科技英文 寫作 的 要領 董 崇 選

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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科技英文

寫作



要領







中山醫學大學應用外語系教授

懂更懂學習英文網站負責人

http://dgdel.nchu.edu.tw

引言
:
Introduction


A.
「科技英文寫作」
的英譯是




1. Science Skill English Writing


2.
Science Technology English Writing


3. Science and Technology English Writing


4.
Scientific Technological English Writing


5. Scientific and Technological English


Writing


6.
Academic English Writing

A.

科技英文寫作


英譯




7. Technical English Writing


8.
Writing Technical English


9. Writing Science and Technology English


10.
Writing English of Science and Technology


11. Writing English for Science and


Technology


12.
Writing Scientific and Technological


English

引言

Introduction


B.
何者為科技英文?


1. For health one should drink pure water, not alcohol.


2.
Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.


3. The conclusion Einstein arrived at was the equation:


E = MC
2
.


4.
The word “morphemes” contains three morphemes:


two bound morphemes (“morph
-
“ and “
-
eme”) and one


free morpheme (“
-
s”).


5. Concerning the origin of knowledge, rationalists


believe in innate or a priori truths while empiricists


claim that all knowledge springs from sense


perception or experience.

B.
何者為科技英文?


6. Marx and Engels formulated the principles of dialectic


materialism. They maintained that economic structure is the


basis of history, and determines all the social, political, and


intellectual aspects of life.



7.
We found calcium levels to be decreased by RA and D3 but


increased when AG1296 was given in addition to RA or D3.



8. Quantum of Solace is the 22nd James Bond film by EON


Productions, released in the UK on 31 October 2008.


9.
Quantum phenomena are particularly relevant in systems


whose dimensions are close to the atomic scale, such as


molecules, atoms, electrons, protons and other subatomic


particles.


10. The aerostructures are for horizontal stabilizers, engine


nacelles, fan cowls, etc.

C.
誰最適合教「科技英文」
?



1.
科技學門的教師?



2.
英文科系的教師?


D.
科技英文術語

如何習得?



1.
由科技教師



2.
由科技教材



3.
由科技刊物



4.
課堂內與課堂外

E.
一般

英文用語

如何習得?



1.
使用英文者

(
師友、他人
)



2.
英文教材

教學節目



3.
英文報章、刊物、廣告、包裝



4.
英文廣播、電視節目、網路


F.
科技人

寫英文



困難



1.
詞彙不夠



2.
語法不明



3.
知識背景問題



4.
練習機會太少


Learn to write by reading & knowing one’s own problems.


G.
華人寫英文的錯誤



1.
用字不精確



2.
不合語法

(
時態、冠詞、介詞等
)



3.
照中文習慣翻譯



I have prepared some disserts for you.



You cannot compare apples and


oranges.



No drinks and food in class.

H.
科技英文

有不同語法嗎?


1.
estrogen receptor alpha





the estrogen receptor alpha
(Room 10


the Room 10)


2.
As
a

transcriptional regulator, p53 is ...





As transcriptional regulator, p53 is ...


(as a professor


as professor; as president


as a president)


3.
P53 is capable of
activating

various target genes.





P53 is capable of
the activating of

various target genes.




P53 is capable of
activation of

various target genes.



4.
Here, we report that ERalpha
inhibited

...





Here, we report that ERalpha
inhibits

...


(... that the earth rotates


rotated)


5.
... in diverse biological
processes
,
such as

apoptosis.




... in diverse biological
process
,
such as the apoptosis
.


6.
p53
-
mediat
ing

transcriptional repression.




p53
-
mediat
ed

transcriptional repression.


(a snake
-
biting person


獮慫s
-
扩b瑥t 灥牳潮
;
††††††††††††††††††††††††††


a snake
-
biting bird


獮慫s
-
扩b瑥t 扩牤b



The Structure of

a Thesis or Paper


A doctorate dissertation, an MS thesis, a term paper, a
journal paper, a conference paper, etc.

each has its
required length, format, and content. Before writing, you
need to know the type of work you are writing and the
required length, format, and content of the work.


