NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDINGS

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SOCIALIST

REPUBLIC OF

VIETNAM

Independence

-

Freedom

-

Happiness




QCVN 09:2013/BXD






NATIONAL TECHNICAL
REGULATION ON
ENERGY
EFFICIENCY BUILDINGS












Hanoi
-

2013

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



2

CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

3

I. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

................................
................................
................................
....................

4

1.1. S
cope

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

4

1.2. Coverage

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

4

1.3. Normative references
................................
................................
................................
.......................

4

1.4. Terms, definitions and symbols

................................
................................
................................
........

4

II. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

................................
................................
................................
................

6

2.1.Building envelope

................................
................................
................................
..............................

6

2.2.Ventilation and air conditioning

................................
................................
................................
........

9

2.3. Lighting

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

15

2.4. Escalators and elevators

................................
................................
................................
.................

18

2.5. Electric power consumption

................................
................................
................................
...........

18

2.6.Service water heating system

................................
................................
................................
.........

20

III.MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS

................................
................................
................................
..........

23

IV.IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGMENT

................................
................................
................................
...

23

ANNEXES

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

24





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


3

INTRODUCTION


QCVN 09:2013/BXD
-

“Energy Efficiency Building Code” was developed by the Vietnam Association of
Civil Engineering Environment, put f
orward by the Department of
Science, Technology

and
Environment Department, and enacted by the Ministry of Construction under Circular 15 /2013/TT
-
BXD, dated on September 26, 2013. The National Energy Efficiency Building Code QCVN
09:2013/BXD shall supersede the Vietnam Energy Efficiency Building
Code QCXDVN 09:2005 ratified
under the Minister of Construction’s Decision 40/2005/QĐ
-
BXD of November 17, 2005.


The National Energy Efficiency Building Code QCVN 09:2013/BXD was developed with research inputs
and contributions of international consultants

from various external donors,
including the

International Finance Corporation (IFC), the United States Agency for International Development
(USAID) and the Danish Energy Agency (the Kingdom of Denmark).













Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



4

National Technical Regulation on Energy
Efficiency Buildings


(NATIONAL TECHNICAL

ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING CODE)



I. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1. Scope

1.1.1 This National Technical Building Energy Efficiency Building Code provides mandatory technical
standards to achieve energy efficiency in
the design, new construction or retrofit of civil buildings
(office buildings, hotels, hospitals, schools, commercial buildings,, services buildings, apartments
buildings, among others), with a gross floor area of 2,500 m
2

or larger.


1.1.2 The requiremen
ts of this Code apply to:

1)

The building envelope, except envelopes of non
-
air conditioned storage space or warehouses;

2)

Equipment and systems in the building, including:

a)

Interior lighting

b)

Ventilation and air conditioning

c)

Water heating

d)

Energy management eq
uipment, and

e)

Elevators and escalators.


1.2. Coverage

This Code provides statutory technical requirements applicable to all entities and individuals involved
in activities pertaining to energy efficient buildings.


1.3. Normative references

1)

ARI 340/360


Performance rating of commercial and industrial unitary air
-
conditioning and heat
pump equipment.

2)

ARI 365


Performance rating of commercial and industrial unitary air
-
conditioning condensing
units.

3)

ARI 550/590
-
2003


Performance rating of water
-
chilling
packages using the vapor compression
cycle.

4)

ASHRAE 90.1
-
2001


Standard 90.1
-
2001 (I
-
P Edition)
--

Energy Standard for Buildings except
Low
-
Rise Residential Buildings (IESNA cosponsored; ANSI approved; Continuous Maintenance
Standard).

5)

SHRAE 90.1
-
2004


Energy Standard for Buildings except Low
-
Rise Residential Buildings.

6)

DIN 4702
-
1


Boilers for central heating; terms, requirements, testing, marking.

7)

ISO 6946:2007


Building components and building element
-

Thermal resistance and thermal
transmittance
-

Calculation method.

8)

TCVN 298:2003


Building components and parts


Thermal resistance and thermal conductivity


Calculating methods.

9)

TCVN 6307:1997


Cooling systems


Testing methods.

10)

TCVN 7830
-
1:2012


Air conditioning equipment


Part 1: Energy effic
iency.


1.4. Terms, definitions and symbols

1.4.1Terms and definitions





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


5

1)

Cooling air saving system
: including ducts and automatic controlling system that allow fans to
drive cool air from outside into the building in appropriate weather conditions to reduce
energy
consumption for air cooling or when mechanical air conditioning is not needed.

2)

Building energy cost
: total annual cost of energy consumption for the building.

3)

Coefficient of performance (COP)


cooling
: the ratio of the rate of heat removal to the r
ate of
energy input, in consistent units, to be verified based on existing national standards or
designated operating conditions. COP is used to rate the efficiency of electricity
-
powered
condenser air conditioner, including the compressor, evaporator coil

and condenser coil. COP can
also be used to rate the efficiency of water
-
cooled chiller (not including chiller pumps, condensed
cooling water and cooling tower fans).

4)

Coefficient of performance (COP)
-

heat pump
: the ratio of the rate of heat output to th
e rate of
energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system under designated operating
conditions.

5)

Overall thermal transfer value (OTTV)
: the total heat gain through the entire surface area of the
building envelope, including
opaque walls

and glazing by every square meter of the building
exterior surface area, W/m
2
.

6)

Floor area of a particular space
: the horizontal surface area of a specific space, measured from
the interior side of the circumference walls or partitions, at the elevation of
the working plane
(0.8 m).

7)

Radiation reduction coefficient of shading structures
: the ratio of solar heat gain through
windows, in case a window external shading system is installed, to that of windows without
shading systems.

8)

Overall heat transfer coeffic
ient (U
o
)
: the intensity of a time
-
constant heat flux going through a
surface area unit of the enclosing structure when the temperature difference of the air on both
sides of the structure is 1 K, measured in W/m
2
.K.

9)

Total thermal resistance (R
o
)
: the inve
rse of overall heat transfer coefficient U
o
:R
o

= 1/U
o
,
measured in m
2
.K/W.

10)

Lamp efficiency
: the ratio of rated light output to power consumption, measured in lumen/W.

11)

Efficiency of the ventilation
-
air conditioning systems
: the ratio of output energy (usefu
l energy at
the time of use) to input energy, in consistent unit, for a specific length of time, measured in %.

12)

Enthalpy recovery
: the ability to recover cooling energy of air conditioning equipment, boilers
etc., resulting in energy efficiency.

13)

Annual
energy consumption efficiency
: the annual ratio of energy output to energy input of a
building or piece of equipment.

14)

Indirectly air
-
conditioned space
: an enclosed space in a building that is indirectly cooled (rather
than directly cooled) and allows heat
transfer therefrom to adjacent air
-
cooled spaces.

15)

Lighting power density (LPD)
: the ratio of electric lighting output to the illuminated area,
measured in W/m
2
.

16)

Daylight relay
: a device that automatically turns on or off input energy for electric lighting,

located near windows to maintain appropriate working illuminance level when direct or indirect
daylight fails to provide the desired illuminance.

17)

Temperature control relay
: an automatic temperature
-
sensitive device.

18)

Building envelope
: building envelope or

building enclosure consists of opaque or transparent
walls, windows, doors, skylights, among others, that form enclosed spaces within a building.


1.4.2 Symbols, measurement units and acronyms

1)

SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient): heat gain coefficient of g
lazing, published by manufacturers
or determined in accordance with prevailing standards, dimensionless. In case manufacturers
avails of the shading coefficient SC, SHGC = SC


0.87.

