokawa and S. Kokaji
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69) T. Sakaguchi, A. Uno and S. Tsugawa
An Algorithm for Merging Control of Vehicles
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70) S. Tsugawa, S. Kato and K. Tomita
A Lateral Control Algorithm for Vision-Based
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71) K. Tenjimbayashi
Recent Optical Engineering Research at MEL
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72) K. Tenjimbayashi
Vibration Mode Judgement by Two Strobo-
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T. Eiju, K. Matsuda and K. Peiponen
Electron Beam Fabrication of Diffractive
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Error Compensating Algorithms for Phase and
Envelope Detection in Phase-shifting Inter-fer-
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75) Y. Morikawa and T. Nakada
Position Control of PLZT Bimorph-Type Opti-
cal Actuator by On-Off Control
IECON'97 ( The 23rd Annual Int. Conf of the
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76) M. Kuroda and M. Nakai
Chaos and Its Control in an Asymmetric Piec-
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77) J. Rasanen, K. M. Abedin, K. Tenjimbayashi,
T. Eiju, K. Matsuda and K. E. Peiponen
Electron Beam Fabrication of Scatter Plate for
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78) S. Kato, K. Tomita and S. Tsugawa
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A Survey of Present IVHS Activities in Japan
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82) M. Yamauchi, Y. Yamada and Y. Hasegawa
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83) M. Muramatsu, T. Eiju, T. Shirai and
K.Matsuda
Application of a Liquid Crystal spatial Light
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Fundamental Study on Advancement of Vapor
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1997),pp. 1-76
85) N. Tanaka
Power Flow Control of a Thin Plate
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86) M. Ichiki, J. Akedo, K. Mori and Y. Ishikawa
Microstructure of Nickel Whiskers Produced
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87)K. Yamanaka
Precise Measurement in Laser Ultrasonics by
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88)N. Hirose, J. Asami, H. Sato and
K. Yamanaka
In Situ Observation of Sintered Iron and Car-
bon Steel Compacts Using a Low-Temperature
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89)H. Sato, S. Nakano, H. Ogiso and
K. Yanakana
Evaluation of Standard Defects Using Surface
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90)S. D. Snyder and N. Tanaka
Algorithm Adaptation Rate in Active Control:
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91)M. Ichiki, J. Akedo, A. Schroth, R. Maeda
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X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron
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Titanate Thick Film Formed by Gas Deposi-
tion Method
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Active Control of a Distributed-Parameter
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93)H. Yoshida
Particle lmpact Behavior of Silicon nitride
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94)N. Tanaka
Smart Sensing for Acoustic Power Modes of a
Planar Structure
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95)N. Tanaka and Y. Kikushima
Modal Filtering and Control of a Plate Using
One-Dimensional PVDF Film Sensors
Fifth Int. Cong. on Sound and Vibration 1
(Dec. 1997), pp. 413-420
96)T. Yoshioka and H. Mano
Diagnosis for Radial Rolling Contact Bearing
using Acoustic Emission Technique (1st
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Smart Sensors for Measuring the Acoustic
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Dynamic Behaviour of Terfenol-D
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Adaptive Feedforward Control of Acoustic
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100)H. Yoshida, Y. Hoshi, K. Uematsu and
Y. Kitazawa
A Single, Small, Particle Launch System by
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Adaptive Feedforward Control of Acoustic
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102) M. Nihei and K. Shimizu
Effect of Frictional Heat in tire Characteristics
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Japan 28-1 (Jan. 1997), pp. 89-94
103) B. Burtsitsig, A. Yabe and N. Wakayama
Quantitative Analysis of Convective Flow of
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Grandient
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104) A. Yabe, K. Nakagome, M. Tanaka,
F. Takemura, Y. Kobayashi and
Per- Erling FRIVIK
Microscale Analysis of Crystals in Ice Slurry
Made from an Antifreeze Protein Solution
Trans. JSME (Ser.B) 63- 607 (Mar. 1997),
pp. 283-288
105) A. Yabe
Evaluation Methods of Global Environment
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Their Importance
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Nanotube Size-dependent Melting of Single
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M. Tanaka, F. Takemura, Y. Kobayashi,
K. Ikemoto and Per-Erling FRIVIK
Investigation of the Characteristics of Ice Slur-