1. Title


2. Abstract


3. Key words and phrases


4. The Main Body of the Text


5. Notes


6. Bibliography (References)

7. Appendix or Appendices

The Main Body of the Text


1. Introduction


2. Review of literature


3. Material(s)


4. Method(s)


5. Work done (in lab and/or elsewhere)


6. Result(s) or finding(s)


7. Discussion


8. Conclusion(s) and suggestion(s)

Two Ways of Writing the Title


A.
Sentence (Subject + Predicate):


1. Dietary Vitamin E and Selenium Significantly Prevent the


Contagion of Bird Flu


2. Dietary vitamin E and selenium significantly prevent the contagion


of bird flue



B.
Phrase (Noun and Modifiers):


1. (A) Numerical Investigation into the Effectiveness of Multi
-


Element Pressure Screen Rotor Foils

2. A numerical investigation into the effectiveness of multi
-
element


pressure screen rotor foils.


3. (The) Cyclic Behavior and Seismic Design of Bolted Flange Plate


Steel Moment Connections


4. (The) Effects of Dietary Vitamin E and Selenium on the


Prevention of Bird Flu

Present or Past Tense?


1. The purpose of this
paper

(
is
, was) to …



(
thesis
,
dissertation
,
report
,
article
)


2. The purpose of this
research

(
is
, was) …


(
study
,
investigation
,
analysis
,
survey
,
inquiry
,


experiment
)


3. The ... method (
is
, was) used in the process.


4. Participants (
are
, were) five graduate students.


5. The researchers (
design
, designed) their own


instrument for the experiment.

Present or Past Tense?


6. The present study (
investigates
, investigated) …


7. The study also (
finds
, found) that …



8. The findings (


results) (
reveal
, revealed) that …


9. With the findings, we (
conclude
, concluded) that …


(
suggest
/suggested,
propose
/proposed)




10. Based on the results, two
implications

(
can
, could)


be thought of as helpful to …


(
conclusions
,
applications
,
suggestions
,
proposals
,


recommendations
)


11. We (
hope
, hoped) that in the near future …

Perfect or Progressive Aspect



1. Previous studies (
showed
, have shown,
were showing
, are showing,
had shown
) that while (
machining
, machined) hardened steels, the
tool can lengthen its life by various cutting technologies.



2. However,

engineers

(
are still studying
, have still studied) the issue
of

diminished tool life
, since they (
are meeting
, have met) with
numerous problems

in developing high
-
speed and
high
-
performance

cutting technologies
.



3. Recently, there

(
was
, has been) a report that a certain company
(
was experimenting
, had experimented) with some lubricators.



4. They
(
found
, have found) that chipping and adhesion (
are
,
have

been
) the dominant tool damage modes and lubrication can
significantly lessen the damage, especially when the tool (
cuts
, is
cutting,
has cut
) hardened steel.

Active or Passive Voice?



1. This paper (
aims
, is aimed) to …



2. In this paper, we (
aim
, are aimed) to …



3. This theory (
can apply
, can be applied) to a number of practices.



4. We (
can apply
, can be applied) for any information or help
.



5. The results (
indicate
, are indicated) that …



6. The findings (
consider
, are considered) to be of great value.



7. The data (
gathered
, were gathered) from several sources.



8. We (
obtained
, were obtained) the data using the … assay.



9. (
Shown
, Shows) here is a case study of …


10. Here we (
present
, are presented) a case study of …


11. Over the last few decades, many papers (
have devoted
, have


been devoted) to …


12. Recently, many papers (
have focused
, have been focused) their


studies on …

Active or Passive Voice?



13. This drug (
induces
, is induced by) sleep.


14. Sleep (
induces
, is induced by) this drug.


15. Great efforts (
have made
, have been made) to find out …


16. The investigation (
bases
, is based) on the idea that …


17. Little (
knows
, is known) about the reaction of A to B.


18. It (
knows well
, is well known) that this compound is not soluble in


water.


19. It (
suggests
, is suggested) that we (should) experiment with


electricity.


20. It (
suggests
, is suggested) that the ion is detachable.


21. From the discovery we (
can conclude
, can be concluded) that …


22. From the discovery it (
can conclude
, can be concluded) that …


23. (
List
, Listed) below is a series of …


24. They (
imply
, are implied) that …

Indicative or Subjunctive Mood


1. It is found that the methodology (
can
, could) be used to ...


2. We suggest that the method (
is
, should be) used for this


machining.



3. From the experiment we (
can
, could) see that this tool (
may
,


might) be useful in ...


4. This result leads us to the idea that we (
will
, would) have a better


result if we (
have used
, had used) the right method.


