EIWG and the Ice Crystal

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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EIWG and the Ice Crystal
Icing Technology Roadmap

Jeanne Mason and Dave Dischinger
Presented to Aerospace Ice Crystal
Testing and Challenges

November 30, 2011


Acronyms


EHWG


Engine Harmonization Working Group


ARAC committee
on SLD and mixed phase icing


disbanded in 2007


EIWG


Engine Icing Working Group


Focus on EHWG technology
plan


initiated in 2009


ICC


Ice Crystal Consortium


fundamental research on engine ice
crystal icing & resolution of field events


initiated 2009


ICI


Ice Crystal Icing


generic term for the accretions resulting
from glaciated and mixed phase atmospheric conditions


HIWC


High Ice Water Content


Flight Campaign NASA, FAA, EC,
TC, Boeing, Airbus


HAIC


High Altitude Ice Crystals


European Research Funded
Project


Atmospheric and Fundamental Research

Agenda


EHWG and the Technology Plan
-

2007


EIWG Mission
-

2009


Roadmap Discussion

Working Group
Activities


Engine Harmonization Working Group and Powerplant Installations
Harmonization Working group Joint Committee was formed with
engine manufacturers, airplane manufacturers, FAA, CAA and
Transport Canada members


formed in 2003


Tasked by the NTSB to develop draft rules for SLD and Mixed Phase
Icing


Developed a database of 222 events related to engine (turbojets,
turbofans, turboprops) icing for years 1989
-
2003


Events were categorized as SLD, Mixed Phase/Glaciated, Appendix C


Glaciated/Mixed phase events were determined to be the leading
cause of icing
-
related engine powerloss


Developed draft regulations and advisory material, as well as an
environmental envelope defining the ice crystal threat


Appendix D to
FAR 33


Draft released in 2005


Engine Powerloss and
Damage Events in ICI

-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
engine powerloss
and damage
ISA
ISA+10
ISA+20
Appendix C Continuous Maximum
Appendix C Intermittent Maximum
Appendix D to FAR33 - Ice
Since Appendix D defined, events continue to occur

Robust Means of
Compliance Lacking


Draft advisory material allowed for
similarity arguments to be used for
compliance until more robust methods are
available (AC20
-
147)


A technology plan was needed to develop
these methods

EHWG Technology
Plan


Technology Plan developed to address unknowns:

Task 1: Improved instrumentation to measure atmosphere

Task 2: Flight trials to characterize atmosphere (understand
particle size, concentration and extent)

Task 3: Fundamental physics of ice accretion and shedding

Task 4: Test methods and facilities


Reference: EHWG Technology Plan Document

EIWG Mission &
Evolution


Mission: to foster discussion, partnerships and
provide guidance for the research outlined in the
EHWG technology plan for ice crystal icing


Affiliated with the Aerospace Industries
Association (AIA)


Yearly meetings, occasional telecons


Evolution: discussions on supercooled droplet
icing have been included to address the NPRM
and NPA on SLD and mixed phase icing


Current sub
-
committee: Defining Ground Icing
Threat at Cold Temperatures

Current Participants of
EIWG

Participants at October 2011 Meeting:


Boeing, EASA, NASA, Environment Canada,
Pratt & Whitney Canada, Hawker Beechcraft
Corporation, Cessna Aircraft Company,
General Electric Aviation, National Research
Council of Canada, Rolls
-
Royce, Honeywell
Aerospace, Airbus, SNECMA, Aerospace
Industries Association, Pratt & Whitney, FAA,
Williams International, Transport Canada,
Science Engineering Associates

