Human Resource Management 5/e - McGraw-Hill Higher Education

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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1

Gaining a Competitive
Advantage


Discuss the roles and activities of a company’s human
resource management function


Discuss the implications of the economy, the makeup of
the labor force, and ethics for company sustainability


Discuss how human resource management affects a
company’s balanced scorecard


Discuss what companies should do to compete in the
global marketplace


Chapter

1

2


Identify the characteristics of the workforce and how
they influence human resource management


Discuss human resource management practices that
support high
-
performance work systems


Provide a brief description of human resource
management practices



Gaining a Competitive
Advantage

.

3

Chapter

1

Introduction


Competitiveness

refers to a company’s ability to maintain
and gain market share in its industry


It is related to company effectiveness


Human resource management

refers to the policies,
practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior,
attitudes, and performance


Many companies refer to HRM as involving “people
practices"

4

.

Responsibilities of HR Departments


Employment and recruiting


Training and development


Compensation


Benefits


Employee Services


Employee and community relations


Personnel records


Health and safety


Strategic planning

5

What Roles Do

HR Departments Perform?

6

Administrative

Expert

Change Agent

Strategic Partner

Employee

Advocate

Human

Resources

How is the HRM Function
Changing?


The amount of time that the HRM function devotes to
administrative tasks is decreasing and its roles as a strategic
business partner, change agent, and employee advocate are
increasing


In shifting the focus from current operations to strategies
for the future

and preparing non
-
HR managers to develop
and implement HR practices, HR managers face two
important challenges:


Self
-
service

refers to giving employees online access to
information about HR issues


Outsourcing

refers to the practice of having another company
provide services

7

The HRM Profession


HR salaries vary depending on education and experience as
well as the type of industry


HR specialists


HR generalists


College degrees are held by the vast majority of HRM
professionals


Professional certification is less common than membership in
professional associations


The primary professional organization for HRM is the
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)

8

Competitive Challenges

Influencing HRM


Three competitive
challenges that
companies now face will
increase the importance
of HRM practices:

9

The Global

Challenge

The Challenge of

Sustainability

The Technology

Challenge

The Sustainability Challenge


Sustainability

refers to the ability of a company to survive and succeed
in a dynamic competitive environment


Stakeholders

refers to shareholders, the community, customers,
and all other parties that have an interest in seeing that the
company succeeds


Sustainability includes the ability to:


deal with economic and social changes,


engage in responsible and ethical business practices,


provide high quality products and services, and


put in place methods to determine if the company is meeting
stakeholders’ needs

10

The Sustainability Challenge


The changing structure of the economy


Impact of September 11, 2001


The competition for labor


Skill demands for jobs are changing


Knowledge is becoming more valuable


Intellectual capital

refers to the creativity, productivity, and service
provided by employees


Knowledge workers

are employees who contribute to the company
not through manual labor but through a specialized body of
knowledge


Empowerment

means giving employees responsibility and
authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product
development or customer service

11

The Sustainability Challenge


A
learning organization

embraces a culture of lifelong
learning, enabling all employees to continually acquire and
share knowledge


The
psychological contract

describes what an employee
expects to contribute and what the company will provide to
the employee for these contributions


Alternative work arrangements

include independent
contractors, on
-
call workers, temporary workers, and
contract company workers

12

The Balanced Scorecard


The
balanced scorecard
gives managers the opportunity to
look at the company from the perspective of internal and
external customers, employees and shareholders.



The balanced scorecard should be used to:


Link human resource management activities to the company’s
business strategy.


Evaluate the extent to which the human resource function is
helping the company’s meet it’s strategic objectives.


Measures

of

human

resource

practices

primarily

relate

to

productivity,

people,

and

processes
.

13

The Balanced Scorecard

Customer



Internal





Innovation

and Learning



Financial

How do customers see us?



What must we excel at?





Can we continue to improve

and create value?



How do we look to

shareholders?


Time, quality, performance,

service, cost.


Processes that influence customer

satisfaction, availability of

information on service and/or

manufacturing processes.


