Eurostat's Statistics on Science, Technology and Innovation

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Eurostat's Statistics on


Science, Technology and Innovation
(European Commission)


Veijo Ritola

Head of Section

Science, Technology and Innovation Statistics

Eurostat


European Commission



2

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Outline of the presentation







Short introduction to Eurostat in general



Short briefing to the current policy needs



Six sub
-
categories of the Science, Technology and Innovation Statistics



Research and Development



Innovation



Patents



Careers of Doctorate Holders



High Tech



Human Resources in Science and Technology


3

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009


What is Eurostat?


Eurostat is a Directorate General of the European
Commission
-

Commissioner Joaquín Almunia



Eurostat is the central institution of the European
Statistical System (ESS)
-

a network of National
Statistical Institutes from all EU and EFTA Countries

4

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Institutions of the European Union

(simplified diagram)


5

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

European Commission: Directorates
-
General and Services


6

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Eurostat’s organisation


Director General
-

Walter Radermacher


Deputy Director General
-

Marie Bohat
á


Staff approximately 870 people


Seven Directorates


Resources & Cooperation in the ESS


Quality, methodology and information systems


National and European accounts


External cooperation, communication and key indicators


Sectoral and regional statistics


Social and information society statistics


Business statistics

7

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009


Responsibilit
ies of
Eurostat



C
ollect d
ata
from

NSIs


Harmonise methods, definitions & classifications


Co
mpil
e

European
a
ggregates


EU & E
uro area


D
iss
eminate statistics



International relations


enlargement &
development


Programme planning (coordinating national
programmes)

8

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



Eurostat credibility is based on


Independence


Impartiality


Objectivity


9

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Eurostat’s Website:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

10

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Science, Technology and Innovation statistics



Establishment and development of harmonised
Community statistics


on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)
is important tool for





Providing the necessary evidence basis for the definition, implementation


and analysis of Community policies on
Science, Technology and Innovation



in Europe





Regular

monitoring the progress achieved towards development of


Knowledge
-
based economy (Lisbon objectives) and
realisation of the


European Research Area





Supplying the public and media with statistics needed to have an accurate


picture of science and technology in Europe and to evaluate the


performance of politicians and other actors


11

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

11


STATISTICS ON STI






Realising a single labour market for researchers


with high level of mobility



Developing world
-
class research infrastructures



Strengthening research institutions, engaged in


effective public
-
private cooperation



Effective knowledge
-
sharing



Optimising research programmes and priorities,


including the joint programming




A wide opening of ERA to the world



EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA (ERA)

Assessment and support
to the EU actions and
policies


Analysing the progress
made towards Lisbon
goals and ERA initiatives

Growth

and jobs


Research

Education

Innovation


LISBON STRATEGY

POLICY NEEDS FOR STI STATISTICS

12

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Statistics on
Science,
Technology and
Innovation

Statistics on
Research and
Development

Statistics on
Innovation

Patent Statistics

Human
Resources in
Science and
Technology

Hugh
-
Tech
Industries and
Knowledge
Intensive Services

Career of
Doctorate Holders


Six areas of STI

13

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS



LEGAL BASE





Framework legal act:

Decision

1608/2003/EC of the EP and of the Council


concerning the production and development of Community statistics on S&T




Legal implementation measure:

Commission Regulation

753/2004




implementing Decision

1608/2003/EC as regards statistics on S&T



R&D INDICATORS




I
ntramural R&D expenditure (GERD)





R&D personnel




Government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD)


HARMONISED R&D CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS




Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on R&D
-

Frascati Manual
,


OECD, 2002

available at:
http://www.oecd.org/document/6/0,3343,en_2649_34451_33828550_1_1_1_1,00.html


DATA SOURCES IN MEMBER STATES




Sample/census surveys, administrative sources or others of equivalent


quality
,
or their mixtures, subsidiary principle


14

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS



BREAKDOWNS OF R&D INDICATORS


(in accordance with standard classifications)



Sector of performance



Source of funds



Type of costs



Type of R&D



Fields of science (FOS)



Socio
-
economic objectives
(NABS)



Economic activity (NACE)



Size class



Regions (NUTS)


GERD



Sector of performance



Occupation



Qualification (ISCED)



Gender



Fields of science (FOS)



Citizenship



Age groups



Economic activity (NACE)



Size class



Regions (NUTS)



