STATUS URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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STATUS URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION IN VIETNAM







Written by:

Nguyen Minh Duc





Dinh Chinh Loi


Official from Ministry of Construction
-

VietNam


Hanoi, 5/2010

OVERVIEW OF URBAN AREAS IN VIETNAM


Total population is about
86
million;

Urban inhabitants are about

26
million;


Rate of urbanization is
30%
;

There are
63
provinces
/
cities;

Vietnam has
754
urban areas, including
:


+

2
special urban areas;



+ 9

urban areas of grade

I,


+ 12

urban areas of grade

II,


+
4
5

urban areas of grade

III,


+ 39

urban areas of grade

IV
; and


+
6
47

urban areas of grade

V.

ORIENTATION OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Year

1995

2000

2003

2006

2009

Estimated

2015

2025

Number of
uban areas

550

649

656

729

752

870

1000

Urban
population
(Million)

14.9

19.5

20.9

22.8

26

35

52

Urbanization
rate (%)

20.75

24.7

25.8

27.2

29.6

38

50

POSITION AND FUNCTION OF VIETNAM
MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION



The Ministry of Construction is an agency of the
Government performing the function of state
management of:

Construction;

Architecture, planning construction of urban
technical infrastructure, industrial parks, economic
zones, the high technology, developing urban
housing and offices;

Business property;

Building materials;

State management over public services in the
fields of State management of the Ministry in
accordance with the law.

ORGANIZATION CHART OF MOC

Minister

Vice Ministers

Bureau of
Ministry


Assessment
Board


Housing
Board

Construction
Dep.

International
Cooporation Dep


Statistic &
Plan Dep.

Construction
Material Dep.

Sience and
Technology Dep

Planning &
Achitect Dep.

Legislation
Dep

Personal
Organization Dep

Economy &
Finance Dep

Design Survey
Dep

Urban
Infrastructure Dep


Party and
Union

Construction
Inspection Dep

GENERAL STATUS Of URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL IN
VIETNAM


Urban water supply


More than

440
urban areas have central water
supply systems;


Total designed capacity is

5
.
9
million
m3/
day;


Total exploited capacity

is
4
.
5
million

m3/
day

(account for
77%
of total designed capacity);


The rate of urban water supply service coverage at

73%
;

The water consumption is

90
liters
/
person
/
day;


The rate of average national water loss is

30%.

At present, the rate of households installing water
meters is 96%, and this rate was only 60% in
1998.

Urban drainage


All urban areas of grade
IV
and higher grade have
constructed drainage systems
,
mainly are general
sluice systems
.

The rate of connection is about

60%.
The per capita
length of drainage line is
1
.
2
-

1
.
4 m/
person
.

Total capacity of built wastewater treatment stations
is at
300.000 m3/
day
.

At present,
6

of
66
urban centers of grade
III

and
higher grade

have wastewater treatment stations,
12
urban centers are deploying projects of drainage
systems and wastewater treatment, and

11
other
urban centers are inviting bids for executing works
or technical design of drainage and wastewater
treatment systems
.

Urban solid waste

Total solid waste amount of urban areas and industrial
parks is about
8
.
8
million tones
/
year
.
In which,
domestic solid waste is

6
.
9
million

tones
/
year

(
accounts for

79%),
industrial solid waste is

1
.
6
million

tones
/
year

(
accounts for

18%)
and health solid
waste is

0
.
3
million

tones
/
year

(
accounts for

3%).

Solid waste of all most of urban areas is not

sorted at
source
.
Sorting solid waste at source was only
deployed in some pilot projects in Hanoi (funded by
JICA), Da Nang City, Ho Chi Minh City,
R
a
ch Gi
a City
,
Cao L
a
nh

City and Long An Province
.

The national average rate of solid waste
collection is 85%. The rate of recovering
reused and recycled materials from solid waste
is about 20
-
30%.

The solid waste treatment technology is mainly
disposal method (landfill). The solid waste
disposed in sanitary landfills accounts for 60%.

Besides solid waste disposal technology, the
method of producing compost from solid waste
has been being invested in some big urban
centers. The amount of solid waste treated in
compost producing factories is about 6%.

