national use - A new challenge for BiH?

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R&D/S&T
statistics and indicators as
policy tools: International guidelines for
national use
-

A new challenge for
BiH
?




Mr. Gunnar Westholm, key expert of the Project


Definitions

of Science and
Technology

(
based
on the British “Collins
Cobuild

English
Dictionary”):





Science

is the study of the nature and
behavior

of natural things and the

knowledge that we obtain about them.


A
science is a particular branch of science
such as physics, chemistry, or biology…


A science is the study of some aspect of
human behavior, for example sociology or
anthropology.






Technology

refers to methods, systems and
devices which are the result of scientific
knowledge being used for practical
purposes”.



Statistics are:

“…facts which are obtained from analysing information
expressed in numbers, for example information about the
number of times that something happens. Statistics is also a
branch of mathematics concerned with the study of
information that is expressed in numbers”.


Indicators are:


An indicator could be described as a set of statistics arranged
to answer a specific question (to “ring a bell” or give an
“early warning”). Indicators are usually obtained by putting
the original raw data in comparison with some other
internal or external variables


including that of time
-

and
take the form of, for instance, ratios, percentages, growth
rates or are seen in relation to the population, to the GDP or
to other economic variables”.


UNESCO definitions of Scientific and
Technical Activities (“STA”)

S&T Activities (“STA”):


«....systematic activities which are closely
concerned with the generation, advancement,
dissemination, and application of scientific and
technical knowledge in all fields of science and
technology. These include such activities as R&D,
scientific and technical education and training
(STET), and the scientific and technological
services (STS)...»


1.
Research and Experimental Activities



2.


Scientific and Technical Education and Training
at Broadly the Third Level («STET”)

«

...all activities comprising specialized non
-
university higher education and training,
higher education and training leading to a
university degree, post
-
graduate and further
training, and organized life
-
long training for
scientists and engineers. These activities
broadly correspond to ISCED levels 5, 6 and 7

»



3. Scientific and Technological Services («

STS

»):


«…activities concerned with research and
experimental development and contributing to
the generation, dissemination and application
of scientific and technical knowledge

».



Source
:

«

Recommendation concerning the International
Standardization of Statistics on Science and
Technology

»
(UNESCO 1978)



The Basic definitions of R&D (OECD,
UNESCO, EUROSTAT)



“Research and experimental development (R&D)
comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic
basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge,
including knowledge of man, culture and society,
and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise
new applications”.





R&D covers both formal R&D in R&D units and
informal or occasional R&D in other units. There
should be a considerable element of novelty!



The three sub
-
classes of R&D:



Basic research

(or “fundamental research”) is:





experimental or theoretical work undertaken
primarily

to acquire new knowledge of the
underlying foundation of phenomena and
observable facts, without any particular
application or use in view”.



Applied research
:
is:


“…also original investigation undertaken in order
to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed
primarily towards a specific practical aim or
objective”.


Experimental development:

is


“…systematic work, drawing on existing
knowledge gained from research and/or practical
experience, which is directed to producing new
materials, products or devices, to installing new
processes, systems and services, or to improving
substantially those already produced or installed”.



The principal international agencies engaged in
the collection of R&D/S&T statistics and
indicators:



The
Organisation

for Economic Cooperation and
Development
-
OECD (Paris)



The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation



UNESCO (Paris) and the UNESCO Institute
for Statistics


UIS (Montreal)




EUROSTAT


the Statistical Bureau of the European
Commission (Luxembourg)



RICYT


Red
Iberoamericana

de
Indicadores

de
Ciencia

y
Tecnologia

-

The
Iberoamerican

Network of Science and
Technology Indicators (Buenos Aires)


The Principal OECD Methodological
Manuals:


A
The “Frascati
Family
”:


R&D

The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities Series:


-


Frascati

Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Experimental
Development”


6
th

Edition (OECD 2002)



-

“R&D Statistics and Output Measurement in the Higher Education Sector”


Frascati

Manual
Supplement (OECD 1989)



Technology


-

“Manual for the Measurement and Interpretation of Technology
Balance of



Balance of Payments Data

TBP Manual” (OECD 1990) (1)


Payments



Innovation


-

“Oslo Manual
-

Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting




Innovation Data Oslo Manual” (3rd Edition, OECD 2005)



Patents




“Using Patents Data as Science and Technology Indicators
-






Patents Manual” (2008)(1)



S&T




-

“The Measurement of Human Resources Devoted to Science and

Personnel



Technology
-

Canberra Manual” (OECD 1995) (2)



B

Other Methodological Frameworks for S&T:


High technology

-

“Revision of High
-
technology Sector and Product
Classification”





OECD, STI Working Paper 1997/2



Bibliometrics


-


Bibliometric

Indicators and Analysis of Research





Systems: Methods and Examples”, by Yoshiko OKUBO





(OECD, STI Working Paper 1997/1 (OECD 1997) (3)