2)

SC: Shading coefficient;

3)

T: Absolute temperature, K;

4)

R
O
: Total thermal re
sistance (inverse of heat transfer ratio Uo) of enclosing assembly


m
2

K/W;

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



6

5)

U
o
: Heat transfer coefficient (including heat transfer through ambient air layers on both sides of
the structure), W/m
2

K;

6)

U
o,M
: Overall heat transfer coefficient of the roof asse
mbly, W/m
2

K;

7)

U
o,T
: Overall heat transfer coefficient of walls, W/m
2

K;

8)

AHU: Air handling unit;

9)

ARI: Air
-
conditioning and Refrigeration Institute;

10)

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air
-
Conditioning Engineers;

11)

BEF: Ballast efficacy fact
or for fluorescent lamps, %/W;

12)

BF:

Ballast factor, %;

13)

COP
cooling
: Air conditioner coefficient of performance


ratio of air cooling output to electricity
input, kW/kW;

14)

COP
heating
: Heat pump coefficient of performance


ratio of heat gain to electricity
input, kW/kW;

15)

EER: Energy efficiency ratio of air conditioners


ratio of cooling output and electricity input,
kW/kW;

16)

FCU: Fan coil unit


thermal exchange system consisting of multiple plain or fanned tubal rows;
thermal carriers being cooled or heated w
ater running inside the tubes to provide
cooling/heating effects for a space; the FCU is the end
-
of
-
the
-
line component of a water
-
cooled
central air
-
conditioning system with chillers;

17)

IEER: Integrated energy efficiency ratio, kW/kW;

18)

IPLV: Integrated part l
oad value, or in full term, integrated energy efficiency part load value;
kW/kW;

19)

OTTV
T
: Overall thermal transfer value for walls


the mean intensity of the heat flux transferred
through 1 m
2

of exterior walls, W/m
2
;

20)

OTTV
M
: Overall thermal transfer value f
or roofs


the mean intensity of the heat flux transferred
through 1 m
2

of roofing, W/m
2
;

21)

PIC: Power input per capacity


the ratio of energy input, in kW, to cooling output, in RT (ton of
refrigeration), kW/RT;

22)

VLT

(Visible Light Transmission)
:
the ratio

of light passing through glazing materials, measured in
the amount of light energy that passes through glazing as a percentage of the light energy that
directs on the glazing surface, %;

23)

VRV/VRF: Air conditioning systems with variable refrigerant volume/f
low;

24)

VSD: Variable speed drive
r
;

25)

WWR: Window
-
to
-
wall ratio, dimensionless;



II. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1.Building envelope

2.1.1 General requirements

The building envelope shall be designed and constructed in ways shall guarantee:

1)

Natural ventilation
whenever exterior climate conditions allow;

2)

Sufficient insulation and minimum exposure to cold wind;

3)

Sufficient day lighting

under
normal conditions, while
reducing
solar heat
gain into the
building;

4)

Choice of appropriate materials to improve energy effici
ency for the building.


2.1.2 Requirements for building exterior walls and roofs

1)

All ground exterior walls (opaque parts of the walls) shall maintain a maximum overall heat
transfer value U
o.max

no greater than, or a minimum overall heat transfer value R
o.min

no
smaller than the values specified in Table 2.1.






QCVN 09:2013/BXD


7

Table 2.1. Thermal performance requirements for exterior walls


Areas

Wall orientation

U
o.max
, W/m
2
.K

R
o.min
, m
2
.K/W

All areas

All orientations

1.80

0.56


2)

Requirements for flat roofs and roofs
with gradient of less than 15 degrees:

All roofs, including those with insulation, metal roofs and others shall possess an overall heat
transfer value U
o

no greater than, or total thermal resistance Ro no smaller than the values
specified in Table 2.2.


Ta
ble 2.2. Thermal performance requirements for flat roofs


Area

U
o.max
, W/m
2
.K

R
o.min
, m
2
.K/W

All areas

1.00

1.00

Notes
:

1)

Shaded roofs:

If more than 90% of the roof is covered with a fixed
sunshade with ventilation, there is no need for insulation for such

roof.

The sunshade must be installed at a minimum clearance of 0.3 m
from the roof surface to be recognized as having ventilation between
the roof and sunshade (double
-
layer roof with an air cushion in
betw
een).

2)

Flat roofs with reflective materials:

Therm
al resistance values
R
o,min

provided in Table
2
.2 may be multiplied by a coefficient of 0.80 for
roofs designed with reflective
materials, within a range of 0.70

0.75,
to increase heat inflection for the exterior roof surface.

3)

Roofs with gradient of 15 de
grees or above:

The minimum total
thermal resistance or maximum overall thermal transfer value for
roofs may be identified by multiplying R
o.min

and U
o.max
values in Table
2.2 with a coefficient of 0.85 and 1.18,

respectively.


3)

Sizes of windows and
skylight

a)

The gross area of vertical openable and fixed windows shall guarantee good ventilation and
day lighting.

b)

The overall thermal transfer value of walls and roofs shall guarantee:


-

OTTV
T

for walls no greater than 60 W/m
2
;


-

OTTV
M

for roofs no great
er than 25 W/m
2
.

c)

OTTV values are determined using prevailing standards and technical guidelines.


4)

Glazed windows shall be designed with applicable SHGC coefficients in lieu of the OTTV
T

referred to in 2.1.2


3)


b) ab
ove.

SHGC of glazing shall be smaller

or equal to the maximum
allowed value, and glazing VLT shall not be lower than the VLTmin

in Table 2.3.


Table 2.3. WWR
-
related SHGC for glazing



WWR, %

SHGCmax on 8 main orientations


VLT
min

N

E or W

NE, NW or SE,
SW

S

20

0.90

0.80

0.86

0.90

0.70

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



8

30

0.64

0.58

0.63

0.70

0.70

40

0.50

0.46

0.49

0.56

0.60

50

0.40

0.38

0.40

0.45

0.55

60

0.33

0.32

0.34

0.39

0.50

70

0.27

0.27

0.29

0.33

0.45

80

0.23

0.23

0.25

0.28

0.40

90

0.20

0.20

0.21

0.25

0.35

100

0.17

0.18

0.19

0.22

0.30

Notes
:

1)

If WWR does not
match the values in column 1, Table 2.3, SHGC shall be determined through
linear interpolation using the nearest higher and lower WWR values.

2)

Glazing materials with SHGC values higher than the reference SHGC providing that sunshades
with appropriate A coef
ficients are used to insure that the selected SHGC is smaller or equal to
the reference SHGC multiplied by the A coefficient


see 2.1.2


5).


5)

In case of building facades being installed with sunshades, SHGC values in Table 2.3 may be
adjusted by multipl
ying them with the A coefficients in Tables 2.4 and 2.5.


Table 2.4. A coefficient for consistent horizontal sunshades placed on or above the upper window
edge by a clearance d, with d/H < 0.1


R=b/H

On walls, facing 8 main orientations

N

NE or NW

E or W

SE or SW

S

0.10

1.23

1.11

1.09

1.14

1.20

0.20

1.43

1.23

1.19

1.28

1.39

0.30

1.56

1.35

1.30

1.45

1.39

0.40

1.64

1.47

1.41

1.59

1.39

0.50

1.69

1.59

1.54

1.75

1.39

0.60

1.75

1.69

1.64

1.89

1.39

0.70

1.79

1.82

1.75

2.00

1.39

0.80

1.82

1.89

1.85

2.13

1.39

0.90

1.85

2.00

1.96

2.22

1.39

1.00

1.85

2.08

2.08

2.27

1.39

Notes
:

1) Dimensions:

b


reach of sunshade;

H


window height;

d


clearance from upper window edge to lower sunshade contact;

b, d and H share the same dimension for length.

2)
Applicable for sunshades placed above the upper window edge by a clearance d, with d/H ≤ 0.1


tolerance of less than 10%.


Table 2.5. A coefficient for consistent vertical sunshades placed on or next to a window side by a
clearance e, with e/B < 0.1


R=b
/B

On walls, facing 8 main orientations

N

NE or NW

E or W

SE or SW

S

0.10

1.25

1.06

1.01

1.09

1.11

0.20

1.52

1.12

1.03

1.19

1.19

0.30

1.75

1.19

1.05

1.32

1.22





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


9

0.40

1.82

1.28

1.06

1.45

1.25

0.50

1.85

1.37

1.09

1.64

1.28

0.60

1.85

1.47

1.10

1.82

1.30

0.70

1.89

1.59

1.12

1.96

1.30

0.80

1.89

1.69

1.14

2.13

1.30

0.90

1.89

1.82

1.16

2.22

1.30

1.00

1.89

1.96

1.18

2.33

1.30

Notes
:

1) Dimensions:

b


reach of vertical sunshade;

B


window width;

e


clearance from window side to vertical sunshade inner
contact;

b, e and B share the same dimension for length.

2) Applicable also for vertical sunshades placed by a clearance e from the window side, with e/B ≤
0.1, tolerance of less than 10%.


2.2.Ventilation and air conditioning

2.2.1 General requirements

1)

Natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation

For every specific space, natural (passive) ventilation systems or coerced (active


mechanical)
ventilation systems may be used. Natural ventilation systems used shall meet the requirements of
2.2.1


2).

2)

Na
tural ventilating system

Spaces are considered naturally ventilated if the following requirements are met:

a)

Vent holes and windows may be opened outward with sizes no less than 5% of the floor
area.
Users

may easily get access to these ventilation openings.

b)

There are vent holes that may be opened on the roofs or walls that face the external on
-
coming wind
sources. The

ventilation openings have ventilating sizes of no less than 5% of
the floor
area. Users

may easily get access to these vent holes which connec
t to the external
air through openings with similar or larger sizes.

c)

The accumulated size of the vent openings is no smaller than the gross area of the wind
catchers.

3)

Mechanical ventilating system

Spaces without natural ventilation shall be installed with
mechanical ventilating systems to provide
external air to every frequently occupied area through anair distribution piping system.


