Development of environmental product information - ECO-NET.EE

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Product Policies

and


Environmental Product Information

Åke Thidell

17 April 2009

How to promote ”Cleaner Products”


Society: policy intervention


Trade: encourage sale of greener product


Industry: develop and produce them


Individual Consumers and professional buyers: conscious
consumption, selective buying


Waste & recycling system: feedback

Public Policy

Policy principles

Policies

Policy

instruments


Tools

Administrative instruments

Economic instruments

Informative instruments

Environmental Policy Instruments & Tools

CORRECTS LACK

OF INFORMATION

CHANGES INCENTIVES

MANDATES SPECIFIC

BEHAVIOUR

Information
-
based

strategies

Incentive
-
based

strategies

Directive
-
based

regulation

Adapted from Long B.: An overview of tools for environmental management, (OECD, 1997)



Product policies


Bans: hazardous substances


Economic instruments: fees, tax, reduced VAT


Innovation driver: technology procurement: specifications
-

let the
best win


Permitting processes: demands also on products, chemicals
substitution


Extended Producer Responsibility: take back, organise collection


Agreements: ”you do that and we leave you in peace”


Information:

labels, campaigns, etc


Market driver: Green Public Procurement: buying cleaner products


And more.....

Extended Producer Responsibility

Liability

Financial

responsibility

Physical

responsibility

Owner
-

ship

Informative responsibility

Green Public Procurement


Aim: stimulate the market for environmentally benign products
through incresed demand from the public sector.

Green Public Procurement

On top of ”normal” product information, the purchaser needs to
know:


Environmental significance of different product groups


Environmental aspects


What specific requirements to put on products/producers


There are products at reasonable price that meet requirements


How to verify producers’ information

Why not just plugg them in?


Political balance between other interests


Context for legal systems


Legal tradition


Enforcement and follow
-
up


Fair design and implementation of policies


Insufficient information


Public acceptance


Environmental Product Information


Informed purchase decisions


Instructions: how to use/not to use, how to dispose, what to do in
case of accidents


Marketing


Influence consumtion and production habits


Increase awareness

Types of product information


Informational


Negative (warnings)


Positive


Voluntary


Compulsory


What environmental product
information systems are there in
Estonia?

In EU?

Different kinds of information

Labels

and logos

Statements

Declarations

Private/

Self
-

declarations

Certified/EPD

Energy
-

&

content

declarations

Symbols

Claims

Explanations

Eco
-

labels

Private quality

labels

ISO Type 1
-
3

Organic

labels

ISO
-

Three types of eco
-
labels



Type 1. Verified by independent body, awarded to products fulfilling
criteria corresponding to the best environmental performance within each
product group.


Type 2. Self
-
declared claims used by manufacturers to indicate the
environmental aspects of a product or service. The message may be
statements, symbols or graphics on product or packaging labels, product
literature, advertising or similar.


Type 3. A declaration certified by independent organisations, providing
quantitative

information from LCAs on the possible environmental impact
of a product, leaving it to the consumer to decide which product is best.

Many labels do not fit in the ISO system

Note!


Der
g
rüne Punkt

(The Green Dot) is
not an environmental
label.

The first Eco
-
label


Germany, Blue Angel


First product 1979, over 4000 products, ~90
product groups


Success factors: media and consumer
organisations


1/3 of the awards to foreign producers


Fluctuating awareness, and popularity



The EU eco
-
labelling scheme

The EU flower can be used
throughout the 27 Member States
of the European Union and also
Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.


1991, first product groups 1993


1993
-
95: label
was
only awarded to two
manufacturers (both in the UK)


2001:
20

product groups,
3

under development


2007: basically the same


In the Swedish Market

The Environmental Choice (Sweden)


First eco
-
label in Sweden, 1989


1400 products, 12 product groups


Founded by environmental NGO + 3 retailers


Paved the way for the S
W
AN


The S
W
AN (Swe, Nor, Fin, Den, Iceland)


National boards + Nordic coordinating body


First product in 1992, today

>

1500 products, 70 prod
.