5. These results lead us to the conclusion that we (
have
, had) not


used the right method, and that if we (
have
, had) used the right


method, we (
will
, would) have had very different findings.



6. It is estimated that a 50% increase (
will
, would) benefit all of them.


7. Although a rough estimation (
can
, could) be made, it (
may
, might)


not be accurate to use the formula in a thermomechanical model.

C

or
UC
,
Sg
. Or
Pl
.?



1. Due to
their low thermal (
conductivity
,


conductivities
),
high (
abrasion
, abrasions)


of cutting (
edge
, edges
) and (
tendency
, a


tendency) to crack during machining
,


titanium aluminide (
alloy
, alloys) are


notoriously difficult
-
to
-
cut (
material
,


materials) when using conventional (e.g.


turning, grinding, drilling, milling)
cutting


(
operation
, operations).

C

or
UC
,
Sg
. Or
Pl
.?



2. Despite
their low (
machinability
,


machinabilities
) TiAl alloys find
(
niche
,


niches) (
application
, applications) (
area
,


areas)

in
the (
manufacture
, manufactures)


of

complex shaped (
component
,


components
) for
(
aerospace
, aerospaces)


(
gas
, gases) (
turbine
, turbines) (
engine
,


engines
).

C

or
UC
,
Sg
. Or
Pl
.?



3. Based on (
generic design
, a generic


design) of (
aeroengine component
, an


aeroengine component), this paper


investigates the (
response
, responses)


of (
TiAl alloy
, a TiAl alloy) to
abrasive


waterjet (AWJ) cutting (
process
,


processes) (
variable
, variables)

in order


to speed up (
generation
, a generation) of


high
-
integrity (
surface
, surfaces).

With
or

Without

“a(n)”
or

“the”



1.

(
Abrasive
, The abrasive,
An abrasive
)


waterject machining is one of (
most
, the


most) promising non
-
conventional


machining processes for (
difficult
-
to
-
cut
,


the difficult
-
to
-
cut) materials because of


(
reduced
, the reduced,
a reduced
)


mechanical and thermal damage to


(
workpiece
, the workpiece) surfaces


produced using this technique.

Which Preposition to Use?


1. To obtain insight ____ the mechanism involved ____ FOH
-


induced apoptosis, we compared the gene expression profiles of


A and B ____ microarray analysis.


2. The shape profile geometry (
of
, at) the clad deposit is important


(
for
, to) thermomechanical modeling.


3. It may not be adequate to predict the profile geometry (
over
, from)


a wide range of varying process parameters.


4. The present investigation deals (
with
, in) the cross
-
sectional


shape profile geometry modeling.


5. Based (
on
, in) the methodology, an estimation of ... can also be


made (
at
, of) one’s convenience.


6. Fastener holes, (
in
, to) which the fatigue cracks initiate (
from
, for)


stress concentrations, are plastically expanded using a mandrel


pulled (
through
, across) the hole.


7. SLS of polymers

has found use (
in
, over) a wide range of


industries

ranging

(
from
, with) aerospace to medicine.

Pt
or

PP


1.Opium induces sleep. Sleep is induced by opium. The
opium is (
sleep
-
inducing
, sleep
-
induced). The sleep is
(
opium
-
inducing
, opium
-
induced).


2.Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a (
manufacturing
,
manufactured) process which has (
emerging
, emerged)
from numerous other technologies as the (
leading
, led)
process (
considering
, considered) viable for rapid
(
manufacturing
, manufactured).


3.This research has (
investigating
, investigated) the use of
a novel method of (
interpreting
, interpreted) a differential
(
scanning
, scanned) calorimetry curve to indicate the


level of (
melting
, melted) within semicrystalline


selective

laser
-
(
sintering
, sintered) parts.

Transition Expressions


Including:



also, besides, moreover, further, furthermore, in addition, similarly


Contrasting:



but, yet, still, however, nevertheless, instead, all the same, on the
other hand


Summarizing:



so, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, consequently, in
consequence, as a consequence, as a result

1.
Farnesol induces apoptosis in various carcinoma cells. ______, the
mechanism by which it mediates the effect is not yet fully
understood.


2. We found UO126 inhibited the induction of ER stress response
genes. ______, knockdown of the MEK1/2 effectively inhibited the
cleavage of caspase
-
3.

3.
Cells receiving AG1296 showed decreased G(1)
-
G(0) arrest. We
_____ provide evidence that certain sets of differentiation markers
can be enhanced.


