Terminology Glossary - US EPA Web Server

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Terminology Glossary


Abbreviation

Acronym

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Application Program Interface (API)

Broader Term (BT)

Category

Classification

Collaboration Software

Concept

Data

Designation

Dictionary

Download

Editor

Equivalent Term

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Facet

Glossary

Hierarchy

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

Initialism

Interface

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Knowledge Organization System (KOS)

Language

Metadata

Ontology

Narrower Term (NT)

Performa
nce Requirement

Preferred Term

Resource Description Framework (RDF)

Related Term (RT)

Requirement

Scope Note

Search and Retrieval

Semantic Web

Simple Knowledge Organization Systems (SKOS)

Source Note

Special Language

Synaptica

Synonym

Synonomy

Synonym Ring
s

System Administrator

System Development

System Maintenance

System Security

Taxonomy

Term

Terminology

Terminological Dictionary

Terminological Entry

Terminology Science

Thesaurus

Top Term

Topic Map (ISO/IEC 13250:2003)

Used For Term (UF)

User Manual

Vocab
ulary

Web Ontology Language (OWL)

Web Services

Wiki

Word

XML


Terminology Glossary


Abbreviation

Designation formed by omitting words or letters from a longer form and designating the
same concept
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)


Acronym

Abbreviation made up of the
initial letters of the components of the full form of the
designation or from syllables of the full form and pronounced syllabically
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)

NOTE:
A
cronyms
e
xamples: laser, DOS, GATT, UNESCO, UNICEF
.


American National Standards Institute (A
NSI)

Coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the United
States and represents the needs and views of U.S
.
stakeholders in standardization forums
around the globe
.
(
www.ansi.org
)


Application P
rogram Interface (API)

A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications
.

NOTE: A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building
blocks
.
A programmer puts the blocks together
.
(
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/API.html
)


Broader Term (BT)

Index term of a thesaurus denoting a concept wider than that of another index term with
which it has a downward hierarchical relation
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Cate
gory

A broad facet, primary division of a special classification system or of a main class of a
general one
.
(ISO 5217)


Classification

Arrangement of symbols indicating concepts into classes and their subdivisions to
express generic relations or other t
ypes of relations between them
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Collaboration Software

Synonym: social software

Software that allows people to work together on the same documents and projects over
local and remote networks
.

NOTE: Also called "social software," collab
orative software embraces the
communications systems as well, including e
-
mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging
and chat
.
(
http:/www.techweb.com/encyclopedi
a/defineterm.jhtml?term=collaborativesoftware
)




Concept

Unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)


Data

A reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for
communication, i
nterpretation, or processing
.
(ISO/IEC 2382
-
1:1993)


Designation

Representation of a concept by a sign which denotes it
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)

NOTE: In terminology work three types of designations are distinguished: symbols,
appellations and terms
.


Dict
ionary

A reference tool containing an alphabetical list of words, with information given for each
word, usually including meaning, pronunciation, and etymology
.
library.scsu.ctstateu.edu/glossary.html



Download

To transfer programs or data from a computer to a connected computer with fewer
resources, typically from a mainframe to a personal computer
.
(ISO/IEC 2382
-
1:1993)


Editor

Corporate body or individual intellectually responsible for a publica
tion
.
(ISO
5127:2001)


Equivalent Term

Term related to another by an equivalence relation
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Extensible Markup Language (XML)

A general
-
purpose markup language for creating special
-
purpose markup languages
.
It
is capable of describing
many different kinds of data
.

NOTE: Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different systems,
particularly systems connected via the Internet
.


Facet

1) Classes or subclasses resulting from the application of one criterion of d
ivision
.
(ISO
5127:2001)

2) The subset of information objects that share an externally
-
applied property
.
(SO?IEC
13250:2003)


Glossary

Terminological dictionary which contains a list of designations from a subject field,
together with equivalents in on
e or more languages
.

NOTE: In English common language usage, glossary can refer to a unilingual list of
designations and definitions in a particular subject field
.
(ISO 1087:2000)
.


Hierarchy

The structure of a system whose components are ranked into
levels of subordination for
communication purposes according to specific rules
.
(ISO/IEC 2382
-
34:1999)


HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

Standardized general markup language application permitting linking of documents
through selected access points
.
(IS
O 5127:2001)

NOTE: HTML is a subset of SGML
.


Initialism

Abbreviation made up of the initial letters of the components of the full form of the
designation or from syllables of the full form and pronounced letter by letter
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)

NOTE: Exam
ples of initialisms are: UN, ASTM, IEC, US, EU, DNA
.


