proposed - WordPress.com

disgustedtukwilaInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

14 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

56 εμφανίσεις

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

1

It’s a scary world

in some respects

for educators and journalists alike.

The shifting technological landscape couple
d

with the
evolving

learning and

media habits of the current generation of students has
made schools re
-
evaluate

how they
educate today’s youth and news
media
organizations re
-
evaluate

how they produce and
deliver the news.

Today’s youth spend nearly eight hours a day with media



communication tools that allow people to share information, ideas and thoughts (Booth
&
Lewis 1998), including television, the Internet, telephones, mobile devices, print
publications, radio and video games


and considering
they

use more than one medium
at a time, youth are exposed to almost 11 hours of media
per day

(Rideout, Foehr

&
Robe
rts, 2010,
p.
2). They are truly the plugged
-
in generation and have

access to more
information

than any previous generation.

But while they are plugged
-
in to the world
around them, these students may be missing the critical thinking skills necessary to be
considered media literate.

The skills requ
ired to be media literate lie
on a
continuum that does not stop once
the skil
ls are learned (De Abreu, 2007
).
T
he skills that are learned one day can bec
ome
obsolete the next. Postman and

Weingartner (1971) argued that this rapidity of change
permeates the world of the news media and education. In their words, “change isn’t news;
what is news is the degree of change” (p. 10).

This
statement still holds true

as the pace
and degree of change

in society continues at an unprecedented rate
. The
ongoing

change
s

in the world of news media and everyday life require an individual to consistently re
-
evaluate their values and beliefs


just as an individual comes to an answer about their
core values,
the landscape around them changes and the questioning begins anew
(
Postman & Weingartner, 1971,
p.11). The same is true for teachers


what a teacher
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

2

learned as a student and how they learned that information is different from the s
ubject
matter and learni
ng traits

of students today. The authors argued that teachers from one
day to the next become “walking encyclopedias

of outdated information
” (p.11)
.

News
media face similar problems; how the industry has
historically operated is
becoming
obsolete in the d
igital age.

Much like teachers, the

fourth estate


is looking for

ways to
connect with students, so media literacy is just as important to the media as it is to the
education system.

To quote Canadian satirist Rick Mercer, the news media and the education
system

have a “mutually parasitic relationship”

(Encyclopedia of Canadian Biography
1
)

when
it
comes to news media literacy:

each
side needs

the other
to create media literate students

and reach their individual goals
.
What is needed, then, is for the views of both sides to be
combined in the design of a successful media literacy curriculum.

This study intends to
bring the voice and views of the fourth estate into the media literacy deb
ate.
By bringing
another voice into the debate, this proposed exploratory study hopes to make a
contribution to the field of media literacy
curriculum

theory.

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe what journalists and those working in the
news m
edia believe should be part of a news media literacy curriculum.

The goal is to
gain a deeper understanding of what media literacy skills



be they manual skills in the
production of news media texts, or conceptual skills related to critically analyzing ne
ws
media texts


that

those in the
news
media rank as of vital importance to the creation of



1

Retrieved online February 20, 2010 from
http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0009853

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

3

a media literate student.

The answers will provide insight into how much agreement there
is between journalists and educators over media literacy curricula.

A secondary purpose of the proposed study is to
investigate

how journalists
describe their own levels of media literacy
, which covers their life as news consumers
and producers
.
I a
m curious to see what answe
rs participants provide, including where
they be
lieve they learned the majority of their skills, be it in school, on the job or on their
own, and how responses

inform

answers stemming from
the primary purpose of the
study.
While some participants may try to avoid answering this question truthfully, I
be
lieve that well
-
prepared probes and the creation of a comfortable and trusting
environment for data collection will help participants fully explore this
area of interest.
This form of self
-
reflection
can be seen in the media literacy
education
literature (
see
Mangram, 2006)

and may be helpful
in creating a rich view of media literacy through the
eyes of journalists.

I use the terms “media literacy” and “news media literacy” at different times in
this proposal. For the purposes of this proposal, the terms wi
ll have the same definition
and refer to the news media, which I define as being any source that provides information
and/or opinion on current events and social trends. These sources include, but are not
limited to, newspapers, magazines, radio and televi
sion stations, news websites and
aggregators, and Web logs or blogs.

Media literacy is defined as
the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce
communication and information in a variety of media (Aufderheide, 1993; UNESCO,
2000). News media
literacy can be defined in the same way, although Fleming (2010)
offers a few goals for news media literacy in the digital age. Those goals include
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

4

championing free speech and freedom of the press (Accrediting Council on Education in
Journalism and Mass Co
mmunications, 2003, in Fleming, 2010); recognizing and
critically examining hidden meanings in news media; identify
ing

sources of information
in the news media, including sources cited within news media texts; and developing an
understanding of news media
consumption habits.

Rationale

Many media educators point to Len Masterman’s
Teaching the Media

as the
foundation for modern
-
day media studies curricula. Masterman argued that media
educators would be
well served

to not isolate themselves from media profess
ionals

but
work with journalists and broadcasters to further media literacy goals: “There are few
developments which could have as important an impact on the future success and quality
of media education than fruitful collaboration between media teachers,
journalists and
broadcasters” (Masterman, 2001, p. 262). Media professionals have the current
knowledge about media practices; teachers are the experts on educating youth and
creating critical thinkers. Masterman argued the two parties should not be separa
ted, and
yet that is what appears to have happened.