From Sentence to Phrase

1. The process models.


a modeling process
The deposition is fused.



fused deposition
A finite element analysis model was developed
to simulate
the fused deposition modeling process
.

2. The model is considered. The model coupled thermal and
mechanical phenomena.

The model
(which is) considered

coupled thermal and mechanical phenomena.

3. The scan speed is the most significant factor. The factor
affects

part
distortions. The scan speed
is followed

by the layer thickness.


The scan speed is the most significant factor
affecting

part
distortions,
followed

by the layer thickness
.

4.
We compare

the simulation results. The results
are from

the two
models.


our comparison of

the simulation results

from

the two
models Our comparison indicates that ...


Our comparison

of

the
simulation results
from

the two models indicates that ...

5. The deformed blank can be divided into three regions. The regions
have

different deformation patterns.


The deformed blank can be
divided into three regions
with

different deformation patterns.

Phrase, Clause, or Sentence?


1. We identify the mechanism.
through the mechanism


Lactogens
protect beta cells.
against DEX
-
induced death






We identify the mechanism (
which
,
through which
) lactogens protect
beta cells
against DEX
-
induced death
.


2. These findings will enhance something.
the ability to optimize and
predict something


the properties of the SLS process

an area
which is critical

when producing end
-
use parts

particularly when
considering demanding applications

such as in the aerospace and
automotive industries






These findings will enhance
the ability to optimize and predict

the
properties of the SLS process
,
an area which is critical when
producing end
-
use parts, particularly when considering demanding
applications
,
such as in the aerospace and automotive industries
.



Errors Often Found (I)

1. Dr. Wang
indicates

that A is B and
implies

that C is D.

(suggests,
says, states, believes, supposes,

thinks, assumes, claims, holds,
maintains, asserts, avers, affirms, postulates, etc.)

2. The reason
is (because)

he does it. I know
the reason he

failed.

The reason
is that

he does it. I know
the reason why

he failed.
The reason is
his doing it
. I know
the reason for his failure
.

3.
Put together
,
I

found them ...
Examining closely
,
the parts

are ...

Put together, they were found ... Examining closely, we find the ...

4. combine x
and

y; link x
and

y; separate a
and

b; differentiate c
and

d

combine x
with

y; link x
to

y; separate a
from

b; differentiate c
from

d

5.
suggest you to

go;
hope you to

come;
fear him to

know

suggest that you (should) go; hope that you will come; fear that he
may know


fear lest he should know

Errors Often Found (II)

1. My hands are longer
than he
. (...
than his
)

2. The biosynthesis of A is easier
than B
. (...
than that of B
)

3. We have difficulty
to do it
. (...difficulty
doing it



in doing it
)

4. It provided
me feedback
. (...
me with feedback
)

5. The evidence
supports

x results from y. (...
supports the idea that

x...)

6. When it
exposes

to the sun, ... (When it
is exposed

to the sun, ...)

7. ...needing protection
of

rupture (...needing protection
from

rupture)

8. I mentioned
about

it and discussed
about

it. (
去掉

about)

9. As
shows

in Table 2,... (As
shown

in Table 2


As Table 2
shows
,...)

10. ...
such as

a, b, c,
etc.

(...
such as

a, b,
and

c.)

11. Cells,
that

are incubated, must ... (Cells,
which

are ..., must ...)

12.

But,

it is found ... (
But

it is found ...


Yet,

it is found ...)


Useful Patterns, Phrases, & Words



S + P, using ...

The experiment was made (,) using ... assay.


Compared with

(


to
)
A, B +
v
. +
比較級

=
B +
v
. +
比較級

, compared ...

Compared with this, that is better. This changed more rapidly,
compared to that.


Much evidence indicates that ...

The question arises whether or not ...


Our findings are in line with (


in accord with
) ...


A results in B

= B results from A =
A leads to B


A(n)

[
evident
, considerable, marked, significant, obvious, pronounced,
substantial]
increase/
decrease

in quantity/number is found.


It has

(
considerably
, evidently, markedly, obviously, pronouncedly,
significantly, substantially)
increased
/
decreased

in quantity/number.


Briefly

(importantly, interestingly, strangely, evidently), S was
found to be ...


The mechanism
by/through which
x
plays a(n)
crucial
/essential/vital/important

role in
y

is not yet (fully
/
completely
)
understood
/known/investigated/considered
.