Interface

A shared boundary defined by the characteristics of that boundary
.

NOTE: The interface may be described at the physical level, at the software level, or as
purely logic operations
.
For ex
ample, characteristics of the boundary may include the
identification of any physical interconnections, description of signal exchanges across the
boundary, or specification of functions performed on each side of the boundary
.
(ANSDIT
-

ANSI Dictionary fo
r Information Technology)


International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Worldwide organization consisting of a network of the national standards institutes of
countries formed to promote development of standards to facilitate the international
car
riage and exchange of goods and service and to develop mutual cooperation in the
spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic activities
.
www.crowley.com/glossary/default.asp

&
www.iso.org



Knowledge Organization System (KOS)

The term knowledge organization system is intended to encompass all types of schemes
for organizing information and promoting knowledge management
.
Knowledge
organization systems inc
lude classification and categorization schemes that organize
materials at a general level, subject headings that provide more detailed access, and
authority files that control variant versions of key information such as geographic names
and personal names
.

Knowledge organization systems also include highly structured
vocabularies, such as thesauri, and less traditional schemes, such as semantic networks
and ontologies
.
(
http://www.db.dk/bh/lifeboat_ko/CONCEPTS/knowledge_organization_systems.htm
)


Language

System of signs for communication usually consisting of a vocabulary and rules
.
(ISO
5127:2001)


Metadata

Data about data (ISO 19115:2003)
.

NOTE: Any data use
d to aid the identification, definition, description, use, location, etc
.
of resources
.
(
http://www.ifla.org/II/metadata.htm
)


Ontology

A reference tool containing an explicit formal specification of h
ow to represent the
objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and
the relationships that hold among them
.

NOTE: The subject of ontology is the study of the categories of things that exist or may
exist in some

domain
.
The product of such a study, called an ontology, is a catalog of the
types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest D from the perspective of
a person who uses a language L for the purpose of talking about D
.
The types in the
ontology represent the predicates, word senses, or concept and relation types of the
language L when used to discuss topics in the domain D
.
(John Sowa cofounder of
VivoMind Intelligence, Inc.)


Narrower Term (NT)

Index term of a thesaurus denoting a con
cept more specific than that of another index
term with which it has an upward hierarchical relation
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Performance Requirement

A requirement that imposes conditions on a functional requirement; e.g., a requirement
that specifies the speed
, accuracy, or memory usage with which a given function must be
performed
.


Preferred Term

1) Term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as the primary term
for a given concept
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)

2) Index term of a thesaurus use
d in preference to an alternative and equivalent entry
term to which it is related
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Resource Description Framework (RDF)

A general framework for describing a Web site's metadata, or the information about the
information on the site
.
It
provides interoperability between applications that exchange
machine
-
understandable information on the Web
.
RDF details information such as a
site's sitemap, the dates of when updates were made, keywords that search engines look
for and the Web page's int
ellectual property rights
.
www.angelfire.com/anime3/internet/data.htm



Related Term (RT)

Index term with a coordinate relation and equal rank to another index term
.
(ISO
5127:2001)

NOTE: A rela
ted term is of associated meaning but not synonymous with the other term
.



Requirement

An essential condition that a system must satisfy
.
(ANSDIT
-

ANSI Dictionary for
Information Technology)


Scope Note

Short explanation on how to use an index term
.

(ISO 5127:2001)


Search and Retrieval

Operations accomplished to obtain information about documents through a retrieval
system (ISO5127:2001)
.


Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well
-
defined
meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation
.


Simple Knowledge Organization Systems (SKOS)

SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of
knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as thesaur
i, classification schemes, subject
heading systems and taxonomies within the framework of the Semantic Web
.
(
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
)


Source Note

Field that contains the name of the originating sou
rce of the entry
.


Special Language

Synonym: language for special purposes

Language used in a subject field and characterized by the use of specific linguistic means
of expression
.

NOTE: The specific linguistic means of expression always include subjec
t
-
specific
terminology and phraseology and also may cover stylistic or syntactic features
.
(ISO
1087
-
1:2000)


Synaptica

The proprietary terminology management application that forms the basis for ETSS
.
Synaptica is a product of Dow Jones/Factiva
.


Syn
onym

Two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to
that context
.
(
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn>wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
)


Synonomy

Relation between or among terms in a given language representing the same concept
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)

EXAMPLE: Category
-
class; deuterium
-
heavy hydrogen
.