T
here is some precedence for including journalists in the ongoing discussion
about forming an effective media literacy curriculum. The News Literacy Project in the
United States is a not
-
for
-
profit organi
zation that links volunteer reporters with classroom
teachers to help build news media literacy programs and teaching pedagogy. The core of
the project is to help students sort fact from fiction in the news (Quinn, 2009), opinion
from analysis and understa
nd the foundations of a news story. Volunteer journalists
provide curricular advice to change the focus of news media literacy from what could be
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

5

deemed a protectionist approach to a critical approach that focuses on the relevance of
news to today’s youth
(Quinn, 2009). Material is presented through games, hands
-
on
exercises and having journalists talk to students about their first
-
hand experiences in the
field (Quinn, 2009). The founder of the project, Alan Miller, a former
Los Angeles Times

reporter and P
ulitzer Prize winner, said that having journalists team with teachers to
educate students on news media literacy is intended to “give students the tools to become
smarter and more frequent consumers and creators of credible information, and to light a
spar
k of interest in news that will make them well
-
informed citizens and v
oters
” (Quinn,
2009)
.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for this study begins
by framing media literacy wi
t
hin
the context of

the five abilities needed to become media literate: the ability to access,
analyze, evaluate, and create media in a varie
ty of forms (Aufderheide, 1993
).

Masterman (
2001
) forms the backbone of the theoretical framework guiding this
study. Masterman argued

that media help set the public agenda by not necessarily telling
the public what to think, but telling the public what to think about. In this way, the media
are “consciousness industries” (Masterman,
2001
, p. 3) that require study so they “can be
activel
y read” (Masterman,
2001
, p. 20). Masterman also advocated for educators and
media professionals to work together to help students become media literate: “The cause
of education has generally been better served by
working

journalists and broadcasters
who t
alk engagingly about particular texts they have produced and who can cast a
critically informed eye upon their own practices” (Masterman,
2001
, p. 265).

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

6

Building on this base is the concept of “digital natives” and “digital immigrants”
from Presnky (2001).

Digital natives who make up the current generation of students may
be technologically savvy, but not media literate. Neither are the older generations, which
Prensky calls digital immigrants
,

who may have critical thinking skills but cannot adapt
to new t
echnologies as quickly as digital natives. News media literacy education,
therefore, requires that both generations work together so each develop the skills and
knowledge necessary to become media literate and not be left at the mercy of those fluent
in th
e language of any particular medium (Postman & Weingartner, 1985).

Marshall McLuhan’s rear
-
view mirror theory of education also frames this study,
in that the basis for teaching today is not in the present, but in the past. In that case, media
literacy edu
cation has not matched the pace and sophistication of media changes
(Masterman,
2001
). The effects of this theory relate to the
propaganda

model of news
espoused by Chomsky and Herman (
1988), and Postman’s (1985)
demystification
approaches to media educati
on.

McLuhan also argued for a more experiential model for learning about the media.
This constructivist view of media education is the final pillar in this theoretical
framework. A constructivist approach to news media literacy education places learning in

the hands of the students and provides them with ownership of the learning experience,
which Masterman also advocated. This approach, then, rejects teaching news media
literacy through a protectionist approach or inoculative paradigm.

Literature Review

Theorists generally agree on five aspects of media literacy education: (a)
recognizing the construction of media as a social process; (b) semiotic textual analysis;
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

7

(c) the role of audiences in decoding meaning; (d) understanding issues of ideology and
heg
emony in media representations; and (e) understanding the structure of media
corporations (Baker, Clark & Lewis, 2003; Kellner & Share, 2005).
Where things
become tricky is

when authors begin to discuss th
e theoretical underpinnings of a media
literacy
curriculum.

The reviewed literature provides little consensus on what courses,
units, te
xts and objectives
form the bases

o
f a media education curriculum. Media literacy
researchers
remain

a frac
tured community (Fleming, 2010) with divergent ideas on how
b
est to teach media literacy skills and what teaching paradigm to employ.

At the outset, media education was based on protecting students and young people
from the mass media (Kubey, 1998). While the protectionist approach has not gone away,
it faded throug
h the 1970s and 1980s as researchers focused more on the individual
processes of encoding and decoding media texts and how the audience negotiated
meaning from media texts (Kubey, 1998)
. At the same time, researchers and educators
began to recognize media
literacy

education as a critical practice of citizenship (Hobbs &
Jensen, 2009). Hobbs and Jensen (2009) wrote that media education changed focus
during the 1990s as concerns emerged about the conflation of media activism and media
literacy education. T
his, the writers argued, led to one of the questions that infl
uences the
creation of a media literacy

curriculum: should media literacy education have a more
explicit
political or ideological agenda

(Hobbs 1998, in Hobbs and Jensen, 2009)
?

Phrased another
way, should media education have a more humanistic or social
reconstructionist hue to it?