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age Applications
Trans. JSME (Ser. B) 63- 609 (May 1997),
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Electrohydrodynamic Enhancement of Falling
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109) Y. Kawaguchi, H. Daisaka, A. Yabe,
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Existence of Double Diffusivity Fluid Layers
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110) H. Matsumiya, H. Imamura and K. Tsuchiya
Wind Measurements and Performance Analy-
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Proc. Int. Conf on Fluid Eng. ICFE'97
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111) A. Yabe
Advanced Heat Recovery and Energy Trans-
port Technologies for Eco-energy City Con-
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112) S. Grandum, A. Yabe, M. Tanaka and
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Visualization Study of Velocity Profiles and
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Pulse-Tube Modeling and Diagnostic Measure-
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Thermoelectric Characteristics of Microscale
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Flow Field under RF Heating on FZ Crystal
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Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Flow Visualization and
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116) A. Murakami
An Attempt of Moving Bottom Auxiliary Com-
bustion Chamber to Reduce Diese Particulate
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SAE Paper 970316 ( 1997), pp. 1-11
117) J. Y. Koo, S. T. Hong, Joseph Shakal and
S. Goto
Influence of Fuel Injector Nozzle Geometry on
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SEA Paper 970354 ( 1997), pp. 245-257
118) T. Kagazyo, K. Kaneko, M. Akai and
K. Hizikata
Methodology and Evaluation of Priorities for
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Energy 22(213), ( 1997). pp. 121-129
119) M. Akai, N. Nomura, H. Waku and M. Inoue
Life Cycle Analysis of Fossil Power Plant with
CO, Capture and Sequestering System
Energy 22(213) ( 1997), pp. 249-255
120) N. Iki, H. Furutani, J. Hama, S. Takahashi,
O. Kurata and H. Ryu
Laminar Burning Velocity of Stoichiometric
Hydrogen- Oxygen- Steam Mixture under
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Proc. 4th Japan- Korea Joint Symp.
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121) S. Grandum, Y. Kobayashi, A. Yabe,
S. Matsumoto, F. Takemura,
K. Nakagome and Per-Erling Frivik
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Ice Crystal
Growth from A Surface Containing Adsorbed
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DSC - Vol. 62/HTD - Vol.354, Microelectrome -
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122)F. Takemura, M. Nishio and A. Yabe
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123)M. Hasegawa, A. Yabe and H. Nariai
Numerical Analysis of Electrohydrodynamical
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124) S. Takahashi et al
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1st Stirling Engine Symp. ( 1997), pp. 37-39
Ma n uf a c t ur i ng Te c hnol ogy
125) J. Akedo, M. Ichiki, K. Kikuchi and R. Maeda
Fabrication of Three Dimensional Micro Struc-
ture Composed of Different Materials using
Excimer Laser Ablation and Jet Molding
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126)Y. Usui, S. Miyazawa and N. Sawai
Estimation of Cutting Force from Machine
Tool Conitions such as Distortion and Vibra-
tion
AITC Technology Digest: Manuf Tech. (Jan.
1997), pp. 10-15
127)S. Sado and A. Iwata
An Evaluation Method of the Environmental
Load of Factories
Proc. Asian Industrial Tech. 1997 (Jan.
1997), pp. 55-60
128)T. Waida, M. Hattori, N. Nomura and
H. Inoue
Assessment Scheme for Product Disassembility
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61~64
129)O. Ryabov, K. Mori and N. Kasashima
Laser Sensor for In-Process Cutting Diagnos-
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Proc. 6th Int. Conf on Production Eng. , Design
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130)K. Mori
An Intelligent Machining System
Proc. 6th Int. Conf on Production Eng. , Design
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131)T. Shimizu, Y. Murakoshi, T. Sano, R. Maeda
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Fabrication of Micro Parts by High Aspect
Ratio Structuring and Metal Injection Molding
with Supercritical Debinding Method
Proc. Int. Conf and Exhibition Micro Mater.,
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132) J. Akedo, M. Ichiki, K. Kikuchi and R. Maeda
Thick PZT Film Deposition and Patterning by
Jet Molding for Realization of Micro Actua-
tion System
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133)R. Maeda, C. Lee, T. Itoh, A. Schroth and
T. Suga
Sol-gel Derived Ferroelectric Thin Films for
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Int. Conf Micro Mater. '97, (Apr. 1997), pp.
618~621
134)A. Schroth, M. Tanaka, C. Lee, R. Maeda,
and S. Matsumoto
Application of sol-gel deposited Piezoelectric
PZT-layer - design of a 2D-scanning actuator
device
Int. Conf Micro Mater. '97, (Apr. 1997), pp.
