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4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Doing Enterprise
Architecture

John Townsend

Deputy Director (Corporate Information Systems)

Agenda

1.
Background


EA

2.
Background


LJMU

3.
The JISC EA Pilot Programme


Description


Outcomes

4.
What’s Next

5.
References/Further Information

6.
Q&A


What Is An Enterprise Architecture
?

Definition One


A description
of the current and/or future structure
and behaviour of an organization's processes,
information systems, personnel and organizational
sub
-
units, aligned with the organization's core goals
and strategic direction
.

What Is An Enterprise Architecture
?

Definition Two


A conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and
operation of an organization. The intent of an
enterprise architecture is to determine how an
organization can most effectively achieve its current
and future objectives*

*(SearchCIO.com)

What Is An Enterprise Architecture
?

Definition Three


A high
-
level, strategic technique designed to help
senior managers achieve business & organisational
change

*JISC Technology & Standards Watch Early Adopter Study


Doing Enterprise Architecture

Flavours of EA



Zachman Framework


Department of Defence Architecture Framework


Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework


The Open Group Architecture Framework


etc



http://www.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8
-
doc/arch/chap37.html


Zachman Framework




What Is A Service
-
Oriented
Architecture?


Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

is an architectural style
that guides all aspects of creating and using business
processes, packaged as
services
, throughout their lifecycle, as
well as defining and provisioning the IT infrastructure that allows
different applications to exchange data and participate in
business processes loosely coupled from the operating systems
and programming languages underlying those applications.



Enterprise Architecture & SOA*






Organisation

Structure & Function


People & strategy


Processes


ICT

Structure and Function


Applications


ICT Infrastructure


SOA
focuses on:


Practices & Processes


Service
-
Based Applications

Processes

SOA
-
based Applications

SOA
focuses on

the interface between

the Organisation and ICT

Enterprise Architecture looks at the whole

So SOA is a common
way of implementing
part of Enterprise
Architecture


*after JISC/Bill Olivier

LJMU

Background
& Context


LJMU commitment to the European Foundation for Quality
Management Excellence Model


winner of the 2008 UK
Excellence Award*


Associated implementation of Balanced Scorecard approach to
strategic management


Well
-
established Development Programme using Managing
Successful Programmes (MSP**)approach


coherent approach
to managing all IS/Process projects


aligned with corporate
strategy & Excellence Model requirement to manage by fact &
process

**http://www.msp
-
officialsite.com/home/Home.asp


*http://www.bqf.org.uk/ex_description.htm


LJMU Background
& Context


Major investment in Oracle applications and
technology


Existing Information Systems Architecture project
taking first steps in EA development


New Governance structure with senior mandate to
oversee Architecture & Principles


JISC EA Pilot Programme*


Ran for CY 2008


3 funded projects


LJMU, Cardiff & Kings


Objective: to pilot EA approaches in HE & in
particular The Open Group Architecture Framework
(TOGAF)**, & to evaluate the approach & associated
software tools




**
https://www.opengroup.org/architecture/

*http://www.jisc.ac.uk/enterprisearchitectures


LEAP Summary (1)


The LJMU Enterprise Architecture Pilot (LEAP) will
build on existing work in Information Systems
Architecture, Governance and technical web services
development to pilot The Open Group Architecture
Framework (TOGAF) approach to establishment of a
full Enterprise Architecture model

LEAP Summary (2)


LEAP will also incorporate work carried out by the LJMU
Process Framework project, which has developed an overall
process management model for the University within the context
of our strategic commitment to the EFQM Excellence Model,
and has produced detailed process maps of many areas of the
business with more recently a particular emphasis on student
administration. Phase 1 of the pilot will concentrate on
developing the architecture model for the Student Recruitment,
Development and Support core process identified within the
LJMU Process Framework.

Pilot Objectives


to gain familiarity with the TOGAF approach


to incorporate existing work into the TOGAF approach


to apply TOGAF to the ‘Student Recruitment, Development and
Support’ domain, completing first
-
cut Business, Information
Systems and Technology architecture models for the area


to evaluate the success of the approach in engaging with senior
management


to evaluate the success of the approach in aligning business
objectives with information systems


to evaluate the success of TOGAF in supporting SOA
approaches


to provide the basis for continuing EA/SOA work


Drivers


Wanted to:


Better understand the relationship between business
processes and application systems to support ICT
-
enabled
business change


Move to a position where the business understands/requires
services not systems


(current economic climate) Better understand the capabilities
of existing systems to realise required services, rather than
the continuum of business application renewals



‘...the Enterprise Architecture discipline has emerged from the need to
derive maximum business value from IT investments’*

*Enterprise Architecture Handbook, Iacob, Franken & van den Berg, BiZZdesign Academy Publishers 2007