Some theorists argue for a protectionist approach, others for a
more humanistic approach and, more recently, others argue for a constructivist approach.

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

8

What has not arisen in the reviewed
academic
literature is the perspective

of
journalists

and the news media that have a stake in the creati
on of a media literate
society.

For the news media, teaching media literacy builds an audience of consumers that
,

f
rom a business perspective
,

is the lifeblood of the industry


media literate and engaged
students can drive up readership and revenues along with it, and media literate and
engaged students may eventually
become

journalists
.
From an education perspective,

media literacy can help build critical thinking skills in students (Cheung, 2005), more
active and engaged citizens in a democracy (Kellner & Share, 2007), and build traditional
literacy, math and problem solving skills. In short, media
literacy

can be se
en as an
avenue towards meeting several core educational goals (Arke & Primack, 2009; Chu,
2009)

with the key goal of creating critical thinkers at the top of the heap.

The news media has
involved itself

in the debate about whether to teach media
literacy for more than a decade.
In 1994, when the Ontario government released a media
studies resource book for teachers, there was some outrage from the news media
community about how the document suggested tea
chers educate students about the
media. As one journalism educator noted, media studies is a useful addition to the
curriculum, but “it should go without saying that teachers responsible should know what
they're talking about. The fact that the individuals

who designed Ontario's media literacy
program so obviously do not is therefore worrisome” (Dornan, 1994).

Four years later, when the Mike Harris government decided to cut media studies
as a high school credit, journalists raised concerns about the loss of

the program, but also
about how the course was being taught.
In a column she wrote after visiting a media
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

9

studies class, Naomi
Klein (1998) noted that media studies can help students deconstruct
media messages an
d help them to become aware of their own de
cisions related to those
messages. However, in the same column, Klein pointed out that media studies does not
“immunize (students) from consumerist desire.” Klein also quoted one student who noted
that if students didn’t become media literate, they “won't
ask questions and criticize the
government, and if that doesn't happen then we will become like the mindless soci
ety
members of Brave New World (
Toronto Star
, Nov. 5, p. 1).”

Klein may have purposely
used this quote to
argue that without an

e
ffective media

studies curriculum, it may
become tougher if not impossible to

develop

a generation of media literate students.

The reviewed literature

paint
s

the picture that while this generation of students,
known as Millennials, has the ability to access and create m
edia,
they

may not be
considered media literate.
The fact they are “digital natives” who speak the language of
technology (
Prensky
, 2001a) does not mean they

are

media
savvy
.

A 2008 report from
the British Library
concluded

that while the “Google Generatio
n” could easily access
media, they possessed limited ability to critically analyze those media texts (Considine,
Horton & Moorman, 2009).
This finding supports similar studies that have concluded that
w
hile these digital natives are fluent in the language
media
, they lack the ability to
analyze the news and information they receive through media (Prensky, 2001a)
. Even
worse,
they may not realiz
e their own shortcomings and may not

strive to

become media
literate because they over
-
estimate their media literac
y skills, a problem identified in
social psychology as the Dunning
-
Kruger principle (
Banner et al., 2008).


A study from the

Associated Press

(2008)
, an international newswire service,
found that young news consumers between the ages of 18 and 24 reported
being media
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

10

literate when
analyses of interview statements showed they were not. The study
found
that participants scanned headlines online and believed that the headlines were the whole
story.

When p
articipants
checked

the same story through the same sour
ce acro
ss different
media or platforms,

they believed they were consuming new information when in fact
they were not
(p.

42).
Participants in the study showed signs of “news fatigue” that arose
as “they attempted to navigate an information stream that
mostly dishes up

recycled
headlines and updates
” (p.

37)
.

Participants
became passive receptors of the news instead
of critically engaged consumers. Participants

reported that they believed they were

media
literate even though they could not recognize the
same information
repeatedly being
presented to them.


Being media illiterate
may cause students to

become disengaged media consumers
and stop accessing the information available to them that is vital to understanding the
world around. Being able to navigat
e
the miasma of information available through the
news media is vital to creating a participatory democracy (Kellner & Share, 2007). How
then do educators and the news media re
-
engage students and
develop more opportunities
to become
into media literate ne
ws consumers who can critically think about the
information available to them? Worded another way, what teaching method is most
useful to reach these ends?

Fleming (2010) ran two exploratory case studies of her post
-
secondary journalism
students

in 2007 an
d 2008 in order to determine if a constructivist approach

to teaching
media literacy


based on students own media interests and putting the student
s

in
charge of their learning


was effective in creating media literate students
. A secondary
purpose of he
r study was to
evaluate how an educator could best merge media literacy
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

11

teaching into a curriculum. Fleming
found that w
hen the material was embedded into the
course, students reported that they became more critical of the news they were consuming
and
critical thinkers about
the sources of information.

Research Questions

The first research question that needs answering is describing how journalists
define the
term “media literacy.” The answers provided will also give an idea of what
skills journalists b
elieve are central to an individual becoming media literate.
It will also
conceptualize the term from the point of view of the journalists involved in the study and
relate the findings back to the operational use of the term I
have taken from the literatur
e.
A question that will also be asked in this vein is for the journalist to do some self
-
reflection: Do they consider themselves to be media literate? What are their thoughts on
the media literacy rates of those working in the
news media?