Socio
-
economic objectives (NABS)



R&D personnel


GBAORD

15

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS



STANDARD CLASSIFICATIONS
-

available on
Eurostat's Metadata Server RAMON

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/index.cfm?TargetUrl=DSP_PUB_WELS



TYPE OF R&D INDICATORS




Obligatory


Preliminary R&D (T+10) / Provisional GBAORD (T+6)




Optional


Final R&D (T+18) / Final GBAORD (T+12)


FREQUENCY OF INDICATORS




Annual
-

GERD by sectors of performance, R&D personnel and Researchers in FTE





Biannual (on each odd year)
-

vast majority of indicators




Four yearly
-

gender disaggregation of some indicators



DEADLINES FOR DATA COLLECTION BY EUROSTAT




Annually three rounds of
data collection covering all data sets required,


including revisions of the time series
:


In June: final R&D and provisional GBAORD data


In October: preliminary R&D yearly data


In December: final GBAORD data


16

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS




STANDARDISED APPROACH FOR DATA COLLECTION


JOINT OECD/EUROSTAT HARMONISED R&D QUESTIONNAIRE




Comprises 3 modules:




Common Core OECD/Eurostat module


ESTAT supplementary module


OECD supplementary module




Goes beyond the requirements of EU legal base




Contains around 50 Tables in two Excel workbooks




Data validation rules in place within the questionnaire




Confidential data provision





Received from 33 countries: 27 MSs; HR,TR,

CH, IS, NO and RU




Transmission media
-

eDAMIS




T
ransmission format
-

Excel


EVALUATION OF DATA QUALITY




Data validation by Eurostat at the delivery point




National Quality Reports
-

covering standard quality criteria:

Relevance, Accuracy,


Timelines and Punctuality, Accessibility and Clarity, Comparability, Coherence, Cost and


Burden


17

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS




DERIVED R&D VARIABLES (RATIO INDICATORS) produced by Eurostat





















EU AGGREGATES calculated by Eurostat:

EU
-
27, EU
-
15, EA
-
16








R&D expenditure as
а
percentage of GDP (
R&D intensity
)


For 2007: EU
-
27 = 1.85 %
-

still below the Lisbon target of 3%


In two MS: > 3 %
-

SE (3.60%) FI (3.47%)


In four MS: (2 %
-

3%)
-

DE, FR, AT, DK




GBAORD as
а
percentage of GDP




GBAORD as
а
percentage general government expenditure




R&D expenditure and GBAORD in Euro per inhabitant




R&D personnel/Researchers as
а
percentage of active

population





R&D personnel/Researchers as
а
percentage of total employment


DERIVED R&D VARIABLES

18

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS



CURRENT CHALLENGES





DEVELOPMENT OF NEW INDICATORS

FOR MONITORING EUROPEAN
RESEARCH AREA (ERA)





National public funding to trans
-
nationally coordinated research




National contributions to trans
-
national public R&D performers


(CERN, ILL, ERSF, EMBL, EMBO, ESO, JRC)




National contributions to Europe
-
wide trans
-
national public R&D


programmes (ERA
-
NETs, ESA, EFDA, EUREKA, COST etc.)






National contributions to bi
-

or multi
-
lateral public R&D programmes


established between MSs governments




Total amount of Structural Funds for R&D (national and EU funding)




Breakdown of R&D expenditure financed by abroad by type of source


(including EU/non
-
EU origin of source)



19

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS


CURRENT CHALLENGES






DIRECT DATA COLLECTION FROM TRANS
-
NATIONAL


PUBLIC R&D PERFORMERS




Launched by
Eurostat

on core R&D indicators




DEVELOPMENT OF NEW R&D DATABASE





Based on Eurostat standard tools
-

GSAST, EBB





M
ore efficient data treatment
-

automatic data validation, estimation,


conversion, aggregation, derivation, dissemination




20

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




INNOVATION STATISTICS




LEGAL BASE





Framework legal act:

Decision

1608/2003/EC of the EP and of the Council


concerning the production and development of Community statistics on S&T




Legal implementation measure:

Commission Regulation

1450/2004


implementing Decision

1608/2003/EC concerning the production and


development of Community statistics on innovation (amended by CR

540/2009)




INDICATORS





Innovation active enterprises




Innovating enterprises that introduced new or


significantly improved products, new to the market




Turnover from innovation, related to new or significantly


improved products, new to the market




Turnover from innovation, related to new or significantly


improved products, new to the firm, but not new to the market





Innovation active enterprises involved in innovation


cooperation
-

by type of cooperation

EVERY TWO YEARS

21

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



INNOVATION STATISTICS


INDICATORS
















Beyond the variables listed above, MS compile additional statistics

(including their breakdowns) in accordance with the main themes

listed in the Oslo Manual (optional).