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135)C. Lee, T. Itoh, R. Maeda and T. Suga
Simultaneous Displacement Actuation and
Detection, and Piezoelectric Excitation for
SFM Cantilever and Its Array Using Pi-
ezoelectric PZT Thin Layer
Int. Conf Micro Mater. '97. (Apr. 1997). pp.
634 ~ 636
136) M. Ichiki, J. Akedo, K. Mori and Y. Ishikawa
Microstructure of Nickel whiskers produced
by the gas deposition method
J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 16- 7 (Apr. 1997), pp. 531
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137)Y. Okazaki and K. Kakuta
Micro-dynamics of Slide Guideway Category
Proc. 9th Int'l Precision Eng. Seminar, (May
1997), pp. 421-424
138) C. Lee, T. Itoh, R. Maeda and T. Suga
Characterization of Micromachined Pi-
ezoelectric PZT Force Sensors for Dynamic
SFM
Rev. Sci. Instru. 68- 5 (May 1997), pp. 2091
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139)1. Goncharenko and K. Mori
Real- time Monitoring of Machining Processes
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140)H. Inoue, K. Mori, O. Ryabov and
N. Kasashima
Intelligent Machining System - Overview of
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141)O. Ryabov, K. Mori and N. Kasashima
Experimental Study on the Prediction of Mill-
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Using Direct Laser Measurement
Australia-Pacific Forum on Intelligent Process-
ing & Manuf of Mater., 2 (Jul. 1997), pp.
1328~1333
142)T. Suto, T. Waida and K. Okano
High Efficiency Grinding of Difficult-to
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Proc. Int. Symp. on Adv. in Abrasive Tech.,
(Jul. 1997), pp. 86-90
143)J. Akedo
Micro-Topographical Profiles Controlling in
Magnetic-Lithography
Proc. Int'l Conf Electro-Rheological Fluid,
Magnetro-Rhelogical Suspensions and their
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144)C. Lee, T. Itoh, T. Ohashi, R. Maeda and T.
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Development of a Piezoelectric Self-excitation
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crocantilevers for Dynamic Scanning Force
Microscopy on Liquid
J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. B 15-4 (Jul. /Aug.
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145) J. Akedo, M. Ichiki, K. Kikuchi and R. Maeda
New Molding Technique Using Ultra-fine
Particles for Realization of Three Dimensional
Micro Structure
Trans. IEE of Japan 117-E-8(Aug. 1997),
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146)J. Akedo and H. Kobayashi
Magneto-Lithography for Realization of
Micro-Patterning and Application to Optical
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J. The Magnetic Soc. of Japan, 21- 8 (Aug.
1997), pp. 1053-1061
147)1. Goncharenko, K. Mori and J. Lee
Remote User Interfaces on the Internet for
Machine Tool Monitoring
Proc. IFAC/ IFIP Conf Management and
Control of Production and Logistics, 2 (Sep.
1997), pp. 697-702
148)Y. Okazaki, K. Kakuta and R. Murata
Micro-dynamics of Rolling and Sliding Guide/
Drive Mechanisms
Proc. 5th Biennial Nanotechnology Symposium,
(Sep. 1997), pp. 22-23
149)K. Mizuhara and N. Ozawa
Estimation of Thermal Contact Resistance by
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Proc. The Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Amer-
ican Soc. for Precision Eng. (Oct. 1997), pp.
381 ~ 385
150)A. Schroth, M. Ichiki, J. Akedo, M. Tanaka
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Properties and Application of Jet-Printed Pi-
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Proc. 1997 Int. Symp. Micromechatronics and
Human Science MHS '97, Nagoya, ( Oct. 1997) ,
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151)Y. Murakoshi, T. Sano, R. Maeda,
A. Umezawa and M. Yamaguchi
Production of MMC by Using Coated SiCp
with Ti by PECVD
Proc. 1997 European Conf Adv. in Structural
PM Component Production, Munich, Germany,
ed, by EPMA, (Oct. 1997), pp. 503-510
152)T. Shimizu, T. Sano, S. Mochizuki and
S. Fuchizawa
Supercritical C02 Debinding Method on MIM
Process and Evaluation of Products
Proc. 1st European Symp. on Powder Injection
Moulding, (Oct. 1997), pp. 117-123
153)T. Shimizu, T. Sano, S. Mochizuki and
S. Fuchizawa
MIM Process and Debinding Method Using
Supercritical Carbon Dioxides
Proc. 6th Int. Conf on Processing and Adv.