groups


Among the most “successful” eco
-
labelling schemes

EU

TAIWAN

THAILAND

GERMANY

USA

CANADA

FRANCE

SWEDEN

NORDIC
COUNTRIES

JAPAN

INDIA

AUSTRIA

THE
NETHERLANDS

THE CZECH
REPUBLIC

CROATIA

BRASIL

CATALONIA

SINGAPORE

Worldwide eco
-
labelling schemes

Global Eco
-
labelling Network

www.gen.gr.jp



Eco
-
labels:


Guides consumers and buyers


Stimulates environmentally sound product development


Based on ecological criteria and continuously higher
demands


Life
-
cycle considerations multi
-
criteria (several aspects)


Information verified by a third party



Stimulates continuous improvement



Yes/No communication on market

Role of the Third Party

Eco
-
label competent body


Defines product groups


Defines environmental criteria


Issues licences & verification

Laws

Environmental

impact

Products

Product group

Product group

Factors for Success

Consumer awareness
and trust

Availability of
labelled products

Product
development

Willingness to
buy

Producer interest

?

Why successful in Nordic Countries


High consumer awareness and recognition of
key labels


Trustworthy both by consumers and producers


Media coverage and
campaigning/PR/information


Competing eco
-
label


Professional organisation


Retailer support

Examples from Lund

Examples from Lund

Other applications of eco
-
labels and
information generated by the scheme


Information wise; what’s so special with eco
-
labels?


How could that be utilised for other purposes?


What are the limitations of eco
-
labelling information?

Indirect use of eco
-
labels and information
generated by the scheme


Producers:


Design guide for product development


Guide to preferable materials


Structured environmental work/EMS like structures


Guide for certified EMS


Benchmarks and indicators


Purchasers and GPP manual developers


Environmental significance of different product groups


Environmental aspects


What specific requirements to put on products/producers


There are available products that meet requirements


Consumers/society


Awareness and knowledge on products and the environment




Environmental effects


Improved environmental performance of products outside the
eco
-
labelling led product groups

Environmental consumer
learning


General awareness on environmental consequences of products
and consumption, other than the one directly intended

Environmental development
in product design


Re
-
design/innovations inspired by the eco
-
labelling criteria in
product groups not covered by the eco
-
labelling scheme


Product modifications/re
-
design in order to meet the eco
-
labelling
criteria without ambition to apply for a license


Input to design guidelines

Environmental development
for the products groups in
question


Environmental pressure for entire product groups


Benchmark of environmental excellence (industry standard)


Product or quality standards

Development of
environmental product
information


Inspiration for and input to other kinds of product information


Information source for the development of purchasing guides

Development of
environmentally adjusted
organisational behaviour


Compass for the interpretation of environmental policies


Aide for the development of Environmental Management
Systems


Product specifications in procurement


Good image


Cost avoidance

TCO’92, TCO’95, TCO’99


Established in 1992


Covers environmental labelling of office
equipment (displays, keyboards and system
units, etc)


Reduced electric and magnetic field
emissions, energy efficiency, fire and
electrical safety


Demands on manufacture, recycling, and
ergonomics
.


The Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO)


ENERGY STAR is a voluntary partnership
between the U.S. Department of Energy,
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
product manufacturers, local utilities, and
retailers.


Promote products with low energy
consumption
.


Heating and cooling equipment, buildings,
home electronics, office equipment, etc.

Forest Stewardship Council


Established in 1993


Several members, for instance WWF, Greenpeace,
the National Wildlife Federation,.


3rd party certification insuring that products
meets the
standards

for environmentally and
socially responsible forestry
.

http://www.foreststewardship.com/standards_policies/current_issues/poli
cy.html

IFOAM



International Federation Of Organic Agriculture Movements

-

world
-
wide movement of organic agriculture (1972), 600
member organisations in 100 countries (
http://www.ifoam.org/
)


Member labels prove that products come from Organic
Agriculture.

Germany

UK

Sweden

EU Organic Label


EU directive


Stand alone or


Should be a parallel label
to other organic labels



World Wide Fund for Nature


Does not indicate the environmental
performance of a product


NOT AN
ECO
-
LABEL!


