FOREST MANAGEMENT STATUS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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FOREST MANAGEMENT
STATUS AND CHALLENGES IN
KENYA


D. K. Mbugua

Ag. Chief Conservator of Forests

Forests Department

2

Location map of forests in Kenya

3

Mandate of Forest Department


To contribute to the growth of the natural
resource sector by enhancing development,
conservation and management of all forest
resource base in the country.


This entails ensuring an increasing supply of forest
products and services to meet the basic and
industrial needs of the present and future
generations

4

Vision Statement



Sustainably conserved and managed forest
resources for the common good of Kenyans

5

Mission Statement



To develop, manage, conserve and protect
forests, trees and forestry resources sustainably
for socio
-
economic development

6

The Forest Master Plan Process

This was a forest sector analysis and road map for
development which involved the following,


Technical inputs


Policy analysis


Legislative analysis


Critical linkages


Resource analysis


Institutional analysis


Socio and economic analysis


Strategy formulation


Market analysis


Processing and technology requirement analysis

7

The Forest Master Plan Process
Cont …


Stakeholder analysis


Identification of key players and interest groups


Participatory stakeholder workshops


Strategy formulation for the sector outlook


Status quo (business as usual or do nothing scenario)


Master Plan scenario


requiring policy, legislative,
programme and institutional reforms


Piloting on district forest master planning


8

Forest Policy and Legislative
Development Considerations


Land use changes and mitigation measures


Supply and demand for forest products


Demand for environmental services
especially water


Need for transparency and accountability


Efficient Institution for effective service
delivery


9

Forest Policy Development
Considerations Cont ….


International conventions and treaties


Natural resources governance


Wide Stakeholders involvement


Efficient technologies for processing forest
products

The overriding consideration was to bring
about sustainable forest management


10

The Kenya Forestry Master plan
process

This process identified four (4) core programmes
and three (3) service programmes as follows,

Core programmes


Natural forests conservation


Farm forestry


Industrial plantations development


Dryland forestry development


11

The Kenya Forestry Master Plan
Process Cont …

Service Programmes


Forest legislation, Policy coordination and
planning


Forest protection


Forest management services

12

Natural Forests Management and
Conservation Programme


1.24 million ha
-

coastal forests, dry forests, montane
forests, western rain forest


Economic and environmental importance


Soil, water and biodiversity conservation


Climatic amelioration


Cultural values


Tourism

13

Natural Forests Cont….


Wildlife habitats


Timber values


Herbal medicine


Carbon sinks


Non
-
wood forest products

14

Natural Forests Conservation
Programme Cont …


Issues and challenges


Resource assessment for management planning


Loss of forest cover and degradation due to
population pressure


Incentive for promoting sustainable forest
management


Stakeholders involvement


Forest valuation and national accounting


Identification and application of viable forest based
micro
-
enterprises to drive conservation efforts


Payment of environmental services


15

Farm Forestry Programme


Started in 1971 as RAES


By 1997, 40% of woody biomass on farms


Biomass steadily increasing in the farm lands at
the rate of 0.5 m
3

/ ha


Growing stock estimated at 9.3 m
3

/ ha


Stocking potential estimated at 27 m
3

/ ha


Expected to produce 17.8 million m
3

of wood i.e.
80% total wood production by 2020

16

Farm Forestry Cont …

Projected annual wood production in farm
lands (‘000m
3
)


1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

Indigenous forests

1942

1905

1868

1830

1792

1755

Industrial
plantations

2121

2494

2112

2165

2281

2657

Farms and
Settlements

7437

9373

11396

13406

15666

17825

Total

11500

13772

15376

17401

19739

22237

Farm as % of total

65

68

74

77

79

80

17

Farm forestry cont…


Environmental and economic importance


Contributes 47% of wood consumed in Kenya


Per capita wood consumption is 1 m
3
(population is 30
million)


Contributes 14.1 million m
3

of wood valued at KSh
9.87 billion


Carbon sinks


Environmental benefits eg. Nutrient cycling


Considered to be the biggest source of wood
biomass in future

18

Farm Forestry cont….


Issues and Challenges


Incentives to stimulate private sector investment e.g.
affordable credit


High wastage in conversion and processing


Inadequate product marketing information


Inadequate superior germplasm and diversity for short
rotation tree crops (especially indigenous tree spp)


Forest certification and access to carbon trade
benefits


19

Dryland Forestry Programme.

Besides the gazetted forests, woodlands and
bushlands are estimated to cover 36.7 million
Ha.


Environmental and economic importance


Wood carvings estimated at


Ksh 1.5 billion
annually


Charcoal/Firewood estimated at


Ksh 12 billion


NWFP (honey, basketry, fodder, herbs etc.)