2.2.2

Requirements for ventilation
-
air conditioning systems and equipment

1)

General requirements

a)

Equipment performance: air
conditioning and water cooling equipment and systems shall
ensure the minimum coefficients of performance (COP) in standard rating conditions, and
not lower than the values provided in the following tables.

-

Table 2.6: for electric air conditioners and cond
enser coils;

-

Table 2.7: for water cooling equipment;

-

Table 2.8a: for cooling towers;

-

Table 2.8b: for condenser units.

Notes
:

Apart from the cooling coefficient of performance (COP), refrigeration equipment is also reviewed for
energy efficiency through t
he integrated part load value (IPLV) and integrated energy efficiency ratio
(IEER).


Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



10

b)

Automatic timer:

t
he following equipment must come with a timer or other control devices
that may automatically turn the equipment
on or off as set up.

-

Chillers;

-

Hot air s
ystems;

-

Cooling tower fans;

-

Pumps with capacity equal or greater than 5 HPs (3.7 kW).


c)

Piping insulation of cooling systems
:

Coolant ducts of air conditioning systems and chilled water piping of central air conditioning
systems shall be affixed with a
thermal insulating layer with thickness equal or greater than the
insulation thickness values specified in Tables 2.9 and 2.10.


The insulating thickness (mm) provided in Tables 2.9 and 2.10 apply to thermal insulating
materials with heat conductivity of
0.032÷0.04 W/m.K at a mean temperature of 24

C.

The
minimum insulation thickness increases for materials with heat conductivity greater than 0.04
W/m.K or may decrease

for materials with thermal conductivity lower than 0.032 W/m.K.


For insulating material
s with conductivity outside the above mentioned range, the minimum
thickness (bmin) is determined using the following formula:












1
)
1
(
04
.
0
/
0
min

r
b
r
b



(
2
.1
)

where,

b
min

minimum thickness of the insulating layer, mm;

r

actual duct external radius, mm;

b
0

the thickness of the insulating layer listed in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6, with applicable
piping sizes,mm;

λ

thermal conductivity coefficient of replacement materials at the liquid applicable
temperatures, W/m.K.


d)

Inlet and outlet air duct system insulatio
n:

i
nlet and outlet air ducts shall be affixed with an
insulating layer with thickness equal or greater than the thickness values specified in Table
2
.
11
. No insulation is required for air exhausts.


e)

Testing and
calibration
:

fans or pumps with capacity of
5 HPs (3.7kW) or higher shall
have
their designed flows
calibrated

in by calibrating speeds using multi
-
speed drives, twin
-
speed
drives or variable speed drives (VSDs).

Adjustment of fan and pump flow using
flow
-
regulating
valve
s shall be restricted.

f)

Cooli
ng tower fan control:

h
eat extraction towers with
fan motors of
5

HPs (
3.7

kW) or
higher shall be equipped with
multi
-
speed drives, twin
-
speed drives or variable speed drives
(VSDs).


g)

Water

cooling chiller system:
w
ater
-
cooled air conditioning systems
shall be designed with
variable flow

rates using

pumps with variable speed drives.


h)

Buildings with central
air conditioning

must be equipped with enthalpy recovery systems.
Equipment energy recovery
efficiency shall be no smaller than 50%.


2)

Supplementary
requirements for mechanical ventilating and air conditioning systems

To be qualified, mechanical ventilating and air conditioning systems shall meet the following
additional requirements.





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


11

a)

CO
2

sensor: installed to increase the inlet air flow for standard zo
nes with design area of less
than 3 m
2
/occupant.

b)

Automatic timer:

intermittent

v
entilating fans shall be equipped with timers or automatic
controls that are able to set their own on
/off and operational timings.

c)

Piping welding and joining:

i
nlet and circulating air ducts shall meet the requirements for
joining air and fluid piping in
line with existing regulations.


Table 2.6. Coefficient of performance for direct electric air conditioners


Type of equipment

Cooling output

Min COP of air
cond
itioners.

kW/kW

Test procedures

Unitary air
-
conditioner


-

2.30

TCVN 7830:2012

and

TCVN 6307:1997

Split air
-
conditioner


<4.5 kW

2.60



4.5 kW and < 7.0 kW

2.50



7.0 kW and < 14.0
kW

2.40

Air
-
cooled air
-
conditioner


14
.0 kW and < 19 kW


2.93

TCVN 6307:1997

or

ARI 210/240



19 kW and < 40 kW

3.02

ARI 340/360



40 kW and < 70 kW

2.84



70 kW and < 117 kW

2.78



117 kW

2.70


Water
-
cooled and
evaporating air
-
conditioner


<19 kW

3.35

ARI 210/240


19

kW and <
40

kW

3.37

ARI 340/360



40 kW and < 70 kW

3.32



70 kW

2.70

Air
-
cooled condenser
units



40 kW

2.96


ARI 365


ARI 365

Water
-
cooled or
evaporating condenser
units



40 kW


3.84

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



12

Notes
:


1) Coefficient of performance of air
-
conditioners:

COP =
refrigerant
output/
power
input

(kW/ kW);

2) Condenser units, including the compressor and condenser coils;

3) Minimum coefficients of performance listed in the Table are calculated at 100% of refrigerant
output.

To calculate the coefficient of performance for
AC units running for
one year, ARI 340/360
uses
the following equation:

IEER = 0.020A + 0.617B + 0.238C + 0.125D (W/W)

where,


IEER


Integrated energy efficiency ratio: coefficient of performance of AC units running for one
year
at various

loads.

A = EER

coefficient of
performance of the AC unit (W/W) at full load;

B = EER


coefficient of performance of the AC unit (W/W) at 75% load;

C = EER


coefficient of performance of the AC unit (W/W) at 50% load;

D = EER


coefficient of performance of the AC unit (W/W) at 25% lo
ad.


Table 2.7. Coefficient of performance for chillers



Type of equipment


Cooling output (kW)

Chiller
coefficient of
performance.
COP
MIN
. kW/kW

Input energy
consumption

PIC
MAX
. kW/RT

Electricity

Heat

Air
-
cooled chiller, electric

Attached or
separated
condenser

All capacities

3.10

1.133

-

Reciprocating water
-
cooled
chiller, electric

All capacities

4.20

0.836

-

Water
-
cooled rotary
screw/scroll chiller, electric

< 528

4.45

0.789

-

≥ 528 and < 1055

4.90

0.717

-

≥ 1055

5.50

0.639

-

Centrifugal water
-
cooled
chiller, electric

< 528

5.00

0.702

-

≥ 528 and < 1055

5.55

0.633

-

≥ 1055

6.10

0.576

-

Air
-
cooled absorption

chiller,

single effect

All capacities

0.60 (*)

-

5.860

Water
-
cooled absorption

chiller,

double effects

All
capacities

0.70 (*)

-

5.022

Absorber chiller, double
effects, indirectly fired

All capacities

1.00 (*)

-

3.516

Absorber chiller, double
effects, directly fired

All capacities

1.00 (*)

-

3.516

Notes
:

1) Source:

ASHRAE Standard 90,1
-
2001; ASHRAE Standard
90,1
-
2004;

2) (*) For absorption chillers, COP = Cooling output/Heat input;

-

Power input consumption:

PIC = electricity input/cooling output in RT;

-

Refrigerant Ton (RT):1RT = 3.516 kW = 12000 Btu/h;

3) To calculate the coefficient of performance for
chillers operating in one year, ARI 550/590
-
2003
provides the following equation:

IPLV = 0.01A + 0.42B + 0.45C + 0.12D (kW/kW)

where,

IEER


Integrated energy efficiency ratio: coefficient of performance of cooling equipment for




QCVN 09:2013/BXD


13

the accumulated operationa
l time in one year on various loads.

A

COP (kW/kW) at full load;

B

COP (kW/kW) at 75% load;

C

COP (kW/kW) at 50% load;

D

COP (kW/kW) at 25% load.



Table 2.8a. Performance specifications for cooling towers


Type of
equipment

Cooling
output
range

Rating criteria

Rated specifications

Test
procedure


Water flow
throughput

Supplementary
water flow

Fan
output


Cooling
tower with
draft fans
and
centrifugal
fans

All
capacities

Input water
temperature:37
0
C

Output water
temperature:

32
0
C

Moist air
temperature:27
0
C

13
l/minute,
Tc

1
.
0


1
.
4 %

Water flow
through
condenser

35


40
W/Tc

CTI

Notes
:

1) CTI


Cooling Technology Institute;

2) Tc: condenser ton; Tc = RT


1.25 = 3.516


1.25 = 4.395 Kw.


Table 2.8b.