Innovation expenditure (optional)




Innovation active enterprises that indicated highly important


objectives of innovation
-

by type of objectives





Innovation active enterprises that indicated highly important


sources of information for innovation
-

by type of source (optional)




Enterprises facing important hampering factors
-

by type of


hampering factors


EVERY FOUR YEARS

22

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



INNOVATION STATISTICS


HARMONISED CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS




Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data

-

Oslo


Manual
, OECD, 2005

available at:
http://lysander.sourceoecd.org/vl=1764186/cl=11/nw=1/rpsv/cgi
-
bin/fulltextew.pl?prpsv=/ij/oecdthemes/99980134/v2005n18/s1/p1l.idx


DATA SOURCES IN MEMBER STATES




Combination of different sources
-

sample surveys, administrative data


or others of equivalent quality



TYPE OF INDICATORS




Obligatory




Optional



FREQUENCY OF INDICATORS




Biannual, on each even year
-

5 obligatory variables




Four yearly
-

7 obligatory and 2 optional variables (plus more)



DEADLINE FOR DATA COLLECTION BY EUROSTAT




18 months after the end of the calendar year of the reference period

23

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



INNOVATION STATISTICS



TYPES OF DATA TRANSMITTED




Aggregated statistics
-

compulsory




Individual (micro) data records
-

voluntary





Confidential data provision




STANDARD TRANSMISSION FORMAT




For aggregated data
-

Excel; For individual data
-

CSV file




Data received
from 29 countries: 27 MS, IS and NO





Transmission media
-

eDAMIS



ACCESS TO
MICRODATA





Anonymised microdata: on CD




Non
-
anonymised microdata: via the SAFE Centre in Eurostat



Information how to obtain microdata available at:



http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/cis



EVALUATION OF DATA QUALITY




Data validation by Eurostat at the delivery point





National Quality Reports
-

covering standard quality criteria:

Relevance, Accuracy,


Timelines and Punctuality, Accessibility and Clarity, Comparability, Coherence, Cost and


Burden


24

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




INNOVATION STATISTICS




STANDARDISED APPROACH FOR DATA COLLECTION



COMMUNITY INNOVATION SURVEY (CIS)


















Target population

(NACE and size class coverage, statistical unit,


observation period)




Survey methodology

(s
ampling frame, type of survey, s
tratification


variables, sample size, sample selection and allocation)





Collecting and processing the data

(survey questionnaire, data collection


and data editing)




Data quality

(response rate, non
-

response survey, precision of results,


imputation, weighting and calibration)




Transmission of data

(types of data, output tabulation scheme, deadlines,


transmission tool)


HARMONISED METHODOLOGICAL RECOMMENDATIONS

25

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




INNOVATION STATISTICS




COMMUNITY INNOVATION SURVEY (CIS)

























1/ General information about the enterprise


2/ Product innovation (good or service)


3/ Process innovation


4/ Ongoing or abandoned innovation activities for process and product innovations


5/ Innovation activities and expenditures for process and product innovations


6/ Sources of information and co
-
operation for innovation activities


7/ Innovation objectives during 2006
-

2008


8/ Organisational innovation


9/ Marketing innovation


10/ Innovations with environmental benefits


11/ Basic economic information on the enterprise (turnover, employees)


STANDARD SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE (CIS 2008)

26

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




INNOVATION STATISTICS



CURRENT CHALLENGES





REVISION OF THE REGULATION 1450/2004




Extension to the organisational and marketing innovation




Revision/extension of the economic activities covered




Introduction of one
-
off modules




Introduction of the quality annex




From voluntary to mandatory microdata deliveries




Frequency of the variables





MODULE SELECTION FOR CIS 2010




User driven innovation




Creativity and skills to innovate





TRACKING ENTERPRISES IN CONSECUTIVE MICRODATA SETS





OBSERVATION PERIOD (2/3 YEARS)





