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VIROLOGY 2006

<871>

Database


Ovid MEDLINE(R) In
-
Process & Other Non
-
Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Unique Identifier


16928267

Status


MEDLINE

Authors


Quaglio G.


Lugoboni F.


Pattaro C.


GICS.


Montanari L.


Lechi A.


Mezzelani P.


Des Jarlais DC
.

Authors Full Name


Quaglio, Gianluca.


Lugoboni, Fabio.


Pattaro, Cristian.


GICS.


Montanari, Linda.


Lechi,
Alessandro.


Mezzelani, Paolo.


Des Jarlais, Don C.

Institution



Medical Service for Addictive Disorders, Department of Internal Medicine, Univ
ersity of Verona, Italy.
gianluca.quaglio@azosp.vr.it

Title



Patients in long
-
term maintenance therapy for drug use in Italy: analysis of some
parameters of social integration and serological status for infectious diseases in a
cohort of 1091 patients.

So
urce



BMC Public Health.


6:216, 2006.

Journal Name



BMC Public Health

Other ID



Source: NLM. PMC1570141

Country of Publication



England

Abstract



BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction often severely disrupts normal social functioning. The
aims of this multi
-
c
entre study of heroin users in long
-
term replacement treatment were: i) to
provide information on aspects of social condition such as employment, educational
background, living status, partner status and any history of drug addiction for partners,
comparin
g these data with that of the general population; ii) to assess the prevalence of
hepatitis, syphilis and HIV, because serological status could be a reflection of the social
conditions of patients undergoing replacement treatment for drug addiction; iii) t
o analyse
possible relationships between social conditions and serological status. METHODS: A cross
-
sectional study was carried out in sixteen National Health Service Drug Addiction Units in
northern Italy. The data were collected from February 1, 2002 to
August 31, 2002.
Recruitment eligibility was: maintenance treatment with methadone or buprenorphine,
treatment for the previous six months, and at least 18 years of age. In the centres involved in
the study no specific criteria or regulations were establis
hed concerning the duration of
replacement therapy. Participants underwent a face
-
to
-
face interview. RESULTS: The
conditions of 1091 drug treatment patients were evaluated. The mean duration of drug use
was 14.5 years. Duration was shorter in females, in s
ubjects with a higher educational
background, and in stable relationships. Most (68%) had completed middle school (11
-
14
years of age). Seventy
-
nine percent were employed and 16% were unemployed. Fifty percent
lived with their parents, 34% with a partner a
nd 14% alone. Males lived more frequently with
their parents (55%), and females more frequently with a partner (60%). Sixty
-
seven percent of
male patients with a stable relationship had a partner who had never used heroin. HCV
prevalence was 72%, HBV antib
odies were detected in 42% of patients, while 30% had been
vaccinated; 12.5% of subjects were HIV positive and 1.5% were positive for TPHA.
CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of heroin users in treatment for opiate addiction in
the cohort study have char
acteristics which indicate reasonable integration within broader
society. We posit that the combination of effective treatment and a setting of economic
prosperity may enhance the social integration of patients with a history of heroin use.

Publication Typ
e


Journal Article.


Multicenter Study.


Research Support, Non
-
U.S. Gov't.

Date of Publication


2006

Year of Publication


2006

Volume


6

Page


216

VIROLOGY 2006

<891>

Database


Ovid MEDLINE(R) In
-
Process & Other Non
-
Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Un
ique Identifier


16999861

Status


MEDLINE

Authors


La Torre G.


Miele L.


Mannocci A.


Chiaradia G.


Berloco F.


Gabrieli ML.


Gasbarrini G.


Ficarra MG.


Matera A.


Ricciardi G.


Grieco A.


HCV
-
Southern Lazio Collaborative Group.

Authors Full Name


La Tor
re, Giuseppe.


Miele, Luca.


Mannocci, Alice.


Chiaradia, Giacomina.


Berloco, Filippo.


Gabrieli, Maria L.


Gasbarrini, Giovanni.


Ficarra, Maria Giovanna.