Required specifications for condenser units


Type of
equipment

Cooling
output
range

Rating
criteria

Rated specifications

Test
procedure

Wind flow

Fan

Compressor

Air
-
cooled
condenser
units, with
compressor

0.5

500
RT

Input air
temperature:
35
0
C

17

34

m3/minute
RT

75

150
W/RT

1.0

1.3
kW/RT

CTC

Water
-
cooled
condenser units

10

1600
RT

Input water
temperature:
29.4
0
C

Output water
temperature:
35
0
C

Water flow

9.08

11.40 l/minute RT

CTC

Notes
:

CTC


Cooling towers and condensers

HVAC Equations, Data and
Rules of Thumb, 2008, USA.


Table 2.9. Thickness of insulation for copper refrigerant conduits



Copper conduit
diameter, mm

Air conditioned space

Applicable conditions: t=26 ±2
o
C, φ= 60%

Refrigerant temperature
o
C

2

-
18

-
30

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



14

Insulation thickness,
mm

6÷16

9

19

19

19÷25

9

19

19

34÷54

9

19

25

66÷80

13

19

25

105

-

-

25


Copper conduit
diameter

mm

Non
-
air conditioned space

Applicable conditions: t =26÷32
o
C, φ = 85%

Refrigerant temperature
o
C

2

-
18

-
30

Insulation thickness, mm

6÷16

25

38

50

19÷25

32

50

50

34÷54

32

50

57

66÷80

32

50

64

105

-

-

70


Copper conduit
diameter

mm

Applicable conditions: t = 32÷37
o
C, φ = 60%

Refrigerant temperature
o
C

2

-
18

-
30

Insulation thickness, mm

6÷16

25

38

50

19÷25

32

50

50

34÷54

32

50

64

66÷80

32

57

70

105

-

-

76

Notes
:

1) t


Exterior air temperature,
o
C;

2) The above insulation thickness applies to copper refrigerant (fluid, gas) conduits;

3) The thickness of the insulation (mm) given in the Table apply to insulating materials with thermal
conductivity λ within a range of 0.032 ÷ 0.04 W/m.K at an average temperature of 24

C. The
minimum thickness of the

insulating layer shall increase with m
aterials having thermal conductivity
higher than 0.04 W/m.K or decrease with materials having thermal conductivity less than 0.032
W/m.K and is adjusted using equation (5.1).



Table 2.10. Thickness of insulation for cooled water conduits



Steel pipe
diameter, mm

Air conditioned space

Applicable conditions: t=26 ±2
o
C, φ= 60%

Cooled water temperature,
o
C

7÷12

Insulation thickness, mm

20÷50

16

50÷75

16

75÷150

19

150÷250

19

250÷600

25


Steel pipe diameter, mm

Non
-
air conditioned space

Applicable conditions: t =26÷37
o
C, φ = 85%

Cooled water temperature,
o
C

7÷12





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


15

Insulation thickness, mm

20÷50

25

50÷75

25

75÷150

30

150÷250

30

250÷600

38

Notes
:

1)

For steel pipes with diameters listed in the table being rated diameters (IPS
-

Iron
pipe
standard);

2)

The insulation thickness of steel pipes may apply also to PE, PPR and PN16 plastic pipes. In case
of PE and PPR plastic pipes, the diameter values listed in the Table are outside diameters.

3)

The thickness of the insulating layer (mm) given i
n Table 5.5 apply to insulating materials with
thermal conductivity λ within a range of 0.032 ÷ 0.04 W/m.K at an average temperature of
24

C. The minimum thickness of the insulating layer shall increase with materials having
thermal conductivity higher tha
n 0.04 W/m.K or decrease with materials having thermal
conductivity less than 0.032 W/m.K and is adjusted using equation (2.1).


Table 2.11. Thickness of insulation for air ducts


Air conditioned space

Applicable conditions: t=26 ±2
o
C, φ= 60%

Cooled air temperature,
o
C

12÷16

Insulation thickness, mm

15

Non
-
air conditioned space

Applicable conditions: t =26÷37
o
C, φ = 85%

Cooled air temperature,
o
C

12÷16

Insulation thickness, mm

20

Notes
:

The thickness of insulation (mm) given in the Table apply to porous polymer, close
-
compartment
structured insulating materials with thermal conductivity λ within a range of 0.032 ÷ 0.04 W/m.K at
a

mean
temperature of 24

C. The minimum thickness of insulati
on
shall increase with materials
having
thermal conductivity higher than 0.04 W/m.K or decrease with materials having thermal
conductivity less than 0.032 W/m.K and is adjusted using equation (2.1).


2.3. Lighting

2.3.1 General provision

1)

Scope

This section provides limits for the maximum allowable lighting output needed for the building
lighting system as well as limits on the acceptable performance of commonly used lighting
components (lamps and ballasts) and lighting control
systems. The

follo
wing categories do not fall
under the requirements of this section:

a)

Lighting designed for theatrical performance, television shows, different parts of recreation
facilities,

including hotel ballrooms, dance
clubs
, and areas where lighting is a vital techni
cal
part of the show functions;

b)

Specialized medical lighting;

c)

Special lighting for research laboratories;

d)

Safety

lighting that automatically switches on and off during operation;

e)

Lighting in special security zones as required by the law or local government
s;

f)

Safety or security zones for humans that need auxiliary lighting.


Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



16

2)

Minimum illuminance

The minimum illuminance (lux) for functional spaces shall meet the requirements of prevailing
technical standards.


3)

Maximum lighting power density

a)

The mean lighting p
ower density (LDP) of an entire building shall not exceed the maximum
allowed limits listed in Table 2.12. The mean lighting power density of a building equals the
total lighting output of the building divided by the total occupied area.


Table 2.12. Manda
tory requirements for lighting power density (LPD)


Type of building

LPD (W/m
2
)

Office
s

11

Hotel
s

11

Hospital
s

13

School
s

13

Commercial and services buildings

16

Apartments

8

Enclosed, in
-
house, basement car parks

3

Outdoor or open (roofed only) car parks

1.6


b)

Other types of buildings with sizes subject to the restrictions of this Code but not listed in
Table 2.12 above may apply maximum values of lighting power density of up to 13 W/m
2
.

c)

For mixed
-
use buildings with

sizes subject to the restrictions of this Code and various
different functional areas, the functional use of each area shall be accounted for, with each
of the areas complying with the maximum lighting power density values listed in Table 2.12
above.

d)

The
mean lighting power density for parking lots is calculated by dividing the total lighting
power by the gross area of the parking lot.


2.3.2 Requirements on lighting equipment performance

1)

Minimum lamp performance is defined in Tables 2.13 and 2.14.


Table
2.13. Minimum illuminating performance of linear fluorescent lamps


Rated lamp power, W

Rated illumination efficiency, lm/W

14
-
20

72

20
-
40

78


Table 2.14. Minimum illuminating

performance

of compact fluorescent lamps


Rated lamp power, W

Rated
illumination performance, lm/W

5
-
8

55





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


17

9
-
14

60

15
-
24

65

25
-
60

70


2)

Ballast efficacy values are listed in Table 2.15.


Table 2.15.

Electronic b
allast
efficacy


Nominal output, W

Ballast efficacy factor (BEF), %/W

18

5.518

20

5.049

22

4.619

30

3.281

32

3.043

36

2.681

40

2.473


2.3.3 Lighting controls

1)

Lighting controls for different building spaces

Every space enclosed with ceiling
-
height partitions is a separate space that needs at least one lighting
control device. Each of these lighting control
devices shall be actuated manually or by automatic
sensors for occupants in such space. Each control device must:

a)

Cover a maximum floor area of 100 m
2

b)

The spaces specified in Table 2.16 shall to be installed with occupancy sensors, which directly
connect t
o and control the lighting system. Occupancy sensors controlling lamps shall not be
connected to the exit lighting and security lighting systems.


Table 2.16. Buildings for which occupancy sensors are required


Type of building

Application

To be used in

Office
s

Mandatory

Conference rooms and
passageways

Hotel
s

Mandatory

Conference rooms and
passageways

Hospital
s

Optional

School
s

Mandatory

In
-
house parking lots and
passageways

Commercial and services
buildings

Optional

Apartments

Mandatory

Passageways

and in
-
house parking
lots


d)

For parking lots, at least 70% of the lighting system shall be controlled through occupancy
sensors (proportion of the system in terms of lighting consumption power).


2)

Controls for day
-
lit areas

Artificial lighting designs for
day
-
lit enclosed spaces need to take into account the following
considerations:

a)

Potentially day
-
lit areas are spaces parallel to windows/exterior glazing within a distance
from the window/exterior glazing of up to 1.5 times the height from the floor to the

tip of
the window glass area or exterior glazing.