MEASUREMENT OF THE DESIGN IN THE INNOVATION SURVEYS





EVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRES


27

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



PATENT STATISTICS




PATENT STATISTICS





Patent statistics measure


Research output


Innovation activities


Technological progress


Capacity to exploit knowledge


DATA SOURCES





O
ne single raw database (PATSTAT) compiled on the basis of input from


European Patent Office (EPO)


US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)


Japanese Patent Office (JPO)



HARMONISED R&D CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS





Patent Statistics

Manual
, OECD,2009,
available at:



http://www.oecd.org/document/29/0,3343,en_2649_34451_42168029_1_1_1_1,00.html






International Patent Classification (IPC)




28

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009


PATENT STATISTICS




Data extracted from a single patent statistics raw database (PATSTAT),


held by the European Patent Office (EPO)
and further edited, aggregated


and disseminated by Eurostat for all EU Member States, Candidate


Countries, EFTA members and other countries



Patents in high
-
technology fields




High
-
tech patents



ICT patents



Biotechnology patents



Nanotechnology patents


APPROACH FOR COMPILATION OF PATENT STATISTICS

Eurostat’s database contains data on:




Patent applications to the EPO



Patents granted by the USPTO



Triadic patent families (based on raw


patent data from OECD)

29

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009






Patent applications to EPO by priority year



Patent applications to the EPO by priority year at the national level



Patent applications to the EPO by priority year at the regional level



Ownership of inventions



European and international co
-
patenting



Patent citations

Triadic patent families by earliest priority year


PATENT STATISTICS


TYPES OF INDICATORS

Patents granted by the USPTO by priority year



Patents granted by the USPTO by priority year at the national level



Ownership of inventions



European and international co
-
patenting



Patent citations


30

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



PATENT STATISTICS


BREAKDOWNS OF PATENT INDICATORS










DERIVED PATENT VARIABLES (RATIO INDICATORS)










Per million inhabitants




Per million labour force




Relative to Gross domestic product (GDP) in euro




Relative to Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)




Relative to Expenditure on R&D in Business enterprise sector

DERIVED VARIABLES FOR EPO AND USPTO PATENTS




I
nstitutional sector




IPC sections and classes,




Economic

activities (NACE classes)





Type of ownership





Inventors’/
applicants' country of residence


BREAKDOWNS

31

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

FIELDS OF INVESTIGATION




PATENTS IN NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY


Nuclear Reactor Technique


Radiation Acceleration Technique




PATENTS IN WIND ENERGY


Wind Motors


Relevant surrounding techniques (Circuit arrangements or systems for supplying or


distributing electric powers, Control or regulation of electric motors, generators, or


dynamo
-
electric converters, Dynamo
-
electric machines)




PATENTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED ENERGY


Environmental Related


Renewable Energy


Automobile Pollution Control Technology


PATENT STATISTICS

32

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




PATENT STATISTICS


CURRENT CHALLENGES





CREATE NEW INDICATORS AND MORE BREAKDOWNS


Specific technological sectors


Triadic patent families


Regional level





SEARCH WAYS TO COMBINE PATENT STATISTICS WITH THE


BUSINESS DATA





33

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS



CDH 2006 VOLUNTARY

SURVEY
(NO LEGAL BASE)





Widely

supported project (EU Commission, OECD, UNESCO)





Measuring
the mobility, careers and expectations of research educated


people



PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES





21 EU MSs, Australia, Switzerland, Iceland, Norway and USA



REFERENCE YEAR




2006 (except for Belgium, Netherlands, Norway: 2005, Italy, Malta: 2007)


CARRIED OUT




In 2007
-

2008



DATA SOURCES IN MS




Variety

of sources for compiling the target population (registers,


administrative data, census of population etc.)


34

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS




STANDARDISED APPROACH FOR DATA COLLECTION





CORE MODEL QUESTIONNAIRE





INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR COMPLETING THE QUESTIONNAIRE






METHODOLOGICAL GUIDELINES





OUTPUT INDICATORS TEMPLATE





VARIABLES IN PROPOSED TABULATIONS
-

definitions and sources














Module EDU
-

Doctoral education



Module REC
-

Recent graduates



Module POS
-

POSTDOCS



Module EMP
-

Employment situation



Module MOB
-

International mobility



Module CAR
-

Career related experience and scientific productivity



Module PER
-

Personal characteristics

CORE MODEL QUESTIONNAIRE

35

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS



MAIN

CHARACTERISTICS




Gender



Age



Country of birth



Type of citizenship/residential status


Personal characteristics




Country of doctorate award




Field of doctorate award


Educational characteristics



Occupation



Researcher function / non
-




Earnings



Length of stay with current employer


Employment characteristics





Job qualification




Perception to salary



Work perception

36

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS



GROSSING
-
UP
-

applied by all countries except for Belgium, Czech
Republic, Poland, Romania and Slovak Republic