Motivation
-

LJMU


Already identified EA work as essential to contextualise other
activity eg Information Systems Architecture project, Student
Administration Review, technical service developments


Architecture = key responsibility in new Governance structure


Major investment with Oracle predicated on Fusion
implementation, requiring SOA approach


Opportunity to engage with other practitioners/the Open Group
to advance learning & expertise


Benefits to LJMU


Opportunity to:


define our IT architecture, linking process, data, applications
and infrastructure = in essence, defining what services we
require now/in future, and which systems deliver/will deliver
these service


be flexible and future
-
proofed


standardise data and processes


benefit from work being carried out elsewhere in the
community




Motivation: Wider Community


Contribute to the development of EA models for the sector


Promote the importance of effective Governance structures for
EA/SOA implementation


Contribute models at various levels to the e
-
Framework


Support the development of shared service approaches






What does success look
like for
LJMU


Senior Management engaged with EA/SOA approach


Understanding/model of how things fit together in
student administration area


Commitment to continuing development


Practical implementation of services linked to
business objectives


Enhanced ability to deliver EA/SOA approach


What does success look
like for the
Programme


Enhanced understanding of importance of EA/SOA
approaches across the sector


Validation (or otherwise!) of TOGAF approach


Contribution to e
-
Framework


Learning from early adopters as basis for future work


Key Areas of Activity


TOGAF:
training & familiarisation, attendance at Open Group
Conferences


Tools:

review & evaluation of possible tools; deployment of selected
tool


Business Architecture
: review & assimilation of existing artefacts


Governance:

promotion through Governance structure & development
of Information Management Principles


Research
: reading ref other/alternative approaches eg Enterprise
Architecture As Strategy; Dynamic Enterprise Architecture; attendance
at various events


e
-
Framework
: workshop & familiarisation



TOGAF


TOGAF to EA like PRINCE2 to Project Management


seems too big,
may be best treated as toolkit, use what works


Is a process


fairly neutral on what an EA may look like, what tools
may be used, practicalities of modelling


The Architecture Development Method seems to conflict with our use of
MSP


from LJMU point of view, there is a point at which the ADM
would hand over; equally, parts of the ADM seem to fall into the
institutional strategic planning process


Trick seems to be to align what you’re already doing with the ADM and
fill in the gaps, rather than start with a blank sheet of paper



Strategic planning/

Governance

Programme

Management

TOGAF

Approach (emergent)


implement a Governance structure that mandates Architecture
development, develops Principles and gives Executive Board
level endorsement


start assimilating artefacts/learn about TOGAF


select a tool (BiZZdesign Architect)


model the EA across the whole organisation at a high level, to
give context/connectivity


select a burning platform to go into detailed EA and demonstrate
business value (in LJMU’s case, Student Recruitment,
Development & Support


driven by a high profile two year
project to transform student administration)


Tools


All research suggests a deployment of a comprehensive EA tool is
essential


Reviewed various options


Telelogic (IBM), Oracle, Orbus


settled on
BiZZdesign Architect*


Based on the Archimate modelling language**


BiZZdesign delivered training & follow up


Beginning to get to grips with using tool, developing models in the area
of Student Recruitment, Development and Support


Using with Business


Seems to be right choice, as ‘easy’ as an EA tool gets, particularly
good in managing relationships


but this as much Archimate as the
tool

*www.bizzdesign.nl/joomla/component/option,com_frontpage/Itemid,1/lang,english/


**http://www.archimate.org/


LJMU Architecture

Governance & SOA



In 2006, lack of working governance
mechanisms in mid size to large post
-
pilot SOA
projects will be the most common reason for
project failure








(0.8 probability


Gartner)


IT Governance


A Definition


IT governance: Specifying the
decision rights and accountability
framework to encourage desirable
behaviour in the use of IT*


*Weill and Ross, 2004,
IT Governance
, HBSP

Key IT Governance Decisions*

IT Principles Decisions

High
-
level statements about how IT is used in the business

IT Architecture

Decisions


Organising logic for data,

applications,

and infrastruc
-

ture captured in a set of

policies, relationships, and

technical choices to achieve

desired business and

technical standardisation

and integration



IT Infrastructure

Decisions


Centrally co
-
ordinated, shared

IT services that provide the

foundation for the enterprise’s

IT capability.


Business Applications Needs


Specifying the business need

for purchasing or internally

developed IT applications.

IT Investment and

Prioritisation decisions


Decisions about how much

and where to invest in IT,

including project approvals

and justification techniques.







*Ibid.

IT Governance Archetypes*

STYLE


Who Has Decision or Input Rights?


Business


A group of business executives or individual executives (CxOs). Includes

Monarchy

committees of senior business executives (may include (CIO), excludes



IT executives acting independently.


IT Monarchy

Individuals or groups of IT executives.


Feudal


Business unit leaders, key process owners or their delegates.