The answer to the
se
research questions will help better evaluate the definitions provided.

I am also curious to
find out how the journalists involved in this study
view the changes in their profession
and the resulting impact on the skills students need to become media lit
erate. Questions
in this avenue of thinking will probe
what changes the journalists have seen in their time
in the industry,
what skills they were originally taught and what new skills they have
subsequently had to learn, and what future skills journalists

believe will be required to
access, create and analyze news media.

Besides skills, I am also interested to see what curriculum design and teaching
paradigms journalists tap into
when they consider the makeup of a media literacy
curriculum.

To garner answe
rs to this research question, journalists will be asked to
describe how they were taught media literacy skills and what they found worked and
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

12

didn’t work.

The journalists themselves may not be fully aware of their theoretical biases
related to curriculum d
evelopment
, but the answers will allow me to connect academic
theory to journalists’ beliefs to see where there is overlap and where there are gaps.

I
don’t expect journalists involved in the study to use terminology employed in the
literature on curriculu
m theory in their answers. In my analysis of the data, I will have to
link the words of the journalists to terms and theories in the literature on curriculum
theory.

Methodology

The proposed study will rely on in
-
depth, one
-
on
-
one interviews with journali
sts
who are either employed with a news outlet, a journalism association or advocacy group,
or a journalism education program, simil
ar to the News Literacy Project
.
The interviews
will be conducted face
-
to
-
face where possible, and over the telephone when t
he
partici
pant is not
eas
ily accessible, such as being in anoth
er part of the country or world
.

I
am proposing to interview
a minimum of seven journalists and may add more participants
to the sample as the study progresses.
I want to ensure that there is

rich data without

adding too many voices and making

some data redundant (MacMillan & Schumacher,
2009,
p.
326).

The selection of participants will follow a purposeful sampling model that will
require me to use my knowledge of the population being studied


in this case, my
fellow journalists


to select participants
who

should be able to provide the best
information to address the purpose of the proposed study (
Berg, 2009,
p.
50;
MacMillan
& Schumacher, 2009,
p.
138). I wil
l select up to four journalists
in an initial round of
interviewing. Following that, I will
use a snowball sampling method and have
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

13

participants refer me on to other potential participants. This type of sampling method is
frequently used for in
-
depth interview studies (MacMillan & Schuma
cher, 2009,
p.
327)

and should help generate a robust list of participants and sources of information.

To
further develop a list of potential participants,
I am also proposing that I ask the Ontario
Press Council, the Canadian Association of Journalists and

the Canadian Newspaper
Association to submit the names of potential participants the organizations consider to be
exceptional sources of information in relation to the study, a method known as a
“reputational case” sampling strategy (McMillan & Schumacher
, 2009,
p.
326).
The list of
names produced can then be weighed against the list I develop to see where there are
overlaps and where new names appear.

I will

first

contact potential participants over the phone


known as “cold
calling” in the journalism world


to inquire about their interest in participating in the
study.

The initial phone call will include a brief description
of the study’s requirements, a
reminde
r
that their anonymity will be protected
at all times

should they choose to remain
anonymous
,
and that they have the right to refuse participation or withdraw from the
study at any time, should they choose to take part.

Following the initial contact

and
provided the journalist is interested in learning more about the study
, a letter of
information an
d consent form will be sent to the participant either digitally or in hard
copy.
If the journalist consents to being a participant, an interview will be
scheduled at a
time and location that is convenient to the participant and myself.

All information will be
kept confidential and participants will remain anonymous

unless they choose otherwise. I
add this note about anonymity because journalists working in

the public domain may
want to speak “on
-
the
-
record” as opposed to “off
-
the
-
record
.


Digital i
nformation will be
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

14

stored on a secured hard drive

while hand
-
written notes

will be kept in a secure location
known only

to
myself.

All data will be kept for seven

years before being destroyed.

Interviews will be semi
-
structured with questions and prompts developed ahead of
time so that every participant is asked the same core questions related to the study
purpose and research questions. A semi
-
structured interview will also allow the
participant the chance to explore areas of personal interest and myself the opportunity to
collect data I may not have anticipated to find.
Another reason for the semi
-
structur
ed, or
semi
-
standardized, interview is that it requires questions to be worded in the language of
the participants (Berg, 2009,
p.
107). Being a journalist myself, I already am fluent in the
journalist’s vocabulary.

It is unlikely that there will have to be

much work done to put journalists at ease
or to go into detail about the process of the interview. They are familiar with the flow of
an interview and
this
should make the interviewing process easier. Still, questioning will
proceed from easy, non
-
threate
ning questions and move into the more important
questions related to my research questions (Berg, 2009,
p.
113). Essential questions (Berg,
2009,
p
.113
-
114) will be placed at the front end of the interview to ensure that subject
matters of utmost importa
nce are dealt with before fatigue sets in. At all times,
participants will be asked to give as much detail in their answers as possible


further
probes and closed
-
ended questions may be employed to delve deeper into a participant’s
answer or to clarify st
atements.
Interviews will last for up to one hour and be recorded
using a digital audio recording device.