FIRST RESULTS




P
resented in the December 2008 Brussels meeting




L
ack of comparability, mainly due to coverage inconsistencies




Additional request for ‘restricted’ data on specific set of output tables


Restriction 1: ISCED6 graduates aged below 70 years old


Restriction 2: ISCED6 graduates awarded after 1990





Revised data was gathered in March 2009
-

comparability issues


are still apparent


37

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS



SELECTED FINDINGS





Male doctorate holders are in general more than female doctorate


holders (more than 60% in most of the countries)





Most doctorate holders have been awarded in the reporting country


(
exceptions are CY IS MT)




Most popular occupation is teaching profession




Doctorate holders are most employed as researchers than non
-


researchers in all countries (exceptions are BE NL RO)





Doctorate holders are generally far better paid compared to the total


population (SES 2006 results)





Doctorate holders tend to stay with the same employer for more than


5 years and in many countries for more than 10 years

(except for DK)





Most employed doctorate holders have a job that is related to their


doctoral degree (except for AT)




38

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



CAREERS OF DOCTORATE HOLDERS



UPCOMING CHALLENGES





Voluntary

countries participation in CDH 2009. Financial support (grants)


from Eurostat




Revision
of the CDH technical documents
-

end of September 2009




CDH 2009 national data collection:




Preparation phase at country level
-

end of 2009




Data collection
-

2010




Output tables to UIS/OECD/Eurostat before end 2010




Data publication and analysis



39

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

MAIN APPROACHES IN COMPILATION OF HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS


Sectors identified following the
Statistical Classification of
Economic Activities in the
European Community (NACE)



Products identified following the
Standard International Trade
Classification (SITC)

Sectors identified according

to the technological intensity:

R&D expenditure/value added

Products identified according

to the high value of R&D intensity
:

R&D expenditure/total sales

High
-
tech and biotechnology

patents identified according to

International Patent Classification

(IPC 8th edition)


PATENTS

PRODUCT APPROACH

SECTORAL APPROACH


HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS

40

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

SECTORAL APPROACH BASED ON NACE

NACE



common EU classification
of economic activities



covers a whole range of
economic activities



4
-
digit level



Manufacturing sector


High
-
technology
manufacturing


Medium
-
high technology
manufacturing


Medium
-
low technology
manufacturing


Low
-
technology manufacturing




Services



Knowledge intensive services


Less knowledge intensive
services

Manufacturing and services

classified according to:



the level of technological intensity


R&D expenditure/value added



the share of the highest educated staff

Classification is relative to



variables used



the data of the countries used



the time the data refer to



threshold set

HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS

41

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

PRODUCT APPROACH BASED ON SITC

HIGH
-
TECH PRODUCTS

Aerospace

Armament

Computers
-
Office machines

Electronics
-
Telecommunication

Pharmacy

Scientific instruments

Electrical machinery

Non
-
electrical machinery

Chemistry



Data collection


Traders’ customs declarations (extra
-
EU27)


Direct enterprise declarations (intra
-
EU27)



Data source and coverage


Comext database
-

EU trade


Comtrade database
-

World trade

Indicators


Import/export in Mio Euro


World shares


Ratio of country’s high
-
tech
trade in its total trade


Share of intra
-
EU trade

Classification is less relative

as the products are assumed to be more

homogeneous (than the sectors) and

therefore less dependent on the set

of countries used

HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS

42

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

INDICATORS AND SOURCES FOR HIGH
-
TECH SECTORS (NACE)


SECTORAL APPROACH


R&D personnel and expenditure



Employment statistics for high
-
tech
sectors



Innovation activities


Structural business statistics (number of
enterprises, turnover, value added at
factor costs, production value, social
security costs etc)


Mean annual earnings by sex, age and
level of education


Venture capital investment by stage of
development (for all sectors)


R&D survey



Labour Force Survey (LFS)



Community Innovation Survey (CIS)