Matera, Antonio.


Ricciardi, Gualtiero.


Grieco,
Antonio.


HCV
-
Southern Lazio Collaborative Group.

Institution



Institute of Hygiene, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, School of Medicine Agostino Gemelli, Rome, Italy.
giuseppe.latorre@rm.unicatt.it

Title



Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients.

Source



BMC Public Health.


6:237, 2006.

Journal Name



BMC Public Health

Other ID

Source: NLM. PMC1590024

Country of Publication



England

Abstract



BACKGROUND: Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The
aim of this study is t
o investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts
of HCV positive patients in Italy. METHODS: A cross
-
sectional study was conducted with 175
HCV positive patients (index cases), recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as

other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 +/
-

15.2
years), and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were
tested with non
-
parametric tests (chi2, Yates correction, Fisher exact tes
t), and a p value <
0.05 was considered significant. A multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic
regression in order to verify which variables statistically have an influence on HCV positivity in
contact individuals. RESULTS: Seropositivity for HC
V was found in 8.9% of the contacts.
From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the
contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004) and intercourse with drug addicts (p =
0.005). The only variables associ
ated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in
patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01
-

184.94), the
retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17
-

11.98), the time of the relationship
(OR = 1
.06; 95% CI: 1.00
-

1.11) and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00
-

60.20).
CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the
most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retireme
nt
status from work could be related to both a long
-
term relationship with an index case and past
exposure to common risk factors.

Publication Type


Journal Article.

Date of Publication


2006

Year of Publication


2006

Volume


6

Page


237

VIROLOGY 2006

<383
>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2007334131

Authors


Morgello S. Holzer III C.E. Ryan E. Young C. Naseer M. Castellon S.A. Frol A.B. Atkinson J.H. Gelman B.B.
Grant I. Singer E.J.

Institution



(Morgello, Ryan, Naseer) Mount Sinai School of Medicine, N
ew York, NY, United States.



(Holzer III, Gelman) University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States.



(Young, Atkinson) University of California, San Diego, CA, United States.



(Castellon, Singer) University of California, Los Angeles, VA

Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, United
States.



(Frol) University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, United States.



(Grant) University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, United States.



(Morgello) Box 1134,
Mount Sinai Medical Center, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Interrater reliability of the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental
Disorders in an HIV
-
infected coho
rt: Experience of the National NeuroAIDS Tissue
Consortium.

Source



International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research.


15(3)(pp 131
-
138), 2006. Date of
Publication: 2006.

Abstract



The interrater reliability of the Psychiatric Research Interview
for Substance and Mental
Disorders (PRISM) was assessed in a multicentre study. Four sites of the National
NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium performed blinded reratings of audiotaped PRISM interviews
of 63 HIV
-
infected patients. Diagnostic modules for substance
-
use disorders and major
depression were evaluated. Seventy
-
six per cent of the patient sample displayed one or more
substance
-
use disorder diagnoses and 54% had major depression. Kappa coefficients for
lifetime histories of substance abuse or dependence (c
ocaine, opiates, alcohol, cannabis,
sedative, stimulant, hallucinogen) and major depression ranged from 0.66 to 1.00. Overall the
PRISM was reliable in assessing both past and current disorders except for current cannabis
disorders when patients had concom
itant cannabinoid prescriptions for medical therapy. The
reliability of substance
-
induced depression was poor to fair although there was a low
prevalence of this diagnosis in our group. We conclude that the PRISM yields reliable
diagnoses in a multicentre
study of substance
-
experienced, HIV
-
infected individuals.
Copyright copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

ISSN


1049
-
8931

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research

Volume


15

Issue Part


3

Pa
ge


131
-
138

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<443>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006611335

Authors


Cooper C.L. Mills E.J.

Institution



(Cooper) Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa Hospital, Division of Infe
ctious Diseases
-
The Ottawa
Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada.



(Cooper, Mills) Centre for International Health and Human Rights Studies, Toronto, ON, Canada.