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



18

b)

All lighting equipment in potentially day
-
lit areas may be installed with lighting control
devices in ways that allow:

-

Automatic photosensor to be used to control lamp dimming or turn lamps on and off
depe
nding on the level of natural illuminance received. Photosensor shall be positioned at
half the depth of potentially day
-
lit areas. When natural light measured by the sensors at
beyond the standard preset level for the occupant space (e.g. 300 lux for offi
ces), the sensors
should trigger lamp switch
-
off.

-

Stand
-
alone lamps to be turned on at potentially day
-
lit areas independently from the public
lighting system.

c)

In respect of the design for areas using concurrently occupancy sensors and photosensors,
the oc
cupancy sensors shall be prioritized over photosensors for lighting control.

d)

Hospitals, apartment buildings and hotel rooms are not mandatorily required to apply the
requirements of 2.3.3.

e)

Spaces designed for special uses are exempted from the requirements

of 2.3.3


2), providing
that the designer presents detailed justification.


3)

Auxiliary lighting controls

Auxiliary controls for light on/off switching installed in fixed positions underneath decks, shelves,
cabinets and so on shall be used in the followin
g events:

a)

Lighting for hotel, guesthouse rooms and luxurious guestrooms;

b)

Display lighting in shops or for demonstration.


2.4.
E
scalators

and e
levators

2.4.1 Escalators

Escalators must be fitted with controls to reduce speed or to stop when no traffic is d
etected.
Escalators shall be designed with energy savings features as described below:

1)

Reduced speed control: the escalator shall change to a slower speed when no activity has
been detected for a period of a maximum of three minutes. Detection shall be by
photocell
activation at the top and bottom landing areas.

2)

Use on demand: the escalator shall shut down when no activity has been detected for a
period of a maximum of fifteen minutes. Use on demand escalators must be designed with
energy efficient soft sta
rt technology. The escalator shall start automatically when required.
The activation shall be by photocells installed in the top and bottom landing areas.


2.4.2 Elevators (lifts)

Elevators (lifts) must be provided with controls to reduce the energy demand
. To meet this
requirement, the following features must be incorporated in traction drive elevators:

1)

Use of AC Variable
-
Voltage and Variable
-
Frequency drives on non
-
hydraulic elevators.

2)

The lift car uses energy
-
efficient lighting and display lighting i.e.
an average lamp efficacy,
across all fittings in the car, of >55 lamp lumens/circuit watt and lighting switches off after
the lift has been inactive for a maximum period of five minutes.

3)

Elevators shall operate in a stand
-
by condition during off
-
peak perio
ds. For example, the
power side of the lift controller and other operating equipment such as lift car lighting, user
displays and ventilation fans switch off when the lift has been inactive for a maximum period
of five minutes.


2.5. Electric power consump
tion

2.5.1 Electrical distribution system

1)

Measurement





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


19

Building electrical distribution system shall be equipped with attached metering instruments to
record energy demand (kVA), power consumption (kWh), and total loads on electricity meters.
Electrical dis
tribution systems in buildings shall be designed so that energy consumption at end
-
use
loads

can be check
-
metered.

C
heck
-
metering is required
for load facilities with total installed power
consumption of over 100 kVA, including

lighting and socket outlets,

air conditioning system,
ventilation, hot water system and other load centers of over 100 kVA.

2)

Submetering

Sub
-
metering for each tenant and a provision to permit check
-
metering the tenant load shall be in
place.


N
otes
:

Shared
(central) air
-
conditioning
systems need not meet these tenant check
-
metering
requirements.


3)

Power factor correction

All 3
-
phase electricity supplies exceeding 100 A shall maintain a power factor between 0.90 lag and
unity at the point of connection.


4)

Adjustment of installed power

El
ectrical systems in a building shall be estimated, designed and operated to provide the maximum
concurrent load factor possible as specified in Table 2.17 and the highest allowed installed power as
specified in Table 2.18.


Table 2.17. Maximum concurrent l
oad factor ks, by points of use


End
-
use load

Concurrent load factor k
s

Lighting

0
.
9

Socket outlets

0.4

Air conditioning, ventilation

0.9

Hot water system

0.9

Other major load centers

0.9

Entire building

0.8


Table 2.18.

Maximum allowed installed power


Type of building

Installed power, W/m
2

Upscale
apartment

buildings

70

Hotel
s

80

Offices, public use buildings

75

Commercial, service, public service buildings

65

Schools, hospitals

65


2.5.2 Electric motors

All
permanently wired 3
-
phase induction motors that are used in the building shall have a nominal
full
-
load motor efficacy

of
no less than
the
values
r
equired

in Table 2.19.

The manufacturer’s labels
on the motors must provide minimum efficacy, nominal efficac
y and outputs at full load.


Table 2.19. Minimum efficacy for electric motors


Motor output, kW

kW

Required efficacy, %

2
-
pole

4
-
pole

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



20

1.1

82.2

83.8

1.5

84.1

85.0

2.2

85.6

86.4

3.0

86.7

87.4

4.0

87.6

88.3

5.5

88.5

89.2

7.5

89.5

90.1

11.0

90.6

91.0

15.0

91.3

91.8

18.5

91.8

92.2

22.0

92.2

92.6

30.0

92.9

93.2

37.0

93.3

93.6

45.0

93.7

93.9

55.0

94.0

94.2

75.0

94.6

94.7

90.0

95.3

95.1

110.0

95.4

95.6

132.0

95.5

95.7

160.0

95.8

95.8

200.0

96.1

95.9

250.0

96.2

96.1

280.0

96.3

96.4

315.0

96.4

96.5

355.0

96.5

96.6

400.0

96.7

96.7

450.0

96.7

96.8

500.0

96.8

96.9

560.0

96.9

97.0

630.0

96.9

97.1

N
otes
:

Motors with output
s

in between two numbers s
hall adopt
the higher
efficacy value.


2.6.Service water heating system

2.6.1 General
requirements

Designed loads for service water heating systems

shall be calculated based on system
sizing
and
follow the manufacturers’ recommendations.


In case other (non
-
resistance) service water heating solutions of higher efficiency are available,
resistance
-
based service water heating systems shall not be allowed.






QCVN 09:2013/BXD


21

Buildings in need of high, concentrated service water heating with installation input of over 50 kW or
power consumption of

over 50,000 kWh/year are not allowed to use resistance
-
based s
ervice water
heating solutions.


Order of priority for civil buildings:

1)

Temperature range ≤60
o
C

a)

Service water heating using heat recovery air conditioning;

b)

Service water heating using solar power combined with heat pumps/electric heaters;

c)

Service water
heating using heat pumps;

d)

Service water heating using gas water heaters;

e)

Service water heating using electric heaters for buildings with less than 25 rooms.


2)

Temperature range


115
o
C (cooking, washing, disinfection, sauna)

For buildings in concurrent need
s of hot water of ≤ 60
0
C (for household uses) and hot water/steam of
≥115
0
C (for cooking, laundering, sauna and disinfection), priorities shall be given to water heating up
to 60
0
C, before further heating the water or steam up to ≥115
0
C using gas or fuel o
il
-
fired heaters.


2.6.2 Water heating equipment efficacy

All water heating and supply equipment used internally for heating potable water, keeping warm,
hot swimming pool and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements listed in Table 2.20. For
he
at pump water heaters, refer to Table 2.21.


Table 2.20.Minimum efficacy for water heating equipment

Equipment type

Minimum efficiency ET, %

1. Gas
-
fired storage water heaters

78

2. Gas
-
fired instantaneous water heaters

78

3. Gas
-
fired hot water supply
boilers

77

4. Fuel oil
-
fired hot water heaters and supply systems

80

5. Duel fuel gas/oil
-
fired hot water supply boilers

80

6. Firewood/paper
-
fired boiler of 10÷350 kW output

60*)

7. Boilers of 10÷2000 kW, burnt with molded brown coal

70*)

8.Pitcoal
-
fired boilers of 10÷2000 kW

73*)

Notes
:

1. The minimum efficiency for oil or gas
-
fired water heaters is given in terms of Thermal efficiency
(ET), which includes thermal losses from the heater shell.

2. *)

According to DIN 4702


Part 1 (DIN


German standards).


Efficacy for electric resistance
-
based water heaters in particular is given in terms of maximum
Standby loss (SL), where a 40°C temperature difference between stored water and ambient
requirements exists, and is determined using the
equation:

E
min

= 5.9 + 5.3V0.5, W (2.2)

Where


-
V is volume in liters.


Table 2.21. Minimum coefficient of performance
-

COP for water heating heat pumps


Equipment type

COP, kW/kW

Air
-
heated heat pumps

≥ 3.0

Water
-
heated heat pumps

≥ 3.5

Heat recovery air conditioners


Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



22

-

Hot water supply only

-

Air conditioning and hot water supply

≥ 3
.
0

≥ 5.5


Electric resistance
-
based water heating equipment is not recommended except for supporting solar
power systems.