I will also take hand
-
written notes and
observations to
supplement the audio recordings.


Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

15

Depending on the length of
the

interview and interest of
the

participant
,
a second
interview
may
be scheduled
.
When neither the participant nor I consider a second
interview necessary
, any f
ollow
-
up questions to expand on one answer or a thought may
be done either through an e
-
mail or a telephone call.
The choice
of communication will
be left to the participant with the understanding that

while

an e
-
mail may be more
convenient, it also creates a digital trail that may expose the participant to identification;
a telephone call may be less convenient and take up more

time, but it may also help to
protect anonymity for participants.
In either case, anonymity will be protected.

All interviews will be transcribed
.
Participants will be asked to review data
obtained through interviews to determine the information is accura
te. This form of
participant review (MacMillan & Schumacher, 2009,
p.
332) will be used to enhance
validity of the data collected from interviews.


Transcriptions will
then

be

analyzed using an open
-
coding technique
.
Data from
participants will be reviewed

for common themes, co
ncepts and terms
.
Interviews with
participants will focus on the cultural schema they draw upon when thinking about media
literacy education.
Once I have identified and allotted responses based on emergent
codes, responses will then be close
-
coded into
taxonomies
, including “media literacy

definition
,” “media
skills
,” “teaching paradigm,” and “
personal perceptions
.”
Themes,
concepts and terms wi
ll be grounded in
media literacy theory

as a secondary level of
analysis to link the data from each interview (Berg, 2009,
p.
352).
Findings will be
compared to see if there are any themes that have not been identified, or exceptions to the
patterns of data

collected, also known as negative or discrepant data (McMillan &
Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

16

Schumacher, 2009,
p.
332).
Findings will then be combined with
verbatim accounts from
interviews to
link

my findings with the words of the participants in the final manuscript.

Limitations

Th
ere are

i
ssue
s

of
time and resources. Participants may not have enough time to
sp
end in a face
-
to
-
face interview. Many may wish to have an e
-
mail or te
lephone
conversation that
would still allow for data collection,
but
may diminish the quality
and
richness
of data. On the issue of resources,
I will not be able to meet face
-
to
-
face with
participants who are too far afield from my location in Kingston. This may require
telephone or e
-
mail conversations. A possible way around this limitation may be

to hold
Internet interviews over a service such as Skype, which allows for video conferencing.
This would allow me to observe the participant’s reaction
s

to questions.

A secondary limitation is that this study appears to rest on the assumption that
journa
lists will find pr
oblems or shortcomings with current media literacy curricula and
teaching practices
.
However, the proposed study is meant to be exploratory and
descriptive. The answers being sought are not prescribed.
Findings may support a variety
of me
dia literacy education paradigms. In that sense, I am not looking for one right
answer


I am looking for
various points of view to add to the field of knowledge
related to media literacy education theory.

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

17

Definitions

Audience
: Receivers of media texts
who also bring meaning to texts by decoding
encoded messages (Bowker 1991; Baker, Clark & Lewis 2003).

Bias
: Preference or partiality that inhibits objective and unprejudiced judgment by
unfairly guiding the reader’s opinion or skewing their views of an is
sue (Trafford 2007).

Critical media literacy
: A teaching approach to media literacy that includes aspects of
the inoculative paradigm/protectionist approach, media arts education approach and
media literacy movement, but includes an understanding of corpor
ate structure of media,
power in the media, how power and information are linked, and how audiences can be
empowered through media (Kellner & Share 2007; Mercado & Torres 2006).

Critical thinking
: ability to identify and challenge assumptions, search for a
lternative
ways of thinking and to summarize a reflective analysis (Ore 2005 in Bergman and
Radeloff 2009).

Digital immigrants
: Those born before the rapid infusion of digital technology and
struggle to learn and apply new forms of information communicatio
n technologies
(Prensky, 2001a; Considine, Horton & Moorman 2009).

Digital natives
: Those who are fluent in the language and culture of information
communication technologies, adjust easily to changes in technologies and use
information communications tech
nologies in creative ways (Prensky, 2001b; Considine,
Horton & Moorman 2009).

Inoculative paradigm
: A teaching approach to media literacy that sees media as having
a powerful, largely negative influence over the audience, who, as passive victims, must
be p
rotected from media; also known as the “protectionist approach” to teaching media
literacy. (Kellner & Share 2007)

Internet generation
: Those born since the mid
-
1990s who have grown up with the
explosion in information communication technologies; also know
n as the Google
Generation and Generation Z.

Mainstream media
: Those areas of the media that tend to be highly commercialized.
Mainstream media products reach large audiences and tend to make big profits for their
institutions (Baker, Clark & Lewis 2003).

Mass media
: Communication tools conveying the same message to many people at the
same time, i.e. Internet, television, radio, magazines, newspapers, billboards,
commercials, video games, logos, slogans, clothing, music videos, advertising and song
lyrics (
Booth & Lewis 1998).

Media
: Communication tools that allow people to share information, ideas and thoughts,
i.e. telephones, e
-
mail, letters, pictures (Booth & Lewis 1998).