(Mills) Faculty of Health Sciences Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Ham
ilton, ON,
Canada.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Therapeutic challenges in hepatitis C
-
infected injection drug using patients.

Source



Harm Reduction Journal.


3, 2006. Article Number: 31.


Date of Publication: 10 Nov 2006.

Abstract



Hepatitis C Viral (HCV) infection in the injection drug user (IDU) population is a major
medical concern. Concurrent substance abuse, co
-
morbid mental health conditions, poor
socioeconomic status and a complex treatment protocol that is often incompatible
with the life
styles of IDUs combine to account for poor uptake and completion of HCV treatment This
article discusses HCV antiviral treatment issues relevant to IDUs chronically infected with this
virus. The effect of non
-
injected substances of abuse on t
reatment outcome is considered.
Priority issues requiring research are discussed. copyright 2006 Cooper and Mills; licensee
BioMed Central Ltd.

ISSN


1477
-
7517

Publication Type


Journal: Review

Journal Name


Harm Reduction Journal

Volume


3

Year of Publica
tion


2006

Date of Publication


10 Nov 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<462>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006583401

Authors


Boggild A.K. Poutanen S.M. Mohan S. Ostrowski M.A.

Institution



(Boggild, Poutanen) Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology,
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON,
Canada.



(Poutanen, Mohan) Department of Microbiology, Toronto Medical Laboratories, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON,
Canada.



(Poutanen, Ostrowski) Dept. of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.



(O
strowski) Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto,ON, Canada.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis due to Ochroconis gallopavum in the setting of
advanced HIV infection.

Source



Medical
Mycology.


44(8)(pp 777
-
782), 2006. Date of Publication: Dec 2006.

Abstract



Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by members
of the dematiaceous fungi, and occurs almost universally in the setting of
immunocompromi
se. We herein report a case of systemic phaeohyphomycosis caused by
Ochroconis gallopavum in a patient with advanced HIV disease. A possible risk factor for this
infection in our patient was heavy marijuana use. This case highlights both the diagnostic and

management challenges posed by these infections. To our knowledge, this is the first
reported case of disseminated phaeohyphomycosis due to Ochroconis gallopavum in a
patient with HIV.

ISSN


1369
-
3786

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


Medic
al Mycology

Volume


44

Issue Part


8

Page


777
-
782

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


Dec 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<486>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006531813

Authors

Cowan M.L. Maxwell J.D.

Institution



(Cowan) Institute of Liver Studies, K
ing's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.



(Maxwell) Section of Gastroenterology, St. George's, University of London, London, United Kingdom.



(Maxwell) St. George's, University of London, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in intravenous drug users.

Source



Acta Neuropsychiatrica.


18(5)(pp 183
-
192), 2006. Date of Publication: Oct 2006.

Abstract



Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among i
ntravenous drug users,
and because of the long latent period, HCV liver disease is set to increase. Objectives: We
sought to examine practice guidelines regarding treatment of HCV in drug users and to review
the evidence for current practices. Methods: A s
tructured search of the Pubmed database,
websites of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence and national and international expert
groups and opinion of independent experts in the field. Results and Conclusions: All those
infected with HCV need to b
e assessed to ascertain whether they have active ongoing viral
replication and the extent of liver damage. HCV
-
infected individuals should be educated about
the modes of transmission and means of reducing the risk of infecting others. They should
also be a
dvised to avoid cofactors (especially alcohol) that accelerate the progression of liver
disease. Specific treatment with antivirals can cause viral clearance and prevent the
progression of liver disease. Therapy is effective in those on opiate
-
replacement
treatments
and also in motivated individuals who continue to use intravenous drugs. The decision
whether to treat drug users should be made jointly by specialists in the management of viral
hepatitis and addiction on a case
-
by
-
case basis. Current combinati
on drug regimens are
expensive but are claimed to be cost
-
effective, and are certainly much less costly than
managing end
-
stage liver disease. In addition to satisfactory sustained viral response rates,
other benefits such as a beneficial effect on drug ha
bit, self
-
esteem and rehabilitation have
been reported. Encouraging suitable drug users to take
-
up and comply with treatment seems
to be more easily achieved in supportive drug dependency unit settings (rather than the more
formal surroundings of a hospita
l clinic). copyright 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

