Household Centred Environmental

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Roland Schertenleib

Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science
and Technology (Eawag) / W+S Consult

Urban Sanitation systems


building on the
Household Centred Environmental
Sanitation approach (HCES)



SEI/EcoSanRes 2 Workshop on:


“Planning and Implementation of Sustainable Sanitation in Peri/Semi
-
Urban Settings


A Need for Development of Existing Tools”

25
-

26 August 2008, Stockholm

Content

-
Development of the HCES planning approach

-
Main characteristics of HCES

-
Enabling environment for HCES

-
10 step planning process

-
Validation of the HCES approach

-
Successes and challenges




Basis for future approaches in ES

-
People and their quality of life should be at the centre
of any environmental sanitation system

-
Solutions of ES problems should take place as close
as possible to where they occur

-
Any ES system must be designed in such a way to
balance economic with environmental good

-
Wastes, whether solid or liquid, should be regarded
as a resource

-
ES systems should be ‘circular’ designed in such a
way as to minimize inputs and reduce outputs

-
Problems relating to ES should be handled within an
integrated framework, and this framework should
itself be part of a wider system of integrated water
resources, waste management and food production

HCES Approach is based on ……

1.
Human dignity
, quality of life and environmental security at
household level

should be at the centre of any sanitation
approach.

2.
In line with good governance principles, decision making should
involve
participation of all stakeholders
, especially the
consumers and providers of services.

3.
Waste should be considered

a resource
, and its
management should be holistic and form a part of integrated
water resources, nutrient flow and waste management
processes

4.
The
domain (zone)

in which environmental
sanitation
problems

are
resolved
should be kept to the
minimum
practicable size

(household, community, town, district,
catchment, and city).

The Bellagio Principles for sustainable sanitation:

What is environmental sanitation?

excreta management

wastewater management

solid waste management

control of disease vectors

washing facilities

stormwater drainage

facilities

behaviours

interventions to provide a hygienic environment


Interventions to reduce
people's exposure to disease
by providing a clean
environment in which to live,
with measures to break the
cycle of disease.



Involves both behaviors and
facilities which work together
to form a hygienic
environment.

Drainage

WATER SUPPLY AND


ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION




Healthy and productive life



Ecological integrity of aquatic systems



Protection of natural resources

Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Solid Waste
Management

Drinking Water
Supply

Excreta and Wastewater
Management

Hygiene

Household Centred Environmental
Sanitation (HCES) Approach


… places the
household and its neighbourhood at the core



of the planning process


… is a
multi
-
sector
approach: accounting for excreta



management (sanitation), storm water drainage, solid waste



management and water supply



is a

multi
-
actor

approach: emphasising the participation of



all stakeholders, beginning at the household/neighbourhood



or community level, in planning and implementing integrated



urban environmental sanitation services


Main characteristics of HCES


HCES is based

… on the concept of ‘zones’, and solving problems within the


‘zone’ nearest to where the problems arise




(V)

Nation

District / Province

(IV)

Town / City

(III)

Neighbourhood

(II)

Household

(I)

Main characteristics of HCES


HCES is based


… on the circular model, emphasising resource conservation


and reuse (rather than linear model)


Concept of zones with bottom
-
up and top
-
down component



From linear to „reuse oriented“

From centralized to decentralized

centralized …

...decentralized

Permits

stepwise development

and investment of sanitation

system

Potential of decentralized sanitation
systems

Responsiveness

to local demands

Permits

waste segregation

at source

Increases

local wastewater reuse

opportunities

Tailoring

to

local conditions

Minimizes

waste of freshwater

for transportation

Lower risks

system fails

Decentralized and tailored solutions

Structure of the HCES Guideline


-
How to create an ‘Enabling Environment’

-
10
-
STEP planning process

Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL

Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Enabling Environment


-
Elements necessary to support the application of the HCES
approach:


Government Support


Legal Framework


Institutional Arrangements


Required Skills


Financial Arrangements


Information and knowledge management

Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Government support

Political will and support at all levels


Objective: secure agreement that HCES should proceed
in the program area; doesn’t have to be an unconditional
endorsement of HCES by the government.


Favourable national policies and strategies


Ensure that the HCES approach does not contradict
existing policies and strategies


Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Legal Framework

Many existing standards are inappropriate, but cannot be
rejected by public sector officials (personal liability).