Mater., (Nov. 1997), pp. 19-207-212
154)A. Schroth, M. Ichiki, R. Maeda, J. Akedo
and S. Matsumoto
Application of Jet-Printed PZT-Layers for
Actuation of Small Beams, Membranes and a 2
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Proc. SPIE "Smart Electronics and MEMS"
3242 (Dec. 1997), pp. 172-180
155)S. Matsumoto, A. Klein, A. Schroth and
R. Maeda
Micropump based on temperature dependence
of liquid viscosity
Proc. SPIE "Smart Electronics and MEMS",
3242 (Dec. 1997), pp. 364-371
156)R. Maeda, K. Kikuchi, A. Schroth,
A. Umezawa and S. Matsumoto
Deposition of PZT Thin Films by Pulsed Laser
Ablation for MEMS Application
Proc. SPIE "Smart Electronics and MEMS",
3242 (Dec. 1997), pp. 372-379
157)A. Schroth, M. Ichiki, R. Maeda, J. Akedo
Characterization and Application of Jet
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MEMS
Proc. SPIE "Smart Electronics and MEMS",
3242 (Dec. 1997), pp. 380-387
158)R. Maeda, C. Lee, A. Schroth, and
R. R. A. Syms
Development of Micromirror for Optical Scan-
ner Using Piezoelectric Excited and Actuated
Structures
MRS Symp. Proc. 1997. 444 (1997), pp. 233
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159)C. Lee, T. Itoh, J. Chu, T. Ohashi, R. Maeda,
A. Schroth and T. Suga
Smart Self-excited Piezoelectric PZT Mi-
crocantilevers with Inherent Sensing and
Actuating Abilities for AFM and LFM
MRS Symp. Proc. 1997, 459 (1997), pp. 35
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160)R. Maeda and K. Kikuchi
Deposition of thin films by UV light laser
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Surface Eng., 13- 1 (1997), pp. 71-74
161)A. Umezawa, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Murakoshi,
R. Maeda, T. Sano and M. Hirohashi
Coating of SiC with Ti by Chemical Vapor
De position
Surface Eng., 13- 3 (1997), pp. 243-246
162)E. Sato, T. Shimizu, T. Sano and
S. Fuchizawa
Effect of Multi - Axial Loading Path on Limit-
ing Drawing Ratio
J. Mater. Processing Technol., 63 (1997), pp.
6 0 - 6 5
163)K. Hanada, Y. Murakoshi, H. Negishi and
T. Sano
Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of
Al-Li/SiCp Composite Produced by Extrusion
Processing
J. Mater. Processing Technol., 63 (1997), pp.
405-410
164)T. Shimizu, Y. Murakoshi,
K. Wechwitayakhlung, T. Sano and
H. Negishi
Characterization of the molding methods and
the binder system in the MIM process
J. Mater. Processing Technol., 63 (1997), pp.
753~758
165)T. Takahashi, M.J. Tan, K. Hanada,
Y. Murakoshi, N.L. Loh and T. Sano
Rate of Deformation on HIPped Al- Coposites
J. Mater. Processing Technol., 67 (1997), pp. 2
~7
166)K. Hanada, K. A. Khor, M. J.Tan,
Y. Murakoshi, H. Negishi and T. Sano
Aluminium-lithium/SiCp Composites
Produced by Mechanically Milled Powders
J. Mater. Processing Technol., 67 (1997), pp.
8 ~ 12
167)T. Sano, A. Obinata, H. Negishi, K. Suginami
and H. Takeishi
Effect of Temperature Rlse on Dynamic Pow-
der Compaction
J. Mater. Processing Technol.. 67 (1997), pp.
19~23
168)T. Shimizu and T. Sano
Development of a Penalty Method Contact
Algorithm and its Application to a Sheet Form-
ing Problem
J. Mater. Processing Technol., 67 (1997), pp.
177~ 182
169)N. Nakayama, M. Fukushima, Y. Yasumoto,
T. Sano and H. Takeishi
Measurement of Energy Reflection Coefficient
Using Single Stress Wave
J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan, 46-5 (1997) . pp. 563
~ 56 7
170)N. Nakayama, M. Ohashi, T. Sano and
H. Takeishi
Dynamic Stress Concentration Factor in the
Strip Plate with Fillet
J. de Phys. IV- 7 (1997), pp. 295-299
171)O. Ryabov, K. Mori and N. Kasashima
A Multi-Purpose Laser Sensor for Cutting
Tools
Manuf Sci. and Eng., vol. 1, (1997), pp. 9
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172)K. Ohkawa, T. Shibata and K. Tanie
Self-Generating Algorithm of Evaluation for
Cooperative Behavior among Distributed
Autonomous Robots
Proc. Int. Symp. on Artif. Life & Robotics (Feb.