ISSN


0924
-
2708

Publication Type


Journal: Review

Journal Name


Acta Neuropsychiatrica

Volume


18

Issue Part


5

Page


183
-
192

Year of Publication 2006

Date of Publication


Oct 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<515>

Databas
e


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006492093

Authors


La Torre G. Miele L. Mannocci A. Chiaradia G. Berloco F. Gabrieli M.L. Gasbarrini G. Ficarra M.G. Matera
A. Ricciardi G. Grieco A.

Institution



(La Torre, Mannocci, Chiaradia, Ficarra, Ricciardi) Institute o
f Hygiene, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart,
School of Medicine Agostino Gemelli, Rome, Italy.



(Miele, Gabrieli, Gasbarrini, Matera, Grieco) Institute of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Catholic University of the
Sacred Heart, School of Medicine

Agostino Gemelli, Rome, Italy.



(Berloco) Health Direction Policlinico Agostino Gemelli, Rome, Italy.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients.

Source



BMC Public

Health.


6, 2006. Article Number: 237.


Date of Publication: 25 Sep 2006.

Abstract



Background: Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim
of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among fam
ilial contacts of
HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods: A cross
-
sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV
positive patients (index cases), recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other
hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40%

female, mean age 57 +/
-

15.2 years),
and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with
non
-
parametric tests (chi<sup>2</sup>, Yates correction, Fisher exact test), and a p value <
0.05 was considered significa
nt. A multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic
regression in order to verify which variables statistically have an influence on HCV positivity in
contact individuals. Results: Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From
the uni
variate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts
were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004) and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005).
The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV serop
ositivity in
patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01
-

184.94), the
retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17
-

11.98), the time of the relationship
(OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00
-

1.11) and tattoos (OR = 7.68;

95% CI: 1.00
-

60.20). Conclusion:
The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant
risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work
could be related to both a lo
ng
-
term relationship with an index case and past exposure to
common risk factors. copyright 2006 La Torre et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

ISSN


1471
-
2458

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


BMC Public Health

Volume


6

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


25 Sep 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<524>

Database



EMBASE

Accession Number



2006485436

Authors



Zhang T. Li Y. Ho W.
-
Z.

Institution



(Zhang, Li, Ho) Joseph Stokes, Jr. Research Institute at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Depa
rtment of
Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.



(Ho) Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of
Medicine, 34th St. and Civic Center B
oulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Drug abuse, innate immunity and hepatitis C virus.

Source



Reviews in Medical Virology.


16(5)(pp 311
-
327), 2006. Date of Publication: Sep 2006.

Abstract



Since its discovery in 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major public health
problem. HCV chronically infects an estimated 170 million people worldwide. The
seroprevalence of anti
-
HCV antibody in the United States has been estimated at 1.8%, which

corresponds to approximately 4 million people. HCV is the most common chronic blood borne
infection in the United States, and the leading cause of liver transplantation in developed
countries. Injection drug use is the dominant mode of HCV transmission an
d accounts for up
to 90% of current infections. Opiates and other drug abuse, such as alcohol, have been
implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of HCV disease. Injection drug use has been the
most common risk factor identified in alcoholics with HCV i
nfection. Both opiates and alcohol
contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality from HCV disease. These drugs most likely
act synergistically to promote the development and progression of HCV disease. However,
there is limited information available
concerning the interaction of the drug abuse with the
host cell innate immunity against HCV infection, which is a major barrier to fundamental
understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HCV disease. Therefore, defining the role of the
drug abuse in the dev
elopment of chronic HCV infection is of crucial importance and should
provide practical guidance toward the reduction of risk factors that interfere with therapeutic
approaches for HCV infection and disease. This review paper focuses on the interplay
betwe
en drug abuse (opiates and alcohol), innate immunity and HCV in the context of the
development of HCV disease. Copyright copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

ISSN


1052
-
9276

Publication Type


Journal: Review

Journal Name


Reviews in Medical Virology

Volu
me


16

Issue Part


5

Page


311
-
327

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


Sep 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<699>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006271446

Authors


Costenbader E.C. Astone N.M. Latkin C.A.