Globalisation


-

“Handbook on Economic
Globalisation

Indicators”


(OECD 2005)


Productivity


-

“Measuring Productivity Manual” (OECD 2001)



Biotechnology


-

“A Framework for Biotechnology Statistics (OECD 2005)


C. Other Relevant OECD Statistical Frameworks:


Information



-

“A guide for Information Society Measurements and





Analysis “


Technologies



(OECD 2005)


Education



-

“OECD Manual for Comparative Education Statistics”





(and


Statistics




-

Technical notes to the annual OECD “Education at a




Glance” reports)


Education


“ Classifying Educational
Programmes
”, Manual for

ISCED
-
97


The Table of Contents of the
2002”Frascati Manual” (6
th

revision

)


Eight chapters dealing with:



Chapter 1:


Aim and Scope of the Manual


Chapter 2:


Basic Definitions and Conventions


Chapter 3:


Institutional Classification


Chapter 4


Functional Distribution


Chapter 5:


Measurement of R&D Personnel


Chapter 6:


Measurement of Expenditures Devoted to R&D


Chapter 7:


Survey Methodology and Procedures


Chapter 8:


Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays




for R&D by Socio
-
Economic Objectives



Eleven Annexes:



Annex 1:

Brief History and Origins of the
Frascati

Manual


Annex 2:

Obtaining Data on R&D in the Higher Education sector”


Annex 3:

The Treatment of R&D in the United Nations’ System of National



Accounts


Annex 4:

R&D related to Health, Information and Communications



Technology (ICT) and Biotechnology


Annex 5:

Methods of Deriving Regional R&D Data


Annex 6:

Work on S&T Indicators in Other International
Organisations


Annex 7:

Other Science and Technology Indicators (Patent Statistics, The



Technology Balance of Payments (TBP),
Bibliometrics
, High



Technology Products and Industries, Innovation Statistics, Human



Resources for Science and Technology (HRST);


Annex 8:

Practical Methods of Providing Up
-
to
-
date Estimates and Projections


of

Resources Devoted to R&D


Annex 9:

R&D Deflators and Currency Converters


Annex 10:

Supplementary Guidance on the Classification of large R&D Projects


with Special Reference to the Defense and Aerospace Industries


Annex 11:

Correspondence between the Categories of R&D Personnel by



Occupation in the
Frascati

Manual and ISCO
-
88 Classes



The O
ECD (UNESCO and EUROSTAT) sectors
of R&D performance and sources of funds:





The Business Enterprise
sector
:



The
Government

sector
;



The
Higher

Education
sector
, and



The
Private

non
-
Profit
sector
;



Abroad



National Total (GERD for expenditures)




The
Business enterprise sector

includes “all firms,
organisations

and
institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods
and services (other than higher education) for sale to the general
public at an economically significant price, and the private non
-
profit
institutions mainly serving them”. In brief, this sector covers private
and public enterprises, notably in manufacturing and services, and
institutes serving them.


The
Government sector
: consists of “all departments, offices and other
bodies which furnish, but normally do not sell to the community, those
common services, other than higher education, which cannot
otherwise be conveniently and economically provided, as well as those
that administer the state and the economic and social policy of the
community”.


Note that public enterprises are included in the BE sector. Only direct
transfers are measured for this sector, as a sector of finance, whereas
different kinds of indirect public R&D support, such as tax incentives
and concessions, interest subsidies, etc. are not taken into account.



The
Higher Education sector
is composed of: “All universities, colleges of
technology and other institutions of post
-
secondary education, whatever their
source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes,
experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct

control of or
administered by or associated with higher education institutions
.


The
Private Non
-
Profit (PNP
) sector covers “…non
-
market, private non
-
profit
institutions serving households (i.e. the general public)” and “private
individuals or household”.


Typically included is this sector are professional or learned societies, charities,
relief or aid agencies, trade unions, consumers’ associations, etc., plus any
funds contributed directly to R&D by households.


“Abroad
” consists, usually as a source of R&D finance of, …” all institutions
and individuals located outside the political borders of a country, except
vehicles, ships, aircraft and space satellites operated by domestic entities and
testing grounds acquired by such entities. Also included are “all international
organisations

(except business enterprises) including facilities and operations
within the country’s borders”.


For some statistics (such as the innovation statistics) “abroad” may also
constitute a “sector of destination” for some R&D support.


Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD):

total expenditure on all R&D
performed on the national territory, by the four sectors above, in a given year.



R&D Expenditures



The
intramural expenditure
s are:




… all (both current and capital) expenditures for R&D performed within a
statistical unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the
source of funds.