Only proves that the company using it
has donated money to WWF


WWF partnership

Self
-
declared claims (ISO Type 2)


Not verified by third party


Claims must be verifiable by company; this information must be available on
request to any person.


Frequent

use

of

pictures,

symbols,

etc
.

Thus,

gives

the

basic

rules

for

the

making

of

environmental

claims

with

symbols
.


Typically

for

specific

claims,

for

example,

recyclable,

degradable,

recovered

energy,

pre
-
consumer

material,

reusable,

refillable,

compostable

etc
.


Möbius loop: the only symbol likely to be standardised. Recyclable.


Specific requirements for selected claims


Compostable


Degradable


Designed for disassembly


Extended life product


Recovered energy


Recyclable


Recycled content


Pre
-
consumer material


Post
-
consumer material


Recycled material


Recovered (reclaimed)
material


Reduced energy
consumption


Reduced resource use


Reduced water
consumption


Reusable


Refillable


Waste reduction



EU energy label


compulsory
-

demonstrates
energy efficiency of products


Classifies products into 7 different energy classes,
A++ to G on estimated energy consumption


Energy efficiency is defined differently for different
products


Freezers and refrigerators: according to the
energy usage in relation to storage volume
and to the different storage spaces within the
product


Washing machines and dryers: according to
their energy usage per kilogram of washing
.

Refrigerator sales 1993
-
2003

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
>=D
C
B
A
A+&A++
Self
-
Declarations


For instance Building
-

material declarations


BASTA


Hazardous


substances in building

material



www.bastaonline.se

Self
-
declarations


Less trusted because unverified


Difficult to interpret


Customers prefer the verified labels


Labels according to ISO


Type I



Third
-
party labelling

(1999)



Type II

-

Self
-
declared

environmental claims

(1999)



Type III



Environmental Product declarations (2000)



But there exist modes of product
-
related
environmental information that don’t fit into these
categories!


TYPE III: Environmental Product
Declarations


A quantitative description of a
product’s environmental
properties

TYPE III: Why EPDs?


Meeting increased information demands on the market ,
mostly in B2B relations

(Industry initiated


government sponsored)


Allowing comparability between products


Input to environmental management systems and tools


Simplifying information exchange for purchasing, green
procurement and assessment of suppliers


Promotional purposes




TYPE III: general info


Aims to communicated LCA results


Preset LCA categories of environmental concerns (e.g. Global
warming or acidification)


Quantitative parameters within the categories (e.g. C02 and
NOx)


Not

excluding additional environmental information


Supposed to be additive, EPD for components aggregated
makes up the EPD for the result




The EPD process



Consider available PCRs (Product specific rules)


Develop PCR is necessary and get it approved


Collecting LCA information & conduct LCA according to ISO 14 040


Compiling EPD information


Verification and registration

EPD Product categories

www.environdec.com


Food products and beverages


Wood and wood products


Pulp, paper and paper products


Chemicals and chemical products


Rubber and plastic products


Other non
-
metallic mineral
products


Basic metals


Fabricated metal products


Machinery and equipment


Office machinery and computers


Electric machinery and apparatus


Radio, television and
communication...


Electricity, gas and water supply


Wholesale trade and commission
trade


Land transport


Post and telecommunication


Refuse disposal, sanitation etc


TYPE III: Current limitations with the

EPD system


Requires expensive LCA data


Generic vs specific data


Small number of EPDs hinders comparability


Demands much knowledge to interpret, currently
many actors lack resources and possibilities to
interpret the data


Supply push rather than demand pull



TYPE III compared to TYPE I



More detailed information


No pass/fail criteria


“Open” to all products and services


Mainly directed towards purchasers in business and public
sectors


Business initiated and driven




Comparability between products
-

leaving it to the
consumer to decide which product is best.

TYPE III: Consumer perspective


Striking discrepancy between perception of consumers and
usefulness stated by actual users.


Level of detail gives a reliable impression.


Variation of data quality and format confuses.


Anyway difficult to compare products?


Questionable benefits for private consumers.


Support/aid/education for users.


Global Type III Environmental Product
Declarations Network










www.gednet.org