E
lectric heat pump water heating equipment with higher energy efficiency than
electric resistance
-
based water heaters is recommended.


Where eligible, solar powered service water heating systems may be used to meet all or part of
water heating needs for the

building.

Solar powered water heaters shall have at least 60%
efficacy

and minimum thermal insulation R of 2.2 m
2
.K/W at the back of the solar panels.


2.6.3 Service water heating piping insulation

The following hot water piping shall be insulated.

1)

Steam
piping serving such needs as laundry, cooking etc.

2)

Hot water piping for bath, keeping warm, cooking etc.


The insulation thickness of the piping shall be equal or greater than the insulation thicknesses listed
in Tables

2
.
22

and
2
.
23
.


Table 2.22.

Insulation thickness for hot water steel piping


Pipe size

Air temperature; t = 5

37
o
C

Hot water temperature (
o
C)

≥ 115

50÷90

mm

Insulation thickness (mm)

20÷50

50

20

65÷80

50

20

90÷150

63

25

200÷250

63

25

Notes
:

1. Insulating materials shall
have conductivity of 0.06 ÷ 0.07 W/m.K, applicable to 115
o
C.

2. Closed particle structured, porous polymer insulating materials with thermal conductivity λ of
0.032 ÷ 0.04 W/m.K adopt the temperature range of 50

90
o
C.

3.
The insulation thicknesses in Table

2
.
22

shall e
nsure that the
exterior temperature is lower
than 43
o
C.

4. For insulating materials with conductivity outside the above mentioned range, the minimum
thickness (b
min
) is determined using
equation

(
2
.1).


Table 2.23.

Insulation thickness for PPR, PE hot water piping


Outer diameter of PN20/ PN25 plastic pipes

Conductivity 0.2 W/mK

Air temperature; t = 5

37
o
C

mm

Hot water temperature (
o
C)

50÷90

20


50

16





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


23

65

19

80


125

25

Notes
:

1) For residential buildings,
insulation may be optional for PPR hot piping.

2) Insulating materials shall maintain conductivity of 0.034 ÷ 0.04 W/m.K.

3) For insulating materials with conductivity outside the above mentioned range, the minimum
thickness (b
min
) is determined using form
ula (
2
.1).


2.6.4 Service water heating system controls

1)

Temperature controls shall be provided to limit point
-
of
-
use water temperatures not to
exceed 50°C.


2)

Temperature controls shall be provided to limit the maximum temperature of water
delivered to wash basin faucets in public restrooms
up to 43°C.


3)

Systems designed to maintain usage temperatures in hot water
pipes shall

be equipped with
automatic ON/OFF swi
tches that can be set to maintain desirable temperatures for
recirculating hot water.


4)

Recirculating pumps used to maintain storage tank water temperatures shall be controlled in
ways to operate in harmony with the operating mode of the service water suppl
y system.



III.
MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS

3.1. Design documentations of newly developed, reconditioned and retrofitted buildings with sizes
subject to the scope of QCVN 09:2013/BXD shall include a narrative demonstration of compliance
with the requirements o
f

this Code.


3.2. Review and assessment of building designs shall be done in accordance with prevailing rules,
including verification of compliance with the requirements of QCVN 09:2013/BXD for buildings that
fall under the scope of this Code.



IV.IMPLEMENTATION

ARRANGMENT

4.1. The

Department of
Science
,
-
Technology

and
Environment (Ministry of Construction) is
responsible
for

populariz
ing

and provid
ing the implementation

guidelines for QCVN 09:2013/BXD to
interested parties.


4.2. Local regulator
s shall monitor compliance with the requirements of QCVN 09:2013/BXD for
building design and construction works taking place in their jurisdictions and in accordance with the
existing laws.


4.3. Any concerns that may arise during the adoption of this Code

may be relayed to the
Department
of
Science
,
Technology

and
Environment (Ministry of Construction) for

guidance

and responses.



Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



24

ANNEXES

(For reference)


PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF MATERIALS, COMPOSITION AND THERMAL RESISTANCE
CALCULATION FOR
ENCLOSING
ASSEMBLIES


1. Equation for the calculation of thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient (U
-
value)
of enclosing assembly

T
a
n
i
i
N
o
h
R
b
h
R
1
1

1





, m2.K/W

(1)

where:

h
N

, h
T



respectively, the heat transfer coefficients of outer and inner surfaces of building
envelope, W/m
2
.K ;

bi
-

thickness of i
th

material layer, m;


i
-

thermal conductivity of the i
th

material layer of the enclosing assembly, W/m.K;

n
-

number of materi
al layers in the enclosing assembly;

Ra
-

thermal resistance of the air layer inside the enclosing assembly, if any, m
2
.K/W .

o
o
R
U
1

, W/m2.K





(2)

where:

Thermal conductivity

I

listed in Table 1.

See Table 3 for h
N

and h
T
.

See Table
4 for the thermal resistance of air layer R
a
.


2. Key parameters needed for building envelope calculations


Table 1. Physical specifications of building materials

Name of materials

Unit
weight


Ⱐ歧/m
3

Thermal
conductivity

ⱗ/洮K

Speci晩c
hea琠
capaciⰠ
歊/歧kK

Mois瑵re
condc瑩vi
浧/m.h.歐
a

I. Asbestos
-
based materials

Asbestos
-
cement boards and panels

1900

0.35

0.84

0.03

Asbestos
-
cement insulating boards

500

0.13

0.84

0.39

Asbestos
-
cement insulating boards

300

0.09

0.84

-

II. Concrete panels

Steel
-
net cement roof tile

2500

-

0.84

0.00

Reinforced concrete

2400

1.55

0.84

0.03

Broken rock and macadam concrete

2200

1.28

1.21

0.05

Broken brick concrete

1800

0.87

0.84

0.07

Light concrete (cinder concrete)

1500

0.70

0.80

0.09

Light concrete
(cinder concrete)

1200

0.52

0.75

0.11

Light concrete (cinder concrete)

1000

0.41

0.75

0.14

Heat absorbing sponge concrete

1000

0.40

0.84

0.08

Heat absorbing sponge concrete

800

0.29

0.84

0.08

Heat absorbing sponge concrete

600

0.21

0.84

0.13

Heat
absorbing sponge concrete

400

0.15

0.84

0.20





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


25

Heat absorbing silicate sponge concrete

800

0.29

0.84

0.18

Heat absorbing silicate sponge concrete

600

0.21

0.84

0.21

Heat absorbing silicate sponge concrete

400

0.15

0.84

0.24

III. Gypsum
-
based materials

Drywall

1000

0.23

0.84

0.05

Pure gypsum boards and pieces

1000

0.41

0.84

0.11

Kiln cinder gypsum concrete

1000

0.37

0.80

0.15

IV. Terracotta materials, cushion materials, building brick blocks and coating layers

Rammed clay and clay bricks

2000

0.93

0.84

0.10

Adobe

1600

0.70

1.05

0.17

Underneath humus

1800

1.16

0.84

-

Dry sand used as a cushion material

1600

0.58

0.84

0.17

Cushion materials made of sifted dry humus

1400

0.52

0.84

0.19

Silicate soil used as a cushion layer

600

0.17

0.84

0.30

Common bricks laid with heavy mortar

1800

0.81

0.88

0.11

Common bricks laid with light mortar

1700

0.76

0.88

0.12

Silicate bricks laid with heavy mortar

1900

0.87

0.84

0.11

Multi
-
hole bricks (
γ

= 1300) laid with light
mortar
(γ = 1400)

1350

0.58

0.88

0.15

Multi
-
hole bricks laid with heavy mortar


1300

0.52

0.88

-

Heavy mortar and coating cement mortar

1800

0.93

0.84

0.09

3
-
constituent mortar and 3
-
constituent coating
mortar

1700

0.87

0.84

0.10

Lime mortar

1600

0.81

0.84

0.12

V.
Non
-
fired

brick, autoclaved aerated concrete

AAC
non
-
fired

brick

400
-
900

0.12
-
0.13

-

-

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC lightweight
brick)

400
-
800

0.153

-

-

Autoclaved aerated concrete brick

400
-
1000

0.11
-
0.22

-

-

Autoclaved aerated concrete (Chinese standard
GB
-
11968:2006)