Media arts education
: A teaching approach to media literacy that emphasizes teachin
g
students to value the aesthetic qualities of media and media arts while creating media for
the purpose of self
-
expression (Kellner & Share 2007).

Media literacy
: the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication and
information in a var
iety of forms and means. (Aufderheide, 1993
)

Media literacy movement
: A teaching approach to media literacy that teaches a series of
“communication competencies” that include the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and
communicate through media, but does
not include critical pedagogy (Kellner & Share
2007).

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

18

Media literate
: A person who can decode, evaluate, analyze and produce print and
electronic media (Christ & Potter 1998).

Media studies
: Specialist media education courses, whether as a separately exami
nable
subject, or as specific modules or components within other subject areas or vocational
training (Bowker 1991).

Media texts
: Film, television, broadcasts and news created for a particular consumer
(Hobbs 2001).

Medium
: a means through which informatio
n is passed.

Millennials
: A term used to define the generation born into a world that has grown up
with media and information communication technologies; also referred to as Generation
Y; usually refers to those born between the late 1970s and early 1990s.

Multimedia literacy
: Being able to separate multimedia communications that others
comprehend and to comprehend multimedia communications that others generate (Mayer
2008).

New Media Literacies
: a set of cultural competencies and social skills young people

need in new media landscape; involves ability to think across media, whether at level of
simple recognition (identifying some content as it is translated across different modes of
representation), or level of narrative logic (understanding the connections

between how a
story is communicated through different media) or at the level of rhetoric (learning to
express an idea within a single medium or across different media) (Jenkins et al., 2006, p.
4 & 48)

Texts
: All kinds of work/forms of symbolic expression

that convey meaning from an
author to readers (Hobbs 2001).

Understanding
: Distinction from knowledge of skills: matter of being able to carry out a
variety of performances (i.e. making predictions about what would happen if there were a
snowball fight in

space) and analytical thinking (Hobbs 2001).

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

19

References

Arke, E.T., & Primack, B.A. (2009). Quantifying media literacy: Development, realiability and
validity of a new measure.
Educational Media International
,
46
(1),
53
-
65. DOI:
10.1080/09523980902780958

Associated Press (2008).
A new model for news: Studying the deep structures of young
-
adult
news consumption
. Available online
:

http://www.ap.org/newmodel.pdf
.

Banner, M., Dunning, D., Ehrlinger, J., Johnson,
K., & Kruger, J. (2008). Why the unskilled are
unaware: Further explorations of (absent) self
-
insight among the incompetent.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
,
105

(2008), 98
-
121.

Bajkiewicz, T. (2009). Tracks, silos, and elevators: Pos
t
-
secondary convergence journalism
education in the United States. In Grant, A.E., & Wilkinson, J.S. (Eds.).
Understanding
media convergence: The state of the field
. New York: Oxford University Press.

Baker, James, Clark, Vivienne & Lewis, Eileen. (2003) K
ey concepts and skills for media
studies. Oxon, U.K.: Bookpoint Ltd.

Bass, Kristin M., & Bandy, Elizabeth A. (2010). Digital Pathways to learning through
collaborative media production. In Tyner, Kathleen (Ed.).
Media literacy: New agendas
in communication
. New York: Routledge.

Bazalgette, Cary (2007). Teacher training for media education in the U.K.
Medienimpulse
,
59
,
p.49
-
50.

Bergman, B.J., & Radeloff, C.L. (2009). Global perspectives: Developing media literacy skills to
advance critical thinking.
Feminis
t Teacher
,
19
(2),
168
-
171.

Block, J. (2007). From Sammy Sosa to city hall: Detecting bias in print news. In Christel, M.T.
& Sullivan, S. (Eds.).
Lesson plans for creating media
-
rich classrooms
. Urbana, Ill.:
National Council of Teachers of English.

Booth,

D. & Lewis, K. (1998).
Media Sense
. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.

Bowker, Julian (Ed.) (1991).
Secondary media education: A curriculum statement
. London,
England: British Film Institute.

Brown, James (1998). Media literacy perspectives.
Journal of
Communication
,
48
(1), p.44
-
57.

Buckingham, David (Ed.) (1990). Watching media learning: Making sense of media education.
London; New York: The Falmer Press.

Buckingham, D. (1998). Media education in the U.K.: Moving beyond protectionism.
Journal of
Communication
,
48
(1), p.33
-
43.

Burroughs, S., Brocato, K., Hopper, P.F., & Sanders, A. (2009). Media literacy: A central
component of democratic citizenship.
The Educational Forum
,
23
, p.154
-
167. DOI:
10.1080/00B1720902739627

Butler, Allison (2010). Thinki
ng inside the classroom: Notes from the field. In Tyner, Kathleen
(Ed.).

Media literacy: New agendas in communication
. New York: Routledge.

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

20

Cheung, C.K. (2005). The relevance of media education in primary schools in Hong Kong in the
age of new media: A cas
e study.
Educational Studies
,
31
(4), 361
-
374.

Chomsky, N., & Herman, E.S. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the
mass media. New York: Pantheon Books.