Urban solid waste

SOME IMAGES OF WASTE IN VIETNAM






MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION OF WATER
SUPPLY AND SANITATION


GOVERNMENT

Ministry of Natural
Resources and
Environment

-
Vietnam Environment
administration

-
Department of Water
Resource Management

Ministry of
Construction

-
Department of
Infrastructure

Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development

-
General Irrigation and
Water Management Office

-
National Centre for Rural
Water Supply and
Environmental Sanitation

Ministry of
Health

-
Administration
of Preventive
medicine

Provincial
Department of
Natural Resources
and Environment

Provincial
Department of
Construction


Provincial Department
of Agriculture and rural
development

-
Provincial Centre for Rural
Water Supply and
Environmental Sanitation

Provincial
Department
of Health

-
Center for
preventive
medicine

Related ministries:

-
Ministry of Industry and Trade

-
Ministry of Transport

CHALLENGES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT IN VIETNAM

Management organization is not united.

Legal systems on Environment is not yet sychronous and
adequate (Law on Environment Protection, Water Resources
Managment, and Governmental Decrees).

Aministrative Assignment is still overlapped and unclear.

Technical infrastructure dose not meet the needs of socio
-
economic development, especially for pressures of
population growth and urbanisation.

Resouces of investement capital are limited, it is not
encourged and mobilised all financial resources and
participation in society.

Lack of qualified hunman resources.

Service fee is low, it is not enough for costs of works
invesment, operation and mangment.

Awareness of local authority and comunnities is inadequate.

THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATED
MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE UP TO2025, WITH A
VISION TO 2050


1. Objectives


a/ General objectives to 2025

Integrated management of solid waste in order to
improve environmental quality, to assure
community health;

The solid waste is sorted at source, collected,
reused, recycled and thoroughly treated; to
minimize amount of disposed solid waste;

To raise community awareness about integrated
management of solid waste.

THE STRATEGY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


b/ Specific targets to 2015

85% of urban domestic solid waste is collected and
treated, 60% of which will be recycled, reused,
recovered energy or used for organic fertilizer
production.

50% of construction solid waste in urban areas is
collected and treated, 30% of which will be
recovered for reuse or recycling.

30% of septic tank mud in urban centers of grade II
or higher grade and and 10% of the mud in
remaining urban centers are collected and treated.

To reduce by 40% the quantity of plastic bags used
in supermarkets and trade centers from that of 2010.

50% of urban centers have solid waste recycling
works which sort waste at households.

80% of non
-
hazardous industrial solid waste is
collected and treated, 70% of which will be
recovered for reuse and recycling.

60% of hazardous solid waste from industrial
parks is treated.

85% of non
-
hazardous and 70% of hazardous
medical solid waste are collected and treated.

40% of solid waste in rural residential areas and
50% of solid waste in craft villages are collected
and treated.

THE STRATEGY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


2. Tasks

To prevent and reduce arising solid waste;

To promote the sorting of solid waste at source;

To increase solid waste collection and
transportation;

To increase the reuse and recycling of solid waste;

To complete mechanisms and policies on solid
waste treatment; To apply advanced technologies
for solid waste treatment;

To recover the environment of solid waste
treatment areas.

THE STRATEGY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


3
. Solutions

To complete legal documents, mechanisms and
policies on solid waste management;

To plan solid waste management;

To establish a national database and the database
monitoring system of solid waste;

To develop resources for the Strategy implementation:
finance, human resources, etc.;

To promote scientific research to carry out effectively
the integrated management of solid waste;

To raise awareness through propaganda and
education;

To deploy International cooperation on technology,
building capacity and finance.

THE STRATEGY OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


PRIORITY ISSUES


To promote elaborating and adjusting master
plans on inter
-
provincial and inter
-
regional solid
waste management.

To elaborate and implement the investment
program of solid waste treatment factories
which applied domestic research technology.

To choose some provinces for implementing
pilot projects, to get experiences from the
projects and deploying widely the results.

To implement sorting solid waste at source.

To encourage investment methods, such as:
BOT, BT, BOO, etc.

Thank you for your attention!




Ministry of Construction


VietNam

No. 37 Le Dai Hanh, Hanoi, Vietnam