Synonym Rings

A list of words with related meanings used to broaden the scope of a word
search
.
As
well as returning documents which contain a sought
-
for word a search using a synonym
ring might also return documents which contain words in the same synonym ring as a
sought
-
for word
.
Synonym rings are produced manually and are usually specif
ic to a
certain field, e.g
.
legal
.
(
http://www.computer
-
dictionary
-
online.org/synonym%20ring.htm?q=synonym%20ring
)


System Administrator

An individual with the

responsibility to manage and maintain a system
.


System Development

A process that usually includes requirements analysis, system design, implementation,
documentation, and quality assurance
.
(ISO/IEC 2382
-
20:1990)


System Maintenance

The modification

of a system to correct faults, to improve performance, or to adapt the
system to a changed environment or changed requirements
.
(ISO/IEC 2382
-
20:1990)


System Security

The protection of computer hardware and software from accidental or malicious access,

use, modification, destruction, or disclosure
.
Security also pertains to personnel, data,
communications, and the physical protection of computer installations
.


Taxonomy

The construction of a concept classification scheme by means of disjunctive class
es of
clustered concepts
.
The goal of taxonomy formation is to achieve maximal simplicity
and minimal overlap of distinctive characteristics
.
Contrast with conceptual clustering
and concept formation
.
(ANSDIT
-

ANSI Dictionary for Information Technology
)


Term

Verbal designation (3.4.1) of a general concept in a specific subject field
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)

NOTE: A term may contain symbols and can have variants, e.g
.
different forms of
spelling
.


Terminology

Set of designations belonging to one special

language
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)


Terminological Dictionary

Synonym: technical dictionary

Collection of terminological entries presenting information related to concepts or
designations from one or more specific subject fields
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)


Terminolo
gical Entry

Part of a terminological data collection which contains the terminological data related to
one concept
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)


Terminology Science

Science studying the structure, formation, development, usage and management of
terminologies in va
rious subject fields
.
(ISO 1087
-
1:2000)


Thesaurus

Controlled vocabulary including equivalent terms interrelations and rules of application
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Top Term

Index term of a thesaurus which denotes the broadest possible concept of any other in
dex
term with which it has a downward hierarchical relation and which has no broader term
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


Topic Map (ISO/IEC 13250:2003)

1) A set of information resources regarded by a topic map application as a bounded
object set whose hub document is

a topic map document conforming to the SGML
architecture defined by this International Standard
.

2) Any topic map document conforming to the SGML architecture defined by this
International Standard, or the document element (topicmap) of such a document
.


3) The document element type (topicmap) of the topic map document architecture
.


Used For Term (UF)

A Used For reference identifies non
-
preferred terms that represent varied forms of the
preferred term, such as synonyms, non
-
preferred variants, abbrev
iations or acronyms, and
spelled
-
out versions of abbreviations and acronyms
.
Used For references may also
represent specific terms that are indexed under a more general term
.
Used For references
are not to be used in indexing or searching
.
Each Used For

term appears separately in the
alphabetical list as a USE reference that sends the user back to the preferred term, for
example, Juveniles USE Adolescents
.
(
http://www.mchthesaurus.info/introd
uction.html
)


User Manual

Synonym: user guide

A document that describes how to use a functional unit, and that may include description
of the rights and responsibilities of the user, the owner, and the supplier of that functional
unit
.
(ISO/IEC 2382
-
20:
1990)


Vocabulary

In the context of ETSS, the term vocabulary describes discrete collections of terms, each
of which may or may not include definitions and/or hierarchical structure
.
Term lists,
glossaries, taxonomies and thesauri are types of vocabulari
es found in ETSS
.
(ETSS
administrator)


Web Ontology Language (OWL)

OWL is an acronym for Web Ontology Language, a markup language for publishing and
sharing data using ontologies on the Internet
.
OWL is a vocabulary extension of RDF
(the Resource Descr
iption Framework) and is derived from the DAML+OIL Web
Ontology Language
.
Together with RDF and other components, these tools make up the
semantic web project
.
(
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Ontology
_Language
)


Web Services

Web Services refers to the technologies that allow for making connections
.
Services are
what you connect together using Web Services
.
A service is the endpoint of a
connection
.
Also, a service has some type of underlying compu
ter system that supports
the connection offered
.
The combination of services
-

internal and external to an
organization
-

make up a service
-
oriented architecture
.


Wiki

A collaborative website which can be directly edited by anyone with access to it
.
(
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wiki
)


Word

Smallest linguistic unit conveying a specific meaning and capable of existing as a
separate unit in a sentence
.
(ISO 5127:2001)


XML

See "Hypertext Markup Langu
age"
.