Christ, W., & Potter, W.J. (1998) Media literacy, media education and the academy.
J
ournal of
Communication
,
48
(1), p.5
-
15.

Christ, W.G. (Ed.) (2006).
Assessing media education: A resource handbook for educators and
administrators
. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Chu, Donna (2009). Making claims for school media: A study of

teachers’ beliefs about media in
Hong Kong.
Asia Pacific Journal of Education
,
29
(1), 1
-
15.

Connell, C. (2006).
Journalism's crisis of confidence: A challenge for the next generation
.
Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Considine, D., Horton, J., & Moorman,

G.
(2009).

Teaching and reading the Millennial
generation through media literacy.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy
,
52
(6), p.471
-
481. DOI:10.1598/JAAL.52.6.2

Considine, D.M. (2009). From Gutenberg to Gates: Media matters.
The Social Studies
,
100
(2),
p.63
-
73

Crompton, Marielizabeth (2004). A new curriculum for a new age.
TechTrends, 48
(4), p.32
-
47.

De Abreu, Belinda S. (2007). Teaching media literacy. New York: Neal
-
Schuman Publishers,
Inc.

Deroche, E.F. (1991).
The newspaper: A reference book for teac
hers and librarians.

Santa
Barbara, Cali.: ABC
-
CLIO.

Dornan, C. (1994
, April 19
). Scapegoat sociology: Ontario students getting opposite of education
about mass media.

The Ottawa Citizen
, p. A7.

Elementary Teachers Federation of Ontario (2001).
Take a clos
er look: A media literacy
resource
.

Ferri, J. (1986, May 4). Baring the medium’s message in the classroom.
Toronto Star
, p. H1, H5.

Fleming, Jennifer (2010). "Truthiness" and trust: News media literacy strategies in the digital
age. In Tyner, Kathleen
(Ed.).

Media literacy: New agendas in communication
. New
York: Routledge.

Foehr, U.G., Rideout, V., & Roberts, D.F. (2005).
Generation M: Media in the lives of 8
-
18
year
-
olds
. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Foehr, U.G., Rideout, V., & Roberts, D.F. (2010).
Gene
ration M2: Media in the lives of 8
-

to 18
-
year
-
olds
. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Fox, S., & Jones, S. (2009).
Generations online in 2009
. Pew Internet Project.

Fox, S., Smith, A., & Zickhur, K. (2009).
Twitter and status updating, fall 2009
. Pew Internet
Pro
ject.

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

21

Glesne, C. (2006).
Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction

(3
rd

Ed.). Boston: Pearson
Education, Inc.

Gut, Dianne M. & Wan, Guofang (2008). Media use by Chinese and U.S. secondary students:
Implications for media literacy education.
Theory

Into Practice
,
47
, 178
-
185. DOI:
10.1080/00405840802153783

Hobbs, Renee (1998). The seven great debates in the media literacy movement.
Journal of
Communication
,
48
(1), p.16
-
32.

Hobbs, Renee (2006). Non
-
optimal uses of video in the classroom.
Learning,
Media &
Technology
,
31
(1), p.35
-
50. DOI: 10.1080/17439880500515457

Hobbs, Renee (2007). Reading the media: Media literacy in high school English. New York;
London: Teachers College Press.

Hobbs, R., & Jensen, A. (2009). The past, present and future of medi
a literacy education.
Journal of Media Literacy Education
,
1
(1), p.1
-
11.

Jenkins, H. with Clinton, K., Robinson, A.J., Purushotma, R., & Weigel, M. (2006).
Confronting
the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century
. Chicago,
Ill.: MacArthur Foundation.

Kellner, Douglas, & Share, Jeff (2007a). Critical media literacy: Crucial policy choices for a
twenty
-
first
-
century democracy.
Policy Futures in Education
,
5
(1), pgs. 59
-
69.

Kellner, Douglas, & Share, Jeff (2007b). Critical medi
a literacy, democracy, and the
reconstruction of education. In Macedo, D., & Steinberg, S.R. (Eds.).
Media Literacy: A
reader
. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Klein, N. (1998, Nov. 5). Media literacy too dangerous to survive.
Toronto Star
, p. 1.

Kubey, Robert (1998). Obstacles to the development of media education in the United States.
Journal of Communication
,
48
(1), p.58
-
69.

Kumar, K.J. (2003). New trends in mass communication research: Implications for media
education. In Lavender, T., Tufte, B
., & Lemish, D. (Eds.),

Global Trends in Media
Education
. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press Inc.

Lavender, T. (2003). Media education: The curriculum and teacher training in Scotland. In
Lavender, T., Tufte, B., & Lemish, D. (Eds.),
Global Trends in Media Edu
cation
.
Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press Inc.

Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Macgill, A.R., & Smith, A. (2007).
Teens and social media
. Pew
Internet & American Life Project.

Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickhur, K. (2010).
Social media & mobile internet
use
among teens and young adults
. Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Lewis, J., & Jhally, S. (1998). The struggle over media literacy.
Journal of
Communication
,

48
(1), p.109
-
120.

Luke, C. (2003). Critical media and cultural studies in new times. In La
vender, T., Tufte, B., &
Lemish, D. (Eds.),

Global Trends in Media Education
. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press
Inc.