Expenditures outside the statistical unit but in support of intramural R&D (e.g.
purchase of supplies for R&D) are included






The
extramural expenditures
are defined as:




… the sums a unit, organisation or sector reports having paid or committed
themselves to pay to another unit, organisation of sector for the performance of
R&D during a specific period This includes acquisition of R&D performed by
other units and grants given to others for performance of R&D.





Types of R&D expenditures




Current costs:



Labour costs of the R&D personnel;

Other current costs”.





Capital expenditures
:



Expenditures on



Lands and buildings;



Instruments and equipments;



Computer software”.




The capital expenditures are the annual gross expenditure of fixed
assets used in R&D programmes of the statistical units. They
should be reported in full for the period when they took place and
should not be registered as an element of depreciation.


R&D/S&T Personnel


Principal
International
definitions



UNESCO
:
«

Scientific and technical personnel
-

STEP

»:


...the total number of people participating
directly

in S&T activities in an institution
or unit and, as a rule, paid for their services. This group should include scientists and
engineers, and technicians (SET) and auxiliary personnel...




OECD «

Frascati

Manual

»:
«

R&D personnel”
:


...All persons employed directly on R&D should be counted, as well as those providing
direct services such as R&D managers, administrators, and clerical staff.




OECD “
Frascati

Manual”
-
Definition of Full
-
time Equivalence (FTE) for

R&D
Personnel:


One FTE may be thought of as one person
-
year. Thus, a person who normally spends
30 per cent of his or her time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as
teaching, university administration, and student
councelling
) should be considered as
0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a full
-
time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six
months, this results in an FTE of 0.5. Since the normal working day (period) may
differ from sector to sector and even from institution to institution, it is impossible to
express FTE in person
-
hours.



OECD “
Frascati

Manual”

Definitions of Categories of R&D Personnel

Occupations:




:
Researchers
: «

.. are professionals engaged in the conception or
creation of new knowledge, products, processes and systems, and in
the management of the projects concerned.

»
(also called

«

RSE

»

(Research Scientists and Engineers
).


Technicians and Equivalent Staff:
«

... are persons whose main tasks
require technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of
engineering, physical and life sciences, or social sciences and
humanities. They participate in R&D by performing scientific and
technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational
methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Equivalent
staff perform the corresponding R&D tasks under the supervision of
researchers in the social sciences and humanities.

».


Other Supporting Staff
: «

... includes skilled and unskilled craftsmen,
secretarial and clerical staff participating in R&D projects or directly
associated with such projects

».


OECD “
Frascati

Manual”

Definitions of Categories of R&D
Personnel by levels of formal qualification (or education) (ISCED
1997):



Holders of university degrees at PhD level (ISCED level 6)
:


Holders of doctorate degrees of university level or equivalent in all
fields (ISCED level 6). This category includes holders of degrees earned
at universities proper and also at
specialised

institutes of university
status.




Holders of basic university degrees below the PhD Level (ISCED level
5A):




Holders of tertiary
-
level degrees below the PhD level in all fields
(ISCED level 5A). This category includes holders of degrees earned at
universities proper and also at
specialised

institutes of university
status.



Holders of other tertiary level diplomas (ISCED level
5B):


“Holders of other post
-
secondary tertiary (ISCED level 5B)
level diplomas in all fields. Subject matter is typically
specialised
, presented at a level requiring the equivalent of
full secondary level education to master it. It provides a
more practically oriented/occupation
-
specific education
than
programmes

at ISCED levels 5A and 6.


Holders of other post
-
secondary non
-
tertiary diplomas
(ISCED level 4):


Holders of other post
-
secondary non
-
tertiary (ISCED level 4) level
diplomas in all fields. This class includes holders of degrees
preparing students for studies at level 5, who although having
completed ISCED level 3 did not follow a curriculum which would
allow entry to level 5;
ie
. pre
-
degree foundation courses or short
vocational
programmes




Holders of Diplomas of Secondary Education (ISCED
level 3):


Holders of diplomas at the secondary level, upper stage
(ISCED level 3). This class includes not only all ISCED level 3
diplomas obtained in the secondary school system but also
equivalent level 3 vocational diplomas obtained from other
types of educational establishments.


Other Qualifications
:


This includes all those with secondary diplomas at less than
ISCED level 3 or with incomplete secondary qualifications or
education not falling under any of the other four classes.



OUTPUT INDICATORS:




Bibliometrics
:
-

some examples of indicators




-

Numbers of scientific papers, by detailed fields of science;


-

Numbers of citations to scientific papers;


-

Co
-
citations (the number of times two papers are cited

simultaneously);


-

Number of co
-
signatures (co
-
authors) in scientific papers;


-

Number of patents and citations in or to patents
applications and grants;


-

Correlations between scientific papers (science) and
patents (technology) based on citations in patent
applications;


-

Scientific links (networks) measured by citations;


-

Co
-
occurrence of (key
-
) words (“co
-
words”), etc.