Improve operating efficiency,

launch new products, continuous

improvement, empowering of

workforce, employee satisfaction.


Profitability, growth, shareholder

value.


14

Customer Service and

Quality Emphasis


Total Quality Management

(TQM) is a company
-
wide
effort to continuously improve the ways peoples, machines,
and systems accomplish work


Core values of TQM include:


designing methods and processes to meet the needs of internal
and external customers


all employees receive training in quality


promotion of cooperation with vendors, suppliers, and
customers


management gives feedback on progress

15

Customer Service and

Quality Emphasis


Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award


established in 1987 to promote quality
awareness, to recognize quality
achievements, and to publicize successful
quality strategies.


ISO 9000:2000


quality standards adopted worldwide.


Six Sigma process


system of measuring, analyzing, improving,
and controlling processes once they meet
quality standards.

16

Changing Demographics

Diversity of the Workforce


Internal labor force

is the labor force of current
employees.


External labor market

includes persons actively seeking
employment.


The U.S. workforce is becoming increasingly diverse.


Women


Minorities


Disabled workers


Immigrants



17

Managing a Diverse Workforce


To successfully manage a diverse workforce, managers
must develop a new set of skills, including:


Communicating effectively with employees from a wide
variety of cultural backgrounds.


Coaching and developing employees of different ages,
educational backgrounds, ethnicity, physical ability, and race.


Providing performance feedback that is based on objective
outcomes.


Creating a work environment that makes it comfortable for
employees of all backgrounds to be creative and innovative.

18

Legal and Ethical Issues


Five main areas of the legal environment have influenced
HRM over the past 25 years


Equal employment opportunity legislation


Employee safety and health


Employee pay and benefits


Employee privacy


Job security


Women and minorities still face the “glass ceiling”


The
Sarbanes
-
Oxley Act of 2002

sets strict rules for
corporate behavior and sets heavy fines for noncompliance,
especially in regards to accounting practices

19

Legal and Ethical Issues


Human resource managers must satisfy
three basic standards for their practices
to be considered ethical:


HRM practices must result in the
greatest good for the largest number of
people


Employment practices must respect
basic human rights of privacy, due
process, consent, and free speech


Managers must treat employees
equitably and fairly

20

The Global Challenge


Companies are finding that to survive they must compete in
international markets as well as fend off foreign
corporations’ attempts to gain ground in the U.S.


Every business must be prepared to deal with the global
economy. This is made easier by technology.


Offshoring
refers to the exporting of jobs from developed
countries to less developed countries.


Many companies are entering international markets by
exporting their products overseas, building manufacturing
facilities in other countries, entering into alliances with
foreign companies, and engaging in e
-
commerce

21

The Technology Challenge


Technology has reshaped the way we play,
plan our lives, and where we work


The overall impact of the Internet


The Internet has created a new business
model


e
-
commerce


in which business
transactions and relationships can be
conducted electronically

22

The Technology Challenge


Advances in technology have:


changed how and where we work,


resulted in high
-
performance models of work systems,


increased the use of teams to improve customer service and product quality,


changed skill requirements,


increased working partnerships,


led to changes in company structure and reporting relationships,


increased the availability of
Human Resource Information Systems

(HRIS), which are used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and
distribute HR information,


increased the availability of
e
-
HRM
, which is the processing and
transmission of digitalized information used in HRM,


increased the competitiveness of high performance work systems.

23

Meeting Competitive Challenges
Through HRM Practices


HRM practices that help companies deal
with the four competitive challenges can be
grouped into four dimensions


The human resource environment


Acquiring and preparing human resources


Assessment and development of human
resources


Compensating human resources

24

Meeting Competitive Challenges
Through HRM Practices


Managing internal and external environmental factors allows
employees to make the greatest possible contribution to company
productivity and competitiveness


Customer needs for new products or services influence the
number and type of employees businesses need to be successful


Besides interesting work, pay and benefits are the most important
incentives that companies can offer employees in exchange for
contributing to productivity, quality, and customer service


Human resource management practices of both managers and the
human resource function must be aligned and contribute to the
company’s strategic goals

25