Institution



(Costenbader) Substance Abuse Treat
ment Evaluations and Interventions Program, Research Triangle Institute,
International, NC, United States.



(Astone) Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,
Baltimore, MD, United States.



(Lat
kin) Department of Health Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore,
MD, United States.



(Costenbader) Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Program, Research Triangle Institute,
International, 3040

Cornwallis Road, Res. Triangle Park, NC 27709
-
2194, United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



The dynamics of injection drug users' personal networks and HIV risk behaviors.

Source



Addiction.


101(7)(pp 1003
-
1013), 2006. Date of P
ublication: Jul 2006.

Abstract



Aims: While studies of the social networks of injection drug users (IDUs) have provided
insight into how the structures of interpersonal relationships among IDUs affect HIV risk
behaviors, the majority of these studies have

been cross
-
sectional. The present study
examined the dynamics of IDUs' social networks and HIV risk behaviors over time. Design:
Using data from a longitudinal HIV
-
intervention study conducted in Baltimore, MD, this study
assessed changes in the compositi
on of the personal networks of 409 IDUs. We used a multi
-
nomial logistic regression analysis to assess the association between changes in network
composition and simultaneous changes in levels of injection HIV risk behaviors. Using the
regression parameter
s generated by the multi
-
nomial model, we estimated the predicted
probability of being in each of four HIV risk behavior change groups. Findings: Compared to
the base case, individuals who reported an entirely new set of drug
-
using network contacts at
foll
ow
-
up were more than three times as likely to be in the increasing risk group. In contrast,
reporting all new non
-
drug
-
using contacts at follow
-
up increased the likelihood of being in the
stable low
-
risk group by almost 50% and decreased the probability of

being in the consistently
high
-
risk group by more than 70%. Conclusions: The findings from this study show that, over
and above IDUs' baseline characteristics, changes in their personal networks are associated
with changes in individuals' risky injection
behaviors. They also suggest that interventions
aimed at reducing HIV risk among IDUs might benefit from increasing IDUs' social contacts
with individuals who are not drug users. copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Addiction.

ISSN


0965
-
2140

Publicatio
n Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


Addiction

Volume


101

Issue Part


7

Page


1003
-
1013

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


Jul 2006

OPIOIDS / VIROLOGY 2006

<766>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006188238

Authors


Abdala N. Grund J.
-
P.C.
Tolstov Y. Kozlov A.P. Heimer R.

Institution



(Abdala, Heimer) Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven,
CT, United States.



(Grund) Center for Addiction Research (CVO), Utrecht, Netherlands.



(Grund)
DV8 Research and Development, Rotterdam, Netherlands.



(Tolstov, Kozlov) Biomedical Center, St Petersburg, Russian Federation.



(Heimer) Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, School of Medicine, PO Box 208034, New
Haven, CT 06520
-
8034, United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Can home
-
made injectable opiates contribute to the HIV epidemic among injection
drug users in the countries of the former Soviet Union?

Source



Addiction.


101(5)(pp 731
-
737), 2006. D
ate of Publication: May 2006.