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

22

Mangram, J.A. (2008). Either/or rules: Social studies teachers talk about media and popular
culture.
Theory and Research in Social Education
,
36
(2), p.32
-
60.

Martinson, David L. (2004). Media literacy education: No longer a curriculum option.
The
Educational Forum
.
68
, pgs. 154
-
160.

Masterman, Len (1998). The media education revolution. In Hart, A. (Ed.).
Teaching the media:
International perspe
ctives
. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Masterman, Len (2001).
Teaching the media
. London, England: Routeledge.

Mayer, Richard E. (2008). Multimedia literacy. In Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., & Leu,
D. J. (Eds.),

Handbook of research

on new literacies
. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.

McLuhan, Marshall (1960). Report on project on understanding new media. In Stearn, G.M.
(Ed.)(1967),

McLuhan: Hot & Cool
.

New York: The Dial Press, Inc.

McLuhan, Marshall (1962).
The Gutenberg Gala
xy
. Toronto, Ont.: University of Toronto Press.

McLuhan, Marshall (1967). Classroom without walls. In Stearn, G.M. (Ed.),
McLuhan: Hot &
Cool
. New York: The Dial Press, Inc.

McMahon, B., & Quin, R. (2007). The what, why and how we know of media education.
In
Abel, S., Nowak, A., and Ross, K. (Eds.).
Rethinking media education: Critical pedagogy
and identity politics
. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press.

McNeil, J.D. (2009).
Contemporary Curriculum: In thought and action
(Seventh Edition
)
.
Hoboken, N.J.: John Wil
ey & Sons, Inc.

Mercado, Maria & Torres, Myriam (2006). The Need for critical media literacy in teacher
education core curricula.
Educational Studies
,
Volume

(Issue), pgs. 260
-
282.

Meyrowitz, J. (1998). Multiple media literacies.
Journal of Communication
,

48
(1), p.96
-
108.

Ministry of Education (2007).
Ontario curriculum guidelines: Grade 11 media studies

(EMS30).

Morgan, Robert (1998). Media education in Ontario: Generational differences in approach. In
Hart, Andrew (Ed.),
Teaching the media: International
perspectives
. Mahwah, N.J.:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills (200
2
).
Learning for the 21st century: A report and mile
guide for 21st century skills
.

Postman, Neil (1986).
Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business
.
New York: Penguin Books.

Postman, N.,
& Weingartner, C. (1971).
Teaching as a subversive activity
. New York: Dell
Publishing Co., Inc.

Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital natives, digital immigrants.
On the Horizon
,
9
(5).

Presnky, M. (2001b). Digital natives, digital immigrants part II: Do they really think differently?
On the Horizon
,
9
(6).

Prensky, M. (2008). Backup education? Too many teachers see education as preparing kids for
the past, not the future.
Educational Technology
,
48
(1).

Jordan Press, M. Ed. candidate

Thesis Proposal

23

Prensky, M. (2009). H. sapiens digital: From digital immigrants and digital natives to digital
wisdom.
Innovate
,
5
(3).

Project for Excellence in Journalism (2009a).
How news happens: A study of the new ecosystem
of one American city
. Pew Research Center.

Project for Excellence
in Journalism (2009b).
The State of the News Media 2009: An annual
report on American journalism
. Pew Research Center.

Quill, G. (1998, Oct. 22). Tories chop media stud
ies.
Toronto Star
, p. 1.

Quinn, L.C. (2009). Breaking news.
School Library Journal
,
55
(1), p.40
-
42.

Segal, Avner, & Schmidt, Sandra (2006). Reading the newspaper as a social text.
The Social
Studies
.
97
(3), 91
-
99.

Share, Jeff (2010). Voices from the trench
es: Elementary school teachers speak about
implementing media literacy. In Tyner, Kathleen (Ed.).

Media literacy: New agendas in
communication
. New York: Routledge.

Silva, K., & Wyatt, W. (2007). Reviving a culture
-
debating public through m
edia education.
In
Abel, S., Now
ak, A. & Ross, K. (Eds.),
Rethinking media education: Critical pedagogy
and identity politics
. Cresskill, N.J.: The Hampton Press Communication Series.

Trafford, Charles F. (2007). Deconstructing broadcast news. In Christel, Mary T., &

Sullivan,
Scott (Eds.),
Lesson plans for creating media
-
rich classrooms
. Urbana, Ill.: National
Council of Teachers of English.

Unsworth, Len (2008). Multiliteracies and metalanguage: Describing image/text relations as a
resource for negotiating multimoda
l texts. In Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., &
Leu, D.J. (Eds.),
Handbook of research on new literacies
. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.

Whyte, M. (2008, Sept. 13). Web navigation is the new literacy: Election campaigns on both
sides of the bor
der highlight the growing importance of learning where, and where not, to
surf.
Toronto Star
, p. ID.3.

Williams, K. (2003).
Understanding media theory
. London, England: Arnold.

Wolfe, Tom (1965). The new life out there. In Stearn, G. E. (Ed.)(1967),
McLuha
n: Hot & Cool.
New York: The Dial Press, Inc.