Patents Indicators (as used in the OECD ”Main Science and
Technology Indicators” publications):




Patents indicators in earlier OECD publications:




-

National patent applications (= the sum of resident and

non
-
resident applications in the country);


-

Resident

patent applications;


-

Non
-
resident

patent applications;


-

External patent applications (made abroad by residents of the
country concerned);


-

Dependency ratio (non
-
resident/resident patent applications);


-

Auto
-
sufficiency ratio (resident/national applications);


-

The inventiveness coefficient (resident patent applications per 10
000 population), and


-

The rate of diffusion (external/resident patent applications).



“New” patents indicators in OECD/”MSTI”
publications:


-

Number of “triadic” patent families (priority

year);


-

Share of countries in the “triadic” patent families
(idem);


-

Number of patents in the ICT (information and
communications technologies) applications to the
European Patent Office


EPO (idem);


-

Number of patents in the biotechnology sector




applications to the European Patent Office

idem)



Technology Balance of Payments Indicators in the OECD
”Main Science and Technology Indicators” publications




-

Technology balance of payments: Receipts (million current dollars)


-

Technology balance of payments: Payments (million current dollars)


-

Technology balance of payments: Payments as a percentage of GERD



-

International trade: Aerospace Industry (million current dollars and



percentages)





Trade balance and market shares;


-

International trade: Electronic Industry (idem) (idem)


-

International trade: Office machinery and computer industry (idem)
(idem)


-

International trade: Pharmaceutical industry (idem) (idem)


-

International trade: Instruments industry (idem) idem)



Innovation
: definitions, criteria and
indicators (OECD/EUROSTAT)





An
innovation

is the implementation of a new or a significantly
improved product (good or service), or process or a new marketing
method or a new organisational method in business practices,
workplace organisation or external relations




Technological innovations

comprise implemented technologically
new products and processes and significant technological
improvements in products and processes. An innovation has been
implemented
, if it has been introduced on the market (product
innovation) or used within a production process (process
innovation). The product or process should be new (or
significantly improved) to the enterprise (it does not necessarily
have to be new to the enterprise’s market).




Technological innovation

requires an objective improvement in the
performance of a product or in the way in which it is produced or delivered.




The following changes are
not
technological innovations:


-
improvements

of products that make them more attractive to the
purchasers without changing their “technological characteristics”;


-
minor technological changes

of products and processes or changes which do
not have the sufficient degree of novelty;


-

changes

of products and processes where the novelty does not concern the
use or objective performance characteristics of the products or the way they
are produced but rather their aesthetic or subjective qualities.






Innovation activities

are all scientific, technological, organisational, financial
and commercial steps which actually, or are intended to, lead to the
implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves
innovative, others are not novel activities but are necessary for the
implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include R&D that is
not directly related to the development of a specific innovation.



An
innovative firm

is one that has implemented an innovation
during the period under review


A
product
-
process innovative firm

is one that has implemented a
new or significantly improved product or process during the period
under review.


A
product innovation

is the introduction of a good or service that is
new or significantly improved with respect to its characteristics or
intended uses. This includes significant improvements in technical
specifications, components and materials, incorporated software,
user friendliness or other functional characteristics;


A
process innovation

is the implementation of a new or significantly
improved production or delivery method. This includes significant
changes in techniques, equipment and/or software.


A
marketing innovation

is the implementation of a new marketing
method involving significant changes in product design or
packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing.


An
organisational

innovation

is the implementation of a new
organisational

method in the firm’s business practices, workplace
organisation

or external relations.



“High
-
Tech” Products: The OECD/EUROSTAT
List *) (still provisional)




Aerospace products



[7921+7922+7923+7924+7925+79293+(714
-
71489

-
71499)

+87411]






Computers and office machines


[75113+75131+75132+75134+(752
-
7529)+75997]



Electronics
-
telecommunications

[76381+76383+(764
-
76493
-
76499)

+

7722

+

77261

+

77318

+

77625

+




7763+7764+7768+89879]



Pharmacy products


[5413+5415+5416+5421+5422]



Scientific instruments


[774+8711+8713+8714+8719+87211+(874
-
87411
-

8742)

+

88111

+





88121+88411+

88419

+

89961

+

89963+89967]



Electrical machinery


[77862+77863+77864+77865+7787+77844]



Chemistry (less pharmacy products
)

[52222+52223+52229+52269+525+57433+591



Non
-
electrical machinery

[71489+71499+71871+71877+72847+7311+73135+73144+73151 +

73153

+




73161

+73165+73312+73314+73316 +73733+73735]


Armament products


891





*) within brackets references to the SITC Rev.3 classification code





Thank you for your attention


Gunnar Westholm