Abstract



Aims: Home
-
made preparation of heroin is common in countries of the former Soviet Union
(FSU), and the addition of blood during its preparation and the use of contaminated syringes
to distribute it may play a role i
n the rapid spread of HIV
-
1 among injecting drug users (IDUs).
This study was designed to determine the viability of HIV
-
1 during these procedures. Setting:
Field observations of home
-
made opiate manufacture in four FSU countries were used to
develop a con
sensus protocol to replicate manufacture in the laboratory that included the
addition of human blood contaminated with HIV
-
1. Design and measurement: Following the
addition of HIV
-
1
-
contaminated blood during manufacture or storage, we attempted to recover
viable HIV
-
1. The recovery was measured by propagation of the virus in stimulated white
blood cells from uninfected donors. Findings: In experiments in which HIV
-
1 contaminated
blood was added during manufacture, no viable HIV
-
1 was recovered. In experimen
ts in
which chornaya was introduced into HIV
-
contaminated syringes, the percentage of syringes
containing viable HIV
-
1 was reduced. The reduction appeared to be related to the interaction
of HIV
-
1 contaminated blood with a component of the poppies. While H
IV
-
contaminated
syringes used to dispense or inject home
-
made opiates might transmit HIV, the ability of
chornaya to reduce HIV viability seems to make this route of transmission less efficient.
Conclusions: The epidemic of HIV
-
1 among IDUs in the FSU resu
lted more probably from
recognized injection risk behaviors
-

including sharing syringes and drug solutions
-

than from
opiate solutions harboring viable HIV
-
1. copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Addiction.

ISSN

0965
-
2140

Publication Type


Journal: Ar
ticle

Journal Name


Addiction

Volume


101

Issue Part


5

Page


731
-
737

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


May 2006


VIROLOGY / AMPHETAMINES 2006

<767>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006188237

Authors


Vogt T.M. Perz J.F. Van Houten Jr. C.K.

Harrington R. Hansuld T. Bialek S.R. Johnston R. Bratlie R.
Williams I.T.

Institution



(Vogt, Perz, Bialek, Bratlie, Williams) Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Atlanta, GA, United States.



(Van Houten Jr., Johnsto
n) Preventive Health and Safety Division, Wyoming Department of Health, Cheyenne, WY,
United States.



(Harrington, Hansuld) Casper
-
Natrona County Health Department, Casper, WY, United States.



(Vogt) Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Contr
ol and Prevention, MS G37, 1600 Clifton Road, NE,
Atlanta, GA 30333, United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



An outbreak of hepatitis B virus infection among methamphetamine injectors: The
role of sharing injection drug equipment.

Source



Addiction.


101(5)(pp 726
-
730), 2006. Date of Publication: May 2006.

Abstract



Aim: To identify risk factors for acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Wyoming
methamphetamine injectors. Design: A case
-
control study conducted in the settin
g of an
outbreak. Setting: A county in central Wyoming, United States. Participants: Cases were
identified through surveillance and contact tracing and were defined as Natrona County,
Wyoming, residents who were either symptomatic or confirmed serologicall
y to be acutely
infected with HBV during January
-
August, 2003. Controls were susceptible to HBV infection.
All participants identified themselves as methamphetamine injectors. Measurements:
Participants were administered a survey that inquired about risk f
actors for HBV infection,
including drug use practices and sexual behaviors. Controls were also tested serologically for
acute HBV infection. Findings: Among the 18 case
-
patients and 49 controls who participated
in the study, sharing water used to prepare
injections and/or rinse syringes was associated
with HBV infection (94% of case
-
participants versus 44% of controls; OR = 21.9, 95% CI: 2.7,
177.8), as was sharing cotton filters (89% of case
-
participants versus 52% of controls; OR =
7.4, 95% CI: 1.5, 35.6
); sharing syringes was not statistically associated. In logistic regression
models adjusted for age, sex, and interview site, sharing rinse water and sharing cotton
remained statistically associated. Conclusions: Methamphetamine use has become
increasingl
y prevalent in the United States. Our findings highlight the need for awareness of
risks associated with injection drug use and sharing behaviors. Enhanced hepatitis B
vaccination programs and educational campaigns that target methamphetamine injectors
spe
cifically, including those living in rural areas, should be developed and implemented.
copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Addiction.

ISSN


0965
-
2140

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


Addiction

Volume


101

Issue Part


5

Page


726
-
730

Yea
r of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


May 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<807>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006161683

Authors


Kim T.W. Kertesz S.G. Horton N.J. Tibbetts N. Samet J.H.