300

0.10

-

-

400

0.12

-

-

500

0.14

-

-

600

0.16

-

-

700

0.18

-

-

800

0.20

-

-

VI. Coal and cinder materials

Peat
-
based insulating board

225

0.07

1.67

0.19

Kiln cinder

1000

0.29

0.75

0.20

Kiln cinder

700

0.22

0.75

0.22

Blast
furnace cinder in particle state

500

0.16

0.75

0.23

Cinder brick

1400

0.58

0.75

-

Light cinder mortar

1400

0.64

0.75

0.11

Light cinder mortar

1200

0.52

0.75

0.14

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



26

External coating lime mortar

1600

0.87

0.84

0.14

Internal coating lime mortar

1600

0.70

0.84

0.14

External coating mortar for wood lath

1400

0.70

1.05

0.12

Internal coating mortar for wood lath

1400

0.52

1.05

0.12

Lime coating mortar mixed with slag

1200

0.47

0.80

0.14

Surface coating hard wood fiber board

700

0.23

1.47

0.08

VII.
Scrolling materials

Quality paperboard

1000

0.23

1.47

-

Normal paperboard

700

0.17

1.47

-

Corrugated paperboard

150

0.06

1.47

-

Resin paper, bitumen paper

600

0.17

1.47

-

VIII. Agricultural products

Rice husk

250

0.21

1.88

-

Rush

400

0.14

1.47

-

Straw

320

0.09

1.51

-

Straw
-
based panel

300

0.10

1.47

-

Rush
-
based panel 1900

360

0.10

1.51

-

IX. Glass materials


Window glass

2500

0.78

0.84

0.00

Fiberglass

200

0.06

0.84

0.49

Vapor glass and bubble glass

500

0.16

0.84

0.02

Vapor glass and bubble
glass

300

0.12

0.84

0.02

X. Wooden and cork materials


Pine and (cross the grain)

550

0.17

2.51

-

Pine and (along the grain)

550

0.35

2.51

0.32

Sawdust

250

0.09

2.51

0.26

Treated sawdust

300

0.13

2.30

0.26

Sawdust mixed with resin

300

0.12

1.88

0.25

Plywood

600

0.17

2.51

0.02

Fiberboard

600

0.16

2.51

0.11

-
ditto

250

0.08

2.51

0.09

-
ditto

150

0.06

2.51

0.34

Soft wood board (corkwood)

250

0.07

2.09

0.04

Boards made of corkwood waste

150

0.06

1.88

0.05

XI. Metals


Steel


sheet metal

7850

58

0.48

0

Pig iron

7200

50

0.48

0

Aluminum

2600

220

0.48

0

XI. Other materials


Indoor matting (cotton rug)

150

0.06

1.88

0.34





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


27

Mineral cotton rug

200

0.07

0.75

0.49

Mineral cotton rug

250

0.08

0.75

0.45

Patterned silicate boards and patterned silicate
cement boards

600

0.23

2.30

-

Patterned silicate boards and patterned silicate
cement boards

400

0.16

2.30

-

Patterned silicate boards and patterned silicate
cement boards

250

0.12

2.30

-

Notes
:

1 W/m.K=0.86 kcal/m.h.
o
C; 1 kJ/kg.K=0.24 kcal/kg.
o
C ;

For new
building materials

not listed in this table, designers may use other international standards.


Table 2. Solar heat gain coefficient α of material surface


No

Surface, materials and colors

α ratio



1. Materials



1

White paper

0.20

2

Dry peat

0.64

3

Particle ceramics

0.8
-

0.85

4

Cinder

0.81




2. Wall surface


5

Polished, bright colored limestone

0.35

6

Ditto, dark colored

0.50

7

Brownish yellow sandstone

0.54

8

Dark yellow sandstone

0.62

9

Red sandstone

0.73

10

Polished, white
marble

0.30

11

Ditto, dark colored

0.65

12

Polished, light grey granite

0.55

13

Grey, polished granite

0.60

14

Enameled, white brick

0.26

15

Ditto, bright brown colored

0.55

16

Common, dusted bricks

0.77

17

Ditto, new red colored

0.70
-

0.74

18

Surface coating bricks, bright colored

0.45

19

Smooth, even concrete surface

0.54
-

0.65

20

Mortared surface, yellow
-
white painted

0.42

21

Ditto, dark colored

0.73

22

Ditto, white colored

0.40

23

Ditto, light blue colored

0.59

24

Ditto, light cement
colored

0.47

25

Ditto, snow
-
white colored

0.32

26

Vapor silicate

0.56
-

0.59

27

Plain wood

0.59

28

Wood painted in dark colors

0.77

29

Wood painted in light yellow colors

0.60

30

Smooth polished bamboo

0.43

31

Normal bamboo

0.60

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



28



3. Roofing
surface


32

New, white fibrocement boards

0.42

33

Ditto, used for 6 months

0.61

34

Ditto, used for 12 months

0.71

35

Ditto, re
-
coated with cement water

0.59

36

Ditto, used for 6 years

0.83

37

Corrugated mineral cotton boards

0.61

38

Light brownish
mineral cotton boards

0.53

39

Roofing oilpaper, coarse finish

0.91

40

Ditto, sprinkle
-
coated with mineral particles

0.84

41

Ditto, sprinkled with grey colored sand particles

0.88

42

Ditto, sprinkled with dark colored sand particles

0.90

43

Light
colored sheet metal

0.26

44

Black sheet metal

0.86

45

Red or brown roof tile

0.65
-

0.72

46

Grey cement roof tile

0.65

47

Polished or white plated steel

0.45

48

Ditto, in blue color

0.76

49

Galvanized steel, new

0.30

50

Ditto, dusted

0.90

51

Unpolished aluminum

0.52

52

Polished aluminum

0.26



4. Paint coated surface


53

Painted in bright red (pink) color

0.52

54

Painted in blue color

0.64

55

Painted with cobalt
-
based materials, in bright blue color

0.58

56

Ditto, purple color

0.83

57

Painted in yellow

0.44

58

Painted in red

0.63



5. Sidewalk and road surface


59

New asphalt

0.89

60

Old asphalt

0.67

61

Cinder concrete

0.89

62

Granite macadam

0.80

63

Sand mixed with gravel

0.66

64

Wet sand

0.80

65

Granite rock and gravel

0.67



6. Transparent materials


66

Polyclovinil screen, thickness 0.1 mm

0.096

67

AFF polyamide screen, thickness 0.08 mm

0.164

68

Polyethylene screen, thickness 0.085 mm

0.109

69

7 mm
-
thick glass

0.076

70

4,5 mm
-
thick door glass

0.04

71

6 mm
-
thick glass

with heat absorbing surface

0.306

72

17 mm
-
thick imaging glass

0.02

73

1.2 mm
-
thick colorless organic glass

0.123

74

Ditto, yellow colored, 2.7 mm in thickness

0.46

75

Ditto, blue colored, 1.4 mm in thickness

0.34






QCVN 09:2013/BXD


29




- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

15
105
15
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm
- G¹ ch ®Êt sÐt nung =105 mm
Table 3.

Surface heat transfer coefficient of envelope structures h, W/m
2
.K

(in accordance with TCVN 298:2003 and ISO 6946:1996 standards)



Name of coefficient

Heat flux direction

Horizontal

(for walls)

Upward

(for roofing)

Downward

(for roofing)

Outer surface

heat
transfer coefficient hN,
W/m
2
.K

25

25

25

Inner surface heat
transfer coefficient hT,
W/m
2
.K

7.692

10

5.882


Table 4. Thermal resistance of unventilated air layer Ra, m
2
.K/W

(in accordance with TCVN 298:2003 and ISO 6946:1996 standards)



Air layer
thickness, mm

Heat flux direction

Horizontal

(for vertical air layer)


Upward

(for horizontal air layer)


Downward

(for horizontal air layer)


0

0.00

0.00

0.00

5

0.11

0.11

0.11

7

0.13

0.13

0.13

10

0.15

0.15

0.15

15

0.17

0.16

0.17

25

0.18

0.16

0.19

50

0.18

0.16

0.21

100

0.18

0.16

0.22

300

0.18

0.16

0.23

Notes
: Intermediate values may be determined using linear interpolation.


3. Select common exterior wall and roof designs, and total thermal resistance R
o

may be calculated
using equation (1).


3.1. WALLS

T1. Single
-
leaf wall (conventional
thickness: 110 mm), fireclay solid
bricks


Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



30


105
15
60
10
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm
- G¹ ch ®Êt sÐt nung =105 mm


- V÷a chÌ n m¹ ch =10 mm

- G¹ ch ®Êt sÐt nung =105 mm

- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

10
105
15

- G¹ ch rçng =105 mm
15
105
15
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm




No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness,
m

Thermal
conductivity,

, W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements

1

Exterior plaster

0.015

0.93

0.332

R
o
<0.56 m
2
.K/W

Not qualified!

2

Fireclay solid brick and heavy
(cement) mortar brickwork

0.105

0.81

3

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93


T2. One brick thick
wall (conventional thickness: 220 mm), fireclay solid bricks







No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness,
m

Thermal
conductivity,

, W/(m.K)

Total

thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements

1

Exterior plaster

0.015

0.93

0.474

R
o
<0.56 m
2
.K/W

Not qualified!