Structural Business Survey (SBS)



Structure of Earnings Survey (SES)



European Private Equity and Venture
Capital Association (EVCA)



HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS

43

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

INDICATORS AND SOURCES FOR HIGH
-
TECH TRADE (SITC)



PRODUCT APPROACH

Comext / Comtrade


Patent indicators (IPC)


EPO, USPTO



Import and export of high
-
tech
group of products






High
-
tech patents in high
-
technology
fields and biotechnology patents




HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS

44

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




HIGH
-
TECH STATISTICS



UPCOMING CHALLENGES






Establishment of transitional definitions to accommodate the revised


NACE Rev.2 source data


More in
-
depth revision waits the R&D intensity data with NACE 2


(2011) and more recent OECD's input
-
output tables (2009
-
2010)






Updating the

High
-
Tech classifications


Presently both main High
-
Tech classifications (in terms of economic


activities and in terms of products) are based on 'old' reference data


for very limited set of (more developed) countries





Development of new sectoral classification based on the knowledge


intensity, measured through LFS data on the share of
tertiary educated


employed,
by economic activity (NACE)

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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



HUMAN RESOURCES IN S&T (HRST)




HRST STATISTICS





HRST statistics review the supply of and demand for highly qualified


staff in a broad sense




Statistics show stocks and flows of HRST at EU, national and regional


level


DATA SOURCES





Data extracted from two Eurostat sources (Labour force survey and


Statistics on education) and edited, aggregated and disseminated by


Eurostat for all EU27 (+)



HARMONISED CONCEPTS, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS





Manual on the measurement of Human Resources devoted to S&T
-



Canberra Manual,

OECD, 1995


available at:

http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/0/2096025.pdf




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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



HUMAN RESOURCES IN S&T (HRST)



DEFINITION




Definition based on the cross tabulation of education and occupation,


used often as proxy for ‘researchers’




Human Resources in S&T are all individuals who fulfil at least one


of the following conditions:















The conditions of the above educational or occupational requirements are


considered according to internationally harmonised
standards:


-

International Standard Classification of Occupation
-

ISCO


-

International Standard Classification of Education
-

ISCED




Have successfully completed tertiary
-
level education

and/or



Work in S&T occupation as professionals or technicians, where


the above qualifications are normally required

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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009






HRSTC

-

individuals who have successfully completed tertiary
-
level


education and work in an S&T occupation as professionals


or technicians

HRSTO

-

individuals who work in an S&T occupation as professionals


or technicians

HRSTU

-

individuals who have successfully completed tertiary
-
level


education but are unemployed


HUMAN RESOURCES IN S&T (HRST)


HRST SUB
-

CATEGORIES

HRSTE

-

individuals who have successfully completed tertiary
-
level


education

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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009


APPROACHES IN COMPILATION OF HRST STATISTICS

Data over

employed

and

unemployed

is used for stock

and mobility statistics

Statistics over

participants

and

graduates

from tertiary level education

is used for inflow statistics

From Education statistics

From Labour Force Survey (LFS)



HUMAN RESOURCES IN S&T (HRST)

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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009



HUMAN RESOURCES IN S&T (HRST)



MAIN INDICATORS





HRST sub
-
category




Gender




Age




Occupation




Sector of economic activity




Field of education studied




Unemployment rate




Nationality / country of birth




Region

HRST STOCK






Job
-
to
-
job mobility




Tertiary level education


participants




Tertiary level education


graduates




Tertiary level education


foreign students


HRST FLOWS


50

Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009




HUMAN RESOURCES IN S&T (HRST)



UPCOMING CHALLENGES






Updating the Canberra Manual


HRST concept and definitions are based on the OECD's Canberra


Manual which was published more than 20 years ago. Since then


both underlying classifications has been revised, International


Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO) and International


Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97).




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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

WHERE TO FIND S&T&I STATISTICS?



WEB


Eurostat/Science, Technology
and Innovation


http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu


OECD database


http://www.oecd.org/statsportal/


DG Research


http://ec.europa.eu/research/




PUBLICATIONS


Eurostat collections


Statistical Book

on Science,
technology and innovation


2009


Pocketbook

on Science, technology
and innovation


2008


Statistics in Focus


News release


DG Research


Key figures

on Science, technology
and competitiveness 2008/2009

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Eurostat's Statistics on

Science, Technology and Innovation

9/10/2009

Thank you !