Task 1: Improved
instrumentation to measure
atmosphere

TASK 1
Instrumentation: Isokinetic
Probe for TWC
2007-2011
Develop an accurate TWC measurement for the
flight campaign
Existing sensors did not accurately
measure atmospheric ice content at
expected flight speeds
Craig Davidson
Instrumentation: modifications
of existing sensors
2007-2011
Validate and improve sensors to be able to cope
with harsh environment
Modified optical probes with new tips,
sealed optics anti-charge coating
Walter Strapp,
Tom Ratvasky
Instrumentation: TAT/Rh in wet
environment NRC
2011
Develop ability to measure TAT in wet
conditions, and moisture content
TAT wet was only estimated in previous
testing
Dan Fuleki
Instrumentation: Multiwire
characterization
2012
calibrate best tool for TWC, LWC in ice crystal
conditions
Dan Fuleki
Instrumentation: IKP for NRC
2013
develop improved TWC measurement
Dan Fuleki
P2T2 Pitot sensor ice crystal
sensitivity
unfunded
some evaluation of Pitots - collaboration on
Pitots (WG-89) but not TAT, P2 sensors
Pitot sesors have new criteria for design
Instrumentation:
HAIC
project
work package 2
2012-2016
Flight Test Instrumentation: Need for
instrumentation able to measure glaciated and
mixed phase icing conditions during flight tests
Objective : Be able to justify the
concordance of conditions encountered
during flight tests with requirement of
Alice Grandin
HAIC
Detection Means:
2012-2016
Development of glaciated and mixed phase icing
conditions detectors (probes or radar) to be
Objective : Be able to alert crew of flight
in this particular icing conditions.
Alice Grandin
Expanded to include measurements in test cells and detection and sensors on
aircraft/engines

Date

Technology Gap

Contact

Description

Task 1: Improved
instrumentation to measure
atmosphere


Progress report:


Instruments ready for flight campaign



Progress made for test cell measurement for
rig tests (Multiwire, TATwet, Humidity)


Lacking devices for measuring inside the
engine


Lacking improved sensors for inlet P, T

Task 2: Flight trials to characterize
atmosphere (understand particle
size, concentration and extent)

Date
Description
Technology gap
Contact
TASK 2
Atmospheric Characterization:
Airbus Ice Crystal Flight Test
(Darwin, Cayenne)
2010
A340 flights in Ice Crystal Icing
Some confirmation data of Appendix D
and particle size, Important information
to support HIWC flight campaign
Alice Grandin
Atmospheric Characterization:
HIWC Flight Test (Darwin, AU)
2013
G2 flights: Atmospheric ice crystal icing data to
support validation of Appendix D, science
objectives of microphysical processes of
convective clouds
Appendix D verified, progress with
nowcasting, forecasting, remote
sensing, cloud resolving models
Walter Strapp
EASA funding of research flights
Falcon 20
2012
equip the FALCON 20 for ice crystals icing flight
campaign
Alice Grandin
Atmospheric Characterization:
HAIC
Flight Test (Darwin, AU)
2013
Falcon 20 coordinated flights with G2- with
doppler radar and aerosols - HAIC project work
package 1
complementary data for HIWC
Alice Grandin
Atmospheric Characterization:
BAB 747-400
2012?
equipped with robust probe and CCP, on revenue
service flights
more data on particle size and extent,
on real exposures
Jeanne Mason
Task 2: Flight trials to characterize
atmosphere (understand particle
size, concentration and extent)


Progress Report:


Airbus flights valuable as initial confirmation of
Appendix D, insight on flight
planning/execution