Ksh
3.2 billion

20

Drylands Forestry Cont …


Flood control especially along rivers (riverine forests)


Carbon sinks


Biodiversity reservoirs


Major source of honey


Important for supporting beef industry


21

Drylands Forestry Cont…


Issues and challenges


Poor infrastructure that inhibits local investments


Vast underutilized resources with scanty information


Conflict zone


livestock/wildlife/agriculture


Potential for high value non
-
wood forest products
(NWFP)


Unsustainable forest resource exploitation associated
with high levels of poverty and low input agriculture.
A case for
Osylis lanceoratus
(saddle wood)


22

Dryland forestry potential

1.
A. senegal

for gum arabic

23

Dryland forestry potential Conti …

2.
Melicia excelsa for timber

VOI, TAITA

24

Dryland potential Conti …

3.
Aloe vera & basketry

25

Dryland Potential Conti …

4) 2 yrs Melia Volkensii, for timber, Kitui

26

Industrial Forest Plantations
Development programme


Area 120,000 ha (100,000 ha stocked)


Environmental and economic importance


Well managed forest plantations can yield in excess
of 600 m
3

/ ha (valued at KShs 700,000)


direct contribution to conservation of indigenous
forest


support to employment and industrial growth


Carbon sinks


Soil and water conservation

27

Industrial Forest Plantation Cont…


Issues and challenges


Establishment methods
-

Non
-
resident cultivation
(NRC) vis
-
à
-
vis mechanical methods


Increasing unit productivity


Product pricing


Commercialization (concessionaires)


Efficient processing technologies


Widening species range especially indigenous


Wildlife damage to plantations


Forest fires

28

Emerging Issues / lessons


Inadequate forest policy and legal framework
for the conservation and management of forests


CAP 385, Laws of Kenya does not recognise
role/rights of forest adjacent communities and those
living in forest reserves.


Existing law gives little recognition of the potential
of forestry practice beyond gazetted forests


Current Forest Policy focuses on govt. programmes
& fails to address resource mobilisation


Current policy does not address forest issues in a
cross sectoral manner

29

Emerging Issues / lessons Cont …


Institutional failures,


Institutional rigidity requiring institutional reforms


Low capacity to respond to emerging challenges


Climate change (UNFCCC)


CDM


bio
-
diesels,


CDM


Carbon trading (
transaction costs prohibitive
)

30

Emerging Issues / lessons Cont …


Deforestation


Overexploitation of forest resources



80% of domestic energy is wood based
(Charcoal/firewood)


Grazing pressure


wildlife and livestock


Forest land use changes (excisions, expansion of
cultivated lands)


Forest fires

31

Emerging Issues / lessons Cont …


widening gap between supply and demand for
forest goods and services


Inadequate information on the status of forest
resources (quality, quantity, growth & yield
trends) for planning


Need to maximise revenue from forest
plantations

32

Emerging Issues / lessons Cont …


Lack of appropriate incentives to engage private
sector in forestry development


Lack of policy framework to promote and
support production, processing and marketing
of charcoal


Need for forest resource valuation and
mainstreaming of forestry in national accounting
system

33

Way forward

1.
Paradigm shift


More private sector involvement in production of
forest goods and services


Wide stakeholder participation


Participatory forest management


Sustainable management for all types of forests

34

Way forward Cont …

2.
Provision of appropriate incentives (
Forest
based micro enterprises and re
-
allocation of user
rights
)


Bio
-
diesels (
Croton megalocarpus
, castor oil, jatropha,
jojoba)


Insect farming


Mushroom growing


Production and processing of non
-
wood forest
products


gums, resins, essential oils, medicinal
herbs

35

Way forward Cont …

3.
Forest certification as a soft policy to promote


Sustainable forest management


Application of forest principles


Use forest management standards


Access to niche markets

36

Way forward Cont …

4.
Payment for environmental services


Carbon trading


Water from well conserved forest areas


Eco
-
tourism


Fish farming



37

Way forward Cont …

5.
Capacity building among resource owners &
scientists


Forest policy analysis and strategy formulation


Forest certification


Forest/tree valuation


Proposal writing to reduce transaction costs in
project design matrix (PDM) for carbon trade
initiatives

38

Way forward Cont …

6.
Forest resources assessment and valuation


Participatory resource planning


Extent and distribution of forest cover types


Forest investment guidelines

7.
Institutional, policy and legislative reforms


Efficient service delivery & regulatory framework


Enabling environment


All inclusive approach to forest management


END OF PRESENTATION

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