Institution



(Kim, Samet) Clinical Addiction Research and Education (C
ARE) Unit, Department of Medicine, Boston University
School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.



(Kertesz) Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of
Medicine, Birmingham, AL, United States.



(Kertesz) Deep South Center on Effectiveness, Birmingham, AL, United States.



(Kertesz) Birmingham Veterans' Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, United States.



(Horton) Department of Mathematics, Smith College, Northampton, MA, United States.



(T
ibbetts) DM
-
STAT Inc., Medford, MA, United States.



(Samet) Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston University, School of Public Health, Boston, MA,
United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Episodic homelessness and he
alth care utilization in a prospective cohort of HIV
-
infected persons with alcohol problems.

Source



BMC Health Services Research.


6, 2006. Article Number: 19.


Date of Publication: 27 Feb
2006.

Abstract



Background: Because individuals with HIV/AIDS of
ten have complex medical and social
needs, the impact of housing status on medical service utilization is difficult to isolate from the
impact of conditions that may worsen during periods of homelessness such as depression
and substance abuse. We examine w
hether episodes of homelessness are independently
associated with suboptimal medical utilization even when accounting for concurrent addiction
severity and depression. Methods: We used data from a 30
-
month cohort of patients with
HIV/AIDS and alcohol probl
ems. Housing status, utilization (ambulatory visits, emergency
department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations) and other features were assessed with
standardized research interviews at 6
-
month intervals. Multivariable longitudinal regression
models calculate
d incidence rate ratios (IRR) comparing utilization rates during 6
-
month
intervals (homeless versus housed). Additional models assessed whether addiction severity
and depressive symptoms could account for utilization differences. Results: Of the 349
subjec
ts, 139 (39%) reported homelessness at least once during the study period; among
these subjects, the median number of nights homeless per 6
-
month interview period was 30.
Homelessness was associated with higher ED utilization (IRR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.72
-
2.7
4)
and hospitalizations (IRR = 2.30; 1.70
-
3.12), despite no difference in ambulatory care
utilization (IRR = 1.09; 0.89
-
1.33). These associations were attenuated but remained
significant when adjusting for addiction severity and depressive symptoms. Conclu
sion: In
patients with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems, efforts to improve housing stability may help to
mitigate intensive medical utilization patterns. copyright 2006Kim et al; licensee BioMed
Central Ltd.

ISSN


1472
-
6963

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


BMC Health Services Research

Volume


6

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


27 Feb 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<863>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006114897

Authors


Rhodes T. Platt L. Maximova S. Koshkina E. Latishevskaya N. Hickman
M. Renton A. Bobrova N. McDonald
T. Parry J.V.

Institution



(Rhodes, Platt, Hickman, Renton, Bobrova) Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Unit for
International Public Health and Development, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.



(Maxi
mova) Faculty of Social Sciences, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russian Federation.



(Koshkina) National Scientific Centre of Addictions, Moscow, Russian Federation.



(Latishevskaya) Volgograd Medical Academy, Volgograd, Russian Federation.



(McDonal
d, Parry) Sexually Transmitted and Blood
-
Borne Virus Laboratory, Health Protection Agency, Colindale,
London, United Kingdom.



(Rhodes) Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Reynolds Building, Imperial College London, St
Dunstan's Road, Londo
n W6 8RP, United Kingdom.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis among injecting drug users in Russia: A
multi
-
city study.

Source



Addiction.


101(2)(pp 252
-
266), 2006. Date of Publication: Feb 2006.