Examples:


Service delivery standards


National and municipal codes (e.g. health or building codes)


Technical standards (water supply and sewer standards)




Secure a moratorium on the application of existing


standards to the program area



Try to identify more appropriate standards



Upgrade existing standards


Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Institutional arrangements


Institutional arrangements are required that suit the
highly decentralised and zone
-
by
-
zone approach used in
HCES



Arrangements across zones:

support of local organisations
(providing the services) from organisations in larger zones with
greater capacities, such as:


direct provision of services


technical assistance, capacity building, information dissemination



Arrangements between institutions at municipal level:

close
collaboration between various organisations involved in
environmental sanitation services



Arrangements legitimising and supporting the participation of
small
-
scale private sector entrepreneurs


Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Required skills


Effective training and communications
,
ensuring that all
participants understand and accept the HCES concept, including its
pre
-
conditions and implications, e.g.:


Householders

must understand implications of different options to
them, e.g. convenience, costs, O&M requirements, etc.


Professionals

must be familiar with existing legal framework,
regulations, codes, range of technical options etc.


Municipal officials

must be reoriented towards a better
understanding of the social, institutional, financial and other factors
that have to be addressed (paradigm shift)


Private service providers

must be trained in business
management, bidding, analysis of market demand etc.




resource centres, short courses, curricula development, etc.




Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Credit and other financial arrangements

Credit and other financial arrangements that facilitate household
participation and community involvement



Strong advocacy is required to convince different levels of
government (from national to local) that:


a.
HCES programmes require (initially) an increase in investment in the
WATSAN sector, which have to be covered by increased budget
allocation.

b.
Allowance needs to be made for funding the full range of costs:
administrative and hardware costs; software costs (e.g. training,
social marketing programmes, O&M needs).

c.
Local private initiatives must be supported through setting up of
micro
-
credit schemes (rather than grants and subsidies).

Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

Information and knowledge management

-
Guidelines

are required, providing information on a
comprehensive range of technical and software options
,

addressing questions such as:


benefits and limitations of different technical options


user friendliness


impact on environment, potential for resource recovery


traffic and land use implications


potential for income generation


impact on service for the poor


...


-
Basis for locally developed guideline: “Compendium of Sanitation
Systems and Technologie”, ‘state of the art’ texts, national and
regional resource centres, academic institutions, experienced sector
professionals etc.


Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

1.
Request for assistance

2.
Launch of the planning and consultative process

3.
Assessment of the current status

4.
Assessment of user priorities

5.
Identification of options

6.
Evaluation of feasible service combinations

7.
Consolidated UESS plans for study area

8.
Finalising of consolidated UESS plans

9.
Monitoring, evaluation and feedback

10.
Implementation

The 10 STEP Process

Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

1.
Request for assistance

2.
Launch of the planning and consultative process

3.
Assessment of the current status

4.
Assessment of user priorities

5.
Identification of options

6.
Evaluation of feasible service combinations

7.
Consolidated UESS plans for study area

8.
Finalising of consolidated UESS plans

9.
Monitoring, evaluation and feedback

10.
Implementation

The 10 STEP (iterative) Process

Need for a change

Bellagio Principles

HCES approach

HCES planning GL


Enabling Environment

10 STEP process

What next?

VALIDATION SITES:

Successes

-
Forum to meet local and other authorities

-
Formulation of community priorities
especially in environmental management

-
Discussion of valid options & prioritization

-
Real ownership of interventions

-
Willingness to invest and to address
priorities step by step

-
Sanitation as an entry point to community
development !

Challenges

-
Sometimes priorities not high on local
authorities’ agenda

-
Setting high expectations amongst
communities

-
The communities tired of planning
processes and searching for solutions

-
Issues of land tenure and investment



...thank you for your attention!


Thank you for your attention!

www.sandec.ch

One
-
for
-
all solution in cities with highly
heterogeneous physical and socio
-
economic
conditions ??

Main challenges in planning for sustainable
environmental sanitation systems

High growth rates


Insecure tenure

Low funding priority

Extreme socio
-
economic
heterogenity

High settlement
densities


Unplanned and
informal settlements


The conventional planning approach

-
In the conventional planning approach, utility planners &
engineers develop demand projections based on
demographic and economic indicators (e.g. Maser Plans)


-
Infrastructure planning and service delivery continue to be
supply
-
driven
with a high degree of centralised control,
little local accountability and low end
-
user involvement


-
The supply
-
driven model is a top
-
down approach, built
around bureaucratic mechanisms and implemented by
govt bureaucrats and engineers.

Failures of the

conventional planning model



Inflexibility in form and content


Procedures to amend plans are bureaucratic


Restrictive nature of master plans


Regulations and legislation favour planning
of centralized sewerage systems


carry with
them technology lock in…

Common elements…