2

Fireclay solid brick and heavy
(cement) mortar brickwork

0.220

0.81

3

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93


T3. Single
-
leaf wall (conventional thickness: 110 mm), fireclay hollow bricks






-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Fireclay bricks
δ
=
105

mm

-

Joint mortar
δ
=
10

mm

-

Fireclay bricks
δ
=
105

mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Hollow bricks
δ
=
105

mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Fireclay bricks
δ
=
105

mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


31


10
105
15
105
15
60
10
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

- G¹ ch rçng =105 mm

- V÷a chÌ n m¹ ch =10 mm

- G¹ ch rçng =105 mm

- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm


15
105
15
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

- Bl èc bª t«ng nhÑ =105 mm

No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness,
m

Thermal
conductivity,

, W/(m.K)

Total thermal
resistance R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements

1

Exterior plaster

0.015

0.93

0.383

R
o
<0.56 m
2
.K/W

Not qualified!

2

Hollow bricks (γ = 1300) and light
plaster (γ = 1400) brickwork

0.105

0.58

3

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93


T4. Calculating thermal
resistance for one brick thick walls (conventional thickness: 20 mm),
fireclay hollow bricks







No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness,
m

Thermal
conductivity,

, W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not qualified
for Code requirements

1

Exterior plaster

0.015

0.93

0.584

or

0.625

R
o
>0.56 m
2
.K/W

Qualified

or

Qualified and over
qualified


2

Hollow bricks (γ = 1300) and
汩gh琠
mortar (γ = 1400) brickwork



Mu汴l
-
ho汥⁢物捫c⁷楴i⁨敡ey
⡣(m敮琩o牴慲⁢物捫睯rk

0⸲.0

0⸵.



0⸵.

3

䥮瑥物潲rp污l瑥r

0⸰.5

0⸹.


T5. Brick, porous concrete and single
-
leaf walls (conventional thickness: 110 mm)


-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Hollow bricks
δ
=
105

mm

-

Joint mortar
δ
=
10

mm

-

Hollow bricks
δ
=
105

mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Autoclaved lightweight concrete
δ
=
105

mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



32


10
105
15
105
15
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm
- Bl èc bª t«ng nhÑ =105 mm


- V÷a chÌ n m¹ ch =10 mm

- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

- Bl èc bª t«ng nhÑ =105 mm

60
10
No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness,
m

Thermal
conductivity,

, W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements


1

Exterior plaster

0.015

0.93

0.486

R
o
<0.56 m
2
.K/W

Not qualified!

2

Porous concrete bricks

0.105

0.37

3

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93

T6. Brick, porous concrete and one brick thick walls (conventional thickness: 220 mm)







No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness,
m

Thermal
conductivity,

, W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements


1

Exterior

plaster

0.015

0.93

0.797

R
o
>0.56 m
2
.K/W

Qualified and over
qualified

2

Porous concrete bricks

0.220

0.37

3

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93


T7. 3D 180 mm thick panels





No

Material layers, outside in

Thickness, m

Thermal
conductivi
ty,

,
W/(m.K)


Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not qualified
for Code requirements

1

Exterior plaster

0.015

0.93

0.81÷ 1.56


15
50
20
50
15
cã l - í i thÐp
- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

- Lí p xi m¨ ng c¸ t =50 mm

- TÊm pol ystyrol =20 - 50 mm

cã l - í i thÐp
- Lí p xi m¨ ng c¸ t =50 mm

- Lí p v÷a tr¸ t =15 mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Sand cement layer, with steel mesh
δ
=
5
0 mm

-

Polystyrol panel
δ
=
20
-
50

mm

-

Sand cement layer, with steel mesh
δ
=
5
0 mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm

-

Autoclaved lightweight concrete
δ
=
105

mm

-

Joint mortar
δ
=
10

mm

-

Autoclaved lightweight concrete
δ
=
105

mm

-

Plaster
δ
=15 mm





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


33

- G¹ ch l ¸ nem 200 200 15 mm
- V÷a l ¸ t =10 mm

- G¹ ch chèng nãng 200 200 105 mm, =105 mm

- V÷a xi m¨ ng l - í i thÐp chèng thÊm =20 mm

- Bª t«ng cèt thÐp m¸ i =120 mm

- V÷a tr¸ t trÇn =15 mm

2

Cement, sand and steel mesh
3D panels

0.05

0.93

R
o
>0.56 m
2
.K/W

Qualified and over
qualified

or excessively over

qualified

3

Porous polystyrol insulating
layer

0.02÷ 0.05

0.04

4

Cement, sand and steel mesh
3D panels

0.05

0.93

5

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93

Notes
:

The total thermal resistance of exterior walls is calculated using the heat transfer coefficient of
the exterior surface
-

hN= 25 W/m2.K and heat transfer coefficient of the interior surface
-

hT= 7,692
W/m2.K


see Table 3, Annexes.

3.2. ROOF


M1. Roofing with a 105 mm thick hollow brick insulating layer






No

Material layers, top down

Thickne
ss, m

Thermal
conductivity
,

, W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements

1

Terra cotta tile

0.015

0.81

0.640

R
o
< 1.0 m
2
.K / W

Not qualified

2

Tile plaster

0.01

0.93

3

Fireclay tile (continuous parts)

0.105

0.81

4

Fireclay tile (partition walls)

0.053

0.81

5

Aerated hollow holes, Ra = 0.22 m
2
. K
/ W

0.053


6

Vertical plaster lining

0.105

0.93

7

Cement and steel mesh plaster

0.02

0.93

8

Reinforced concrete

0.12

1.55

9

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93


M2. Roofing with a 105 mm thick hollow brick insulating layer and 150 mm thick porous concrete

㴱000g/洳


With composition similar to the M1 roof, but with an additional 150 mm thick lightweight concrete


porous concrete layer

=1000 kg/m3
-


=0.41 W/(m.K) on top of the heat insulating tiles, resulting in
a total thermal resistance of the M2 roof of Ro=1.006
m
2
.K/W


qualified.

-

Terra cotta tile 200x200x15 mm

-

Tiling mortar
δ
=10 mm

-

Heat resistant brick 200x200x105 mm,
δ
=105 mm

-

Damp resistant
steel mesh cement mortar
δ
=2
0

mm

-

Roof reinforced concrete
δ
=120 mm

-

Ceiling
plaster
δ
=15 mm

Unofficial translation

-

QCVN 09: 2013/BXD



34

- G¹ ch l ¸ nem 200 200 15 mm
- V÷a l ¸ t =10 mm

- TÊm xèp pol ystyrol =30 mm

- V÷a xi m¨ ng =5 mm

- Xi m¨ ng pol i mer chèng thÊm =2 mm

- Bª t«ng cèt thÐp m¸ i =120 mm

- V÷a tr¸ t trÇn =15 mm

No

Material layers, top down

Thicknes
s, m

Thermal
conductivit
y,

,
W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements

1

Terra cotta tile

0.015

0.81

1.006

R
o
> 1.0 m
2
.K / W

Qualified

2

Tile
plaster

0.01

0.93

3

Lightweight
-
porous concrete layer
(

=1000 kg/m3)

0.150

0.41

4

Fireclay tile (continuous parts)

0.105

0.81

5

Fireclay tile (partition walls)

0.053

0.81

6

Aerated hollow holes, R
a

= 0.22 m
2
. K /
W

0.053


7

Vertical plaster
lining

0.105

0.93

8

Cement and steel mesh plaster

0.02

0.93

9

Reinforced concrete

0.12

1.55

10

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93


M3. Roofing with 30 mm thick polystyrol porous panels








No

Material layers, top down

Thickne
ss, m

Thermal
conductivi
ty,

,
W/(m.K)

Total
thermal
resistance
R
o
,

m
2
.K/W

Qualified or not
qualified for Code
requirements

1

Terra cotta tile

0.015

0.81

1.140

Ro > 1.0 m
2
.K / W

Qualified

2

Tile plaster

0.01

0.93

3

Polystyol panel

0.03

0.04

4

Cement plaster

0.05

0.93

5

Damp resistance polymer cement
plaster

0.002

0.93

6

Reinforced concrete

0.12

1.55

7

Interior plaster

0.015

0.93

-

Terra cotta tile 200x200x15 mm

-

Tiling mortar
δ
=10 mm

-

Polystyrol panel
δ
=30 mm

-

Cement mortar
δ
=5 mm

-

Damp resistant polymer cement
δ
=2 mm

-

Roof reinforced concrete
δ
=120 mm

-

Ceiling

plaster
δ
=15 mm





QCVN 09:2013/BXD


35

Notes
:

The total thermal resistance of
roofing is calculated using the heat transfer coefficient of the
exterior surface
-

hN= 25 W/m2.K and heat transfer coefficient of the
interior surface
-

hT= 5,882
W/m2.K


see Table 3, Annexes.