1997) pp.123-126
173)M. Saigo, Y. Okada and K. Ono
Self-excited Vibration Caused by Internal Fric-
tion in Universal Joints and Its Stabilizing
Method
ASME: J. Vibration and Acoustics 119(Apr.
1997), pp. 221-229
174)H. Maekawa, K. Tanie and K. Komoriya
Kinematics, Statics and Stiffness Effect of 3D
Grasp by Multifingered Hand with Rolling
Contact at the Fingertip
Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics and
Automation (Apr. 1977), pp. 78-85
175)A. Agah and K. Tanie
Human Interaction with a Service Robot:
Mobile-Manipulator Handing Over an Object
to a Human
Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics &
Automation (Apr. 1997), pp. 575-580
176) N-Y. Chong, K. Yokoi, S-R. Oh and K. Tanie
Position Control of Collision-Tolerant Passive
Mobile Manipulator with Base Suspension
Characteristics
Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics &
Automation (Apr. 1997), pp. 594-599
177)A. Agah and K. Tanie
Robots Playing to Win: Evolutionary Soccer
Strategies
Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics &
Automation (Apr. 1997), pp. 632-637
178) H. Arai, K. Tanie and N. Shiroma
Feedback Control of a 3-DOF Planar Under-
actuated Manipulator
Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics &
Automation (Apr. 1997), pp. 703-709
179)P. Huynh and T. Arai
Maximum Velocity Analysis of Parallel
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Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics and
Automation (ICRA'97) (Apr. 1997), pp. 3268
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180)K. Iwamoto and K. Tanie
Development of an Eye Movement Tracking
Type Head Mounted Display:
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Images with High Reality-
Proc. 1997 IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics &
Automation (Apr. 1997), pp. 3385-3390
181)O. Khatib, K. Yokoi, K. Chang and A. Casal
The Stanford Robotic Platform
Proc. IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics & Automa-
tion (Apr. 1997), Video Proc.
182)K. Ohba, Y. Sato and K. Ikeuchi
Visual Learning and Object Recognition with
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Proc. of the 8th Cong. of the Int. Colour
Association (AIC Color 97) 2 (May 1997),
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183) P. Huynh and T. Arai
Kinematic Performance Characteristics for
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Proc. Int. Conf on Robotics and Manuf (RM'
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184)T. Shibata and R. Irie
Artificial Emotional Creature for Human
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ligent System-
Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf on Adv. Intelli-
gent Mechatronics '97 (AIM97) (Jun. 1997),
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185)H-O. Lim, K. Yokoi, N-Y. Chong, S-R. Oh,
K. Tanie and A. Takanishi
Collision-Tolerant End-Effector Position Con-
trol for Moblle Manipulator
Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf on Adv. Intelli-
gent Mechatronics '97 (AIM97) (Jun. 1997),
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186) H. Takeuchi
Development of Leg-Functions Coordinated
Robot MEL HORSE,
Proc. 8th Int. Conf on Adv. Robotics (Jul.
1997), pp. 59-64
187)N. Shiroma, H. Arai and K. Tanie
Nonlinear Control of a Planar Free Link under
a Nonholonomic Constraint
Proc. 8th Int. Conf on Adv. Robotics (Jul.
1997), pp. 103-109
188) N. Koyachi, T. Arai, H. Adachi, A. Murakami
and K. Kawai
Mechanical Design of Hexapods with Integrat-
ed Limb Mechanism: MELMANTIS-1 and
MELMANTIS-2,
Proc. 8th Int. Conf on Adv. Robotics (ICAR
'97) (Jul. 1997), pp. 273-278
189)P. Huynh, Y. Nakamura, T. Arai,
T. Tanikawa and N. Koyachi
Symmeric Damping Bilateral Control for Par-
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Proc. Int. Conf on Adv. Robotics (ICAR'97) x
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190)A. Kheddar, C. Tzafestas, P. Coiffet,
T. Kotoku, S. Kawabata, K. Iwamoto and
K.Tanie
I. Mazon, C. Laugier and R. Chellali Parallel
Multi-Robots Long Distance Teleoperation
Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Adv. Robotics
(ICAR '97) (Jul. 1997) pp. 1007-1012
191)S. Hashino
Development of crawl-type stair lift
Proc. 2nd Asian Control Conf (Jul. 1997), pp.