HIWC: excellent science plan, but too many
years of program delays

Task 3: Fundamental physics
of ice accretion and shedding

Date
Description
Technology gap
Contact
TASK 3
Boeing NRC S-Duct Rig
2009
Ice accretion on simulated engine surface in
above freezing ambient condition
Demonstrates simulated engine
condition can be reproduced in test rig
Jeanne Mason
Boeing NRC S-Duct Rig
2009
Ice accreted on pressure side of airfoil with angle
Show difference in accretion
Jeanne Mason
ICC/NRC Cascade Rig
2010
Mixed phase ice forms at TE sidewall junction
while supercooled icing forms on LE.
First simulated vane row rig at engine
condition in ice crystal, identified
Ray Best
ICC/NRC Cascade Rig
2012
Continuing study of design parameters beyond
Phase I test
Understanding icing characteristics of
cascade design parameters,
Chuck Califf
Rig
unfunded
accretion mass, ice shedding, accretion potential
develop parameterizations
NRC NASA FAA Wedge Airfoil
2010-11
confirming importance of wet bulb temperature
on accretion characteristics (evaporative cooling)
further investigation of humidity
Tom Currie
NRC NASA FAA Wedge Airfoil
2012
heat transfer, altitude scaling
Tom Currie
NASA Flat Plate
2012
breaking at different impingement angles,
temperature changes of particles
basic physics
Mike Oliver
Simple Flat Plate
unfunded
Ice crystal particle trajectory characteristics.
single particle behavior (bouncing, splashing,
basic physics
NRC Endwall Bleed Slot Testing
2012
Ice crystal accretion characteristics for bleed slot
opening size and bleed air pressure, particle size
Offer icing severity information on
design features - bleed slots in particular
Dan Fuleki
Rotating Compressor Rig (PSL or
NRC Altitude Chamber)
unfunded
Visual and measured ice accretion data on a
simulated engine environment
A rig level test that simulates engine ice
crystal icing
Full Engine Demonstration(PSL
Altitude Chamber)
2014
Gather data for altitude correlation
Tom Griffin
Full Engine Demonstration ( PSL
at Sea Level)
2014
Gather data for altitude correlation
Generate sea level test data at an
engine level that can compare to
Tom Griffin
HAIC
Model of ice accretion
phenomenon:
2012-2016
Understanding of macro-physic and micro-physic
of phenomenon and writing of accretion
Objective : Be able to evaluate ice
accretion pending on equipments
Alice Grandin
HAIC
Model of ice particles
trajectories:
2012-2016
Understanding of relative importance of
different parameters in trajectories equations for
Objective : Be able to predict ice
particles trajectories and equipments
Alice Grandin
HAIC
Model Validation:
2012-2016
Tests in glaciated and mixed phase conditions to
validate models
Objective : Validate models in order to
be able to use them during certification
Alice Grandin
Task 3: Fundamental physics
of ice accretion and shedding


The technology gap: future means of
compliance must address potential for
icing from the inlet sensor all the way to
the front stages of the HPC

Supercooled droplet icing

Potential ice crystal
accretion areas

Task 3: Fundamental physics
of ice accretion and shedding


Progress Report:


Ice crystal consortium


unique gathering of experts
to plan tests, underfunded, slow progress


Wedge airfoil tests are excellent approach to gain
fundamental data. Expectations are high for valuable
findings in the future


Scratching at the tip of the iceberg


many important
physical effects not being researched yet


Lots of funded programs in place


good outlook


Task 4: Test methods
and facilities

TASK 4
NRC M7 revived
2007
Test facility using shaver to test probes
Jim MacLeod
NRC Altitude Facility
2009
Altitude test facility for small rigs and probes
Jim MacLeod
Facilities: NRC control of
humidity
2011
install humidity control
allow for testing to be conducted at
desired humidity
Dan Fuleki
PSL NASA Facility Calibration/
Validation
2012-13
Series of test results characterizing the facility
performance and accuracy
Altitude ice crystal engine test facility
now available, PSL demonstrated ability
to simulate known icing field event
Tom Griffin
Full Engine Demonstration(PSL
Altitude Chamber)
2014
Ice accretion study on field event engine
Understanding how to vary the
accretion characteristics of event engine
Tom Griffin
HAIC
Development of European
Icing Wind Tunnels:
2012-2016
Development of icing wind tunnels to allow
reproduction of glaciated and mixed phase icing
conditions as defined per future regulations
Objective : Be able to perform
qualification of equipments in European
Facilities
Alice Grandin
NRC Replication of ALF 502
Event
unfunded
Sea level engine internal ice accretion at
simulated altitude condition
NRC test cell validated
Date

Technology Gap

Contact

Description

Jim Macleod

Task 4: Test methods
and facilities

Progress report:


Plans in place to provide testing for small
engines both sea level and altitude


Plan for large engines relies on
correlations from altitude to sea level to
make outdoor sea level testing
possible…not clear yet whether we can
simulate altitude effects properly

Summary


Outlook for having knowledge to solve
large engine in service events is a long
way off


Opportunities abound for new partnerships
to address the technology needs