Abstract



Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis in
injecting drug users (IDUs) in Russia. Methods: Unlinked anonymous cross
-
sectional survey
of 1473 IDUs recruited from non
-
treatment settings in Moscow, Volgog
rad and Barnaul
(Siberia), with oral fluid sample collection for HIV, HCV antibody (anti
-
HIV, anti
-
HCV) and
syphilis testing. Results: Prevalence of antibody to HIV was 14% in Moscow, 3% in Volgograd
and 9% in Barnaul. HCV prevalence was 67% in Moscow, 70%

in Volgograd and 54% in
Barnaul. Prevalence of positive syphilis serology was 8% in Moscow, 20% in Volgograd and
6% in Barnaul. Half of those HIV positive and a third of those HCV positive were unaware of
their positive status. Common risk factors associa
ted with HIV and HCV infection across the
cities included both direct and indirect sharing of injecting equipment and injection of home
-
produced drugs. Among environmental risk factors, we found increased odds of anti
-
HIV
associated with being in prison in

Moscow, and some association between official registration
as a drug user and anti
-
HIV and anti
-
HCV. No associations were found between sexual risk
behaviours and anti
-
HIV in any city. Conclusions: HIV prevalence among IDUs was markedly
higher than city r
outine surveillance data suggests and at potentially critical levels in terms of
HIV prevention in two cities. HCV prevalence was high in all cities. Syphilis prevalence
highlights the potential for sexual risk and sexual HIV transmission. Despite large
-
sc
ale
testing programmes, knowledge of positive status was poor. The scaling
-
up of harm reduction
for IDUs in Russia, including sexual risk reduction, is an urgent priority. copyright 2006
Society for the Study of Addiction.

ISSN


0965
-
2140

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


Addiction

Volume


101

Issue Part


2

Page


252
-
266

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


Feb 2006

VIROLOGY 2006

<930>

Database


EMBASE

Accession Number


2006072138

Authors


McCance
-
Katz E.F. Rainey P.M. Smith P. Mors
e G.D. Friedland G. Boyarsky B. Gourevitch M. Jatlow P.

Institution



(McCance
-
Katz) Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.



(Rainey) University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.



(Smith, Morse) University at Buffalo, Adu
lt ACTG Pharmacology Support Laboratory, Buffalo, NY, United States.



(Friedland, Jatlow) Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.



(Boyarsky) Silver Hill Hospital, New Canaan, CT, United States.



(Gourevitch) NYU School of Med
icine, New York, NY, United States.



(McCance
-
Katz) Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980109, Richmond, VA 23298, United States.



Country of Publication



United Kingdom

Title



Drug interactions between opioids and antiretroviral medications: I
nteraction between
methadone, LAAM, and delavirdine.

Source



American Journal on Addictions.


15(1)(pp 23
-
34), 2006. Date of Publication: 2006.

Abstract



Understanding the drug interactions between antiretrovirals and opioid therapies may
decrease toxici
ties and enhance adherence with improved HIV outcomes in opioid
-
dependent
individuals. The authors report the results of a clinical pharmacology study designed to
determine whether significant pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions occur
betwe
en the non
-
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, delavirdine (DLV), and either
methadone or leva
-
alpha acetyl methadol (LAAM) (n = 40). DLV significantly decreased
methadone clearance (p = .018) and increased the methadone elimination half
-
life (p <
.001)
with a resultant increase in AUC of 19% and C <sub>min</sub>of 29%. The combined effect
of DLV on the total concentration of LAAM and its active metabolites, norLAAM and
dinorLAAM, was to significantly increase AUC by 43% (p < .001), C<sub>max</sub>
by 30%
(p = .013), and C <sub>min</sub> by 59% (p = .004) while decreasing T<sub>max</sub> (p
= .05). Cognitive deficits over the seven
-
day study period as measured by the Mini
-
Mental
State Examination, opioid withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Objecti
ve Opioid
Withdrawal Scale, or complaints of adverse symptoms were not observed. Methadone and
LAAM did not affect DLV concentrations. The findings from this study show that DLV
treatment in methadone
-

or LAAM
-
maintained individuals results in altered opio
id
pharmacokinetics with an increased exposure and potential risk for opioid toxicity with
methadone or LAAM treatment and an increased risk of cardiac toxicity with concomitant
LAAM and DLV administration. Copyright copyright American Academy of Addiction

Psychiatry.

ISSN


1055
-
0496

Publication Type


Journal: Article

Journal Name


American Journal on Addictions

Volume


15

Issue Part


1

Page


23
-
34

Year of Publication


2006

Date of Publication


2006