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192)K. Tanie, K. Machida, K. Akita, R. Sakata,
Y. Shinomiya and T. Mikami
Solar-cell and Wire Handling Experiments
Using Advanced Robotic Hand System
Proc. Int. Symp. on Artif Intelligence, Robotics
& Automation in Space (i-SAIRAS97) (Jul.
1997). pp. 125-130
193)K. Homma, M. Kuuva and M. Airila
Design Procedure of Rehabilitation Robot
Proc 11th Int. Conf on Eng. Design 3 (Aug.
1997), pp. 697-701
194)Y. Maeda
The National Research and Development for
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Proc. 2nd China-Japan symp. on mechatronics
(Aug. 1997), pp. 230-235
195)S. Hashino
Development of crawl-type stair lift for
straight and turned-up staircase
Proc. 2nd China Japan symp. on mechatronics
(Aug. 1997), pp. 242-247
196)H. Arisumi, T. Kotoku and K. Komoriya
A Study of Casting Manipulation
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Pr oc. I EEE/RSJ I nt. Conf on I nt el l i gent
Robots and Systems (IROS'97) (Sep. 1997) pp.
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197) H. Adachi, N. Koyachi, T. Arai and
Y. Shinohara
Human-Operated Walking Control of a Quad-
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Proc. 10th IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
Robots and Systems (IROS '97) (Sep. 1997),
pp. 260-265
198)T. Yano, T. Suwa, M. Murakami and
T. Yamamoto
Development of a Semi Self-Contained Wall
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199)K. Ohba, Y. Sato and K. Ikeuchi
Visual Learning and Object Verification with
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Robots & Systems (IROS'97) 2 (Sep. 1997),
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200)P.Huynh, T.Arai, N. Koyachi and T. Sendai
Optimal Velocity Based Control of a Parallel
Manipulator with Fixed Linear Actuators,
Proc. 10th IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
Robots and Systems (IROS '97) (Sep.1997),
pp. 1125-1130
201)O. Matsumoto, S. Kajita and K. Tani
Fast Passing over Steps with Unknown Height
by a 'Variable Structure Type Four-Wheeled
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Proc. 10th IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
Robots and Systems(IROS'97) (Sep.1997) , pp.
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202)K. Ohkawa, T. Shibata and K. Tanie
Self-Generating Method of Behavioral Evalua-
tion for Reinforcernent Learning among Multi-
ple Coordinated Robots
Pr oc. I EEE/RSJ I nt. Conf on I nt el l i gent
Robots & Systems (IROS'97) (Sep. 1997) pp.
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203)T. Arai, H. Funabashi, Y. Takeda,
Y. Nakamura and Y. Koseki
High Speed and High Precision Parallel Mech-
anism
Proc. 10th IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
Robots aord Systems (IROS :97) (Sep. 1997),
pp. 1624-1629
204)Y. Hayashibara, K. Tanie, H. Arai and
H. Tokashiki
Development of Power Assist System with
Individual Compensation Ratios for Gravity
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Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
Robots & System (IROS'97) (Sep. 1997) pp.
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205)Q. Huang, S. Sugano and K. Tanie
Stability Compensation of a Mobile Manipula-
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Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
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206)A. Kheddar, P. Koiffet, T. Kotoku and
K. Tanie
Multi-robot teleoperation - analysis and prog-
nosis
Proc. IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot and
Human Communication (RoMan'97) (Sep.
1997), pp. 166-171
207)P. Huynh, F. Chavand and N. Koyachi
Determination of Human Energy Generated by
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Proc. Int. Workshop on Robot and Human
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208)A. Agah, K. Tanie, K. Ohkawa and
K. Iwamoto
Tele-Museum: Multimedia Interface and Con-
trol for Exploring a Remote
Proc. 6th IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot &
Human communication (RO-MAN97) (Sep.
1997), pp. 448-453
209) H. Takeuchi
Development of MEL HORSE -Redundant Leg
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Proc. 3rd European Center for Peace and
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ligent Automation and Active Systems (Sep.
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210)K. Ohba and K. Ikeuchi
Detectability, Uniqueness, and Reliability of
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211)S. Hashino
Development of Crawl-type Stair Lift for Half
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Proc. Secoud Int. Workshop on Service and
Personal Robots:Tech. and Appl. (Oct. 1997),
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212)S. Hashino
Development of Crawl-type Stair Lift for Half
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Proc. 3rd Asian Conf on Robotics and Its Appl.
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213)T. Shibata, M. Yoshida and J. Yamato
Artificial Emotional Creature for Human
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214)K. Tanie, H. Maekawa and Y. Nakamura
Stiffness Control of an Object Grasped by a
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215)T. Shibata
Motion Planning by Genetic Algorithm for a
Redundant Manipulator Using a Model of
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216)H. Maekawa, K. Tanie and K. Konroriya
Tactile Feedback for Multifingered Dynamic
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217)T. Shibata, K. Ohkawa and K. Tanie
Spontaneous Behavior for Cooperation
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gent Robot System
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218)H. Takagi, R. Maeda, Y. Aado and T. Suga
Room Temperature Silicon Wafer Direct Bond-
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Proc. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
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219) H. Ogawa, K. Suzuki, S. Kaneko, Y. Nakano,
Y. Ishikawa and T. Kitahara
Measurements of Mechanical Properties of
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Proc. IEEE 10th Annual Int. Workshop on
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220)K. Kawahara, T. Suto, T. Hirano,
Y. Ishikawa, T. Kitahara, N. Ooyama and
T. Ataka
Microfacture of small products
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221)K. Kaneko, H. Tokashiki, K. Tanie and
K. Komoriya
Impedance Shaping based on Force Feedback
Bilateral Control in Macro-Micro Teleopera-
tion System
Proc. IEEE Int. Conf on Robotics & Automa-
tion (Apr. 1997), pp. 710-717
222)S. Nakano, R. Maeda and K. Yamanaka
Evaluation of the Elastic Properties of a Canti-
lever Using Resonant Frequencies
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223) H. Ogawa, K. Suzuki, S. Kaneko, Y. Nakano,
Y. Ishikawa and T. Kitahara
Tensile Testing of Microfabricated Thin Films
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224)H. Takagi, R. Maeda, T.R. Chung and
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Low Temperature Direct Bonding of Silicon
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225)K. Kaneko, H. Tokashiki, K. Tanie and
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Bilateral Teleoperation System for Micro
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226)Y. Ando, T. Tanaka and Y. Ishikawa
The Relation between Micro Asperity Curva-
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227)T. Suto, T. Waida and K. Okano
High Efficiency Grinding of Difficult-to
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228) H. Ogawa, K. Suzuki, S. Kaneko, Y. Nakano,
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A Tensile Testing Method of Measuring Stress
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Proc. Int. Conf on Adv. Tech. in Experimental
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229)K. Ozaki, A. Korenaga and M. Ichiki
Pumping Characteristics of Magnetic Fluid
Pump Abstracts of Int. Conf. on Electro
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Suspensions and Their Appl. (ERMR'97) (Jul.
1997), pp. 268-269
230)Y. Ando
Decrease in Friction Coefficient under
Extremely Low Load
Elastohydrodynamics 196: Fundamentals and
appl. in lubrication and traction (Leeds
-Lyon23), 32 (Sep. 1997), pp. 533-540
231)T. Arai and T. Tanikawa
Micro Manipulation Using Two-Finger Hand
Proc. Workshop on Working in the Micro- and
Nano- Worlds: Systems to Enable the Manipula-
tion and Machining of Micro-Objects (Greno -
ble) (Sep. 1997), pp. 12-19
232)T. Tanikawa, T. Arai and Y. Hashimoto
Development of Vision System for Two-finger-
ed Micro Manipulation
Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf on Intelligent
Robotics and Systems (Sep. 1997), pp. 1051
- I 056
233) S. Sado, Y. Ishikawa, T. Kitahara and T. Suto
Micro Factories: an Energy Saving Manufac-
turing System
Proc. Int. Workshop on Environmentally Con-
scious Manuf (The Netherlands) (Sep. 1997),
pp. 48-53
234)T. Kitahara
Mechanical Engineering Approarch to Mi-
cromachine
Proc. China-Japan Joint Workshop on Microma-
chine/MEMS (Sep. 1997). pp. 50-56
235)Y. Ando and J. Ino
The Effect of Asperity Array Geometry on
Friction and Pull-off Force
Trans. of ASME, J. of Tribology, 119-4(Oct.
1997), pp. 781-787
236)Y. Ando, Y. Ishikawa and T. Kitahara
Tribology for Micromachines
Proc. The Third Int. Micromachine Symp. (Oct.
1997), pp. 117-122
237)H. Ogawa, K. Suzuki, S. Kaneko, Y. Nakano
and Y. Ishikawa
Stress-Strain Diagrams of Microfabricated
Thin Films
Proc. Int. Conf on Micro Mater. (Oct. 1997),
pp. 716-719
238)Y, Ishikawa and T. Kitahara
Present and Future of Micromechatronics
Proc. the 1997 Int. Symp. on Microme-
chatronics and Human Science (Oct. 1997),
pp. 13-20
Director-General
Dr. Yoshinori Nakazawa
Deputy Director-General
Dr. Naotake Ohyama
ORGANIZATION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
as of January 1998
Research Planning Office
Dr. Jun Hama
International Research Cooperation Officer
Mr. Takayoshi Ohmi
Chief Senior Researcher
Dr. Hikaru Matsumiya
Dr. Yasukata Tsutsui
General Research Counselor
Mr. Fumitake Chisaka
Department of General Affairs
Mr. Hideo Momose
Department of Material Science
and Bioengineering
Dr. Yuji Enomoto
Department of Applied Physics
and Information Science
Dr. Toshio Koiima
Department of Advanced Machinery
Mr. Yoshitaka Tatsue
Department of Energy Engineering
Dr. Kazuo Kontani
Department of Manufacturing Systems
Dr. Toshio Sano
Department of Robotics
Dr. Taketoshi Nozaki
Quantum and Molecular
Mechanical Engineering Research Group
Dr. Akira Yabe
Technology Consultation Office
Mr. Seiji Nakahara
Supervising Researcher of NAIR
Dr. Tetsuya Tateishi
Material Properties Division
Materials Design Division
Tribology Division
Biomechanics Division
Biomimetics Division
Optlcal Engineering Division
Instrumentation and Control Division
Systems Science Division
Machine Intelligence Division
Computational Engineering Division
Micro-Mechanisms Division
Machine Elements Division
Nanotechnology Division
Sound and Vibration Division
Thermal Engineering Dlvision
Fluid Engineering Division
Combustion Engineerlng Division
Energy Conversion Division
Energy Eco-use System Division
Environmental Engineering Division
Machinlng Process Division
Plasticity and Forming Division
Surface and Interface Technology Division
Manufacturing Machinery Division
Manufacturing Information Division
Mechanism Division
Cybernetics Divislon
Autonomous Machinery Division
Biorobotics Division
Human Support Technology Division
Dr. Kazumi Hirano
Dr. Kiyoshi lchikawa
Dr. Akihiro Tanaka
Dr. Yukio Yamada
Dr. Takashi Yainane
Dr. Kojl Tenjimbayashi
Dr. Masahiko Onda
Dr. Shigeru Kokaji
Dr. Sadayuki Tsugawa
Mr. Satoshi Imamura
Dr. Yuichi Ishikawa
Dr. Takeo Yoshioka
Dr. Akira Yabe
Dr. Nobuo Tanaka
Dr. Masao Shiraishi
Dr. Hiroo Yoshida
Dr. Shinichi Goto
Dr. Sanyo Takahashi
Dr. Kenichi Simizu
Dr. Keizo Saito
Dr. Mitsuro Hattori
Dr. Keiji Nakayama
Mr. Ryutaro Maeda
Dr. Tomoaki Eiju
Dr. Kazuo Mori
Dr. Muneharu Saigo
Dr. Kiyoshi Komoriya
Mr. Noriho Koyachi
Dr. Kazuo Tanie
Mr. Satoshi Hashino
Cover
Three dimensional micro-diamond turning: An agile manufacturing system which enables generation of
three dimensional fine surface figures has been developed. The system utilizes a fast tool servo driven by
a piezoelectric actuator, which is mounted on the tool slide of an ultra-precision turning machine and gives
a diamond tool a fine displacement. By feeding the fast tool servo with a series of control data along the
tool path on the workpiece surface to be machined, arbitrary non-axisymmetric surface figures can be
generated within the maximum travel of the servo of 10 m. The machining process takes less than a half
an hour to finish a workpiece of 50 mm diameter. A wide variety of application is proposed, including exotic
optics, machine elements, boundary-layer control, printing and electronics, as well as ornamental design.