Federal


C
-
level executives and business groups (eg business units or processes);



may also include IT executives as additional participants. Equivalent of the



central and state governments working together.


IT Duopoly

IT executives and one other group (e.g. CxO or business unit or process



leaders).


Anarchy


Each individual user.

*Ibid.

IT Governance

Systems

Development

Programme

Board

IT

Steering Group

Information

Management

Steering Group

CIS

Membership

Business

Membership

Business

Membership

Business

Membership

Principles and Architecture

Infrastructure

Business Applications

Needs

Investment & Prioritisation

MSP

ITIL

LJMU Governance Membership


7 members of the LJMU Senior Management team,


out of a total of 16


School Directors


Service Directors


Library, Estates, HR


Admin/project/resource managers


All ICT Senior Managers






Continuum of user engagement



Doing it to them


Doing it for them


Doing it with them


Doing it to themselves



What Can Governance Do

For You?



Get buy
-
in across the board


Do it with them, even if they don’t do it to themselves


Change behaviour, not just technology




EA & Governance


Executive buy
-
in to EA approach


Within LJMU Governance structure, Architecture already
identified as responsibility of Information Management
Steering Group


Demonstrate value of EA approach


‘burning platform’ required, provided by existing Student
Experience Review initiative


Visibility


Exposes Senior Management to EA approaches


Selling EA & Governance


Speak the language of the business


Or something as close as you can get


It’s all about value


The business has to see that this will promote better IS
decision
-
making to support the business better


Show them pictures


Not like I’ve been doing in this presentation…


EA development will provide the pictures


See JISC SOA animation
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/programme_eframework/soa.aspx




Selling EA & Governance


Business value:


Business wants to know how to analyse staffing
requirements in light of increasing self
-
service


‘As Is’ Architecture


self
-
service capability mapped to
business processes as of now


‘To Be’ Architecture


self
-
service capability mapped to
business processes in light of move to Campus Solutions


Giving a visual representation that addresses the
business problem




Governance


IM Principles

1.
Information
is a valuable shared institutional resource and must be
managed
appropriately
throughout its lifetime.

2.
Information
should be available to those who need it (ideally ‘anytime, anywhere, and
anyhow’) subject to security and acceptable use policies.

3.
University
information must be trustworthy (relevant, accurate, timely, secure)

4.
All
members of the University community are personally responsible for managing the
information they create and use.

5.
Information
management should add value to the University community.

6.
The
status of information sources (e.g. definitive/primary, derived/secondary) must be
clearly defined and only definitive/primary sources should be updated.

7.
Information
management must comply with external statutory and regulatory
requirements.

8.
Information
management principles will inform IT principles.

9.
There
is a common vocabulary and data definition.

10.
The
University is responsible for assisting staff to work in the most effective ways
possible.

Research & Evaluation


Alternative approaches: Dynamic Enterprise
Architecture (DYA)*


Discussions with Oracle UK extending into meetings
with Griffiths Waite, Oracle consulting partner &
EA/SOA specialist


Engagement with EDUCAUSE EA constituent group
(ITANA) & BCS Architecture Group


Interest in Dutch SaNS group, taking an EA approach
to implementation of Oracle Campus Solutions

*Dynamic Enterprise Architecture, Wagter et al, Wiley 2005

Outcomes/Next
Steps

(Dec ‘08, end of LEAP)


Overall high
-
level Architecture in place


Architecture for Student Recruitment, Enrolment & Development
modelled in Architect


SUMS in relation to Enrolment in development for e
-
Framework


Architecture approach recognised as beneficial, further EA work
mandated as part of major project to move from the Oracle
Student System to Oracle Campus Solutions by 2010


Questions/Issues

(Dec ‘08, end of LEAP)



Need to establish specific EA resource


Enterprise
Architect as staff role


Is Open Group membership necessary/beneficial for
the future?


Will BiZZdesign Architect prove to be the best tool in
the longer term?



Whichever route you choose, remember that EA is a
path, not a destination. EA has no value unless it
delivers real business value as quickly as possible.
One of the most important goals of any EA is to bring
the business sides & the technology side together so
that both are working effectively towards the same
goals”.



http://www.objectwatch.com/white_papers.htm#4EA

Roger Sessions,
ObjectWatch
,

May 2007*

Outcomes/Next Steps


Identified Business Analyst role as key


Appointed Programme Office Manager


Expanded Programme Office to 4 Business Analysts, location of
EA work, extending training to group


Established principle that all IS projects would include ‘as is’ &
‘to be’ architectures


incremental approach, building up big
picture through individual projects


Archimate: big win, great for articulating relationships between
people/processes/systems, using actively with business users in
IS/Change initiatives


Enterprise Architecture

Some Initial
Conclusions


Good Governance is essential


EA is not something you do just to have one


needs
to be applied where can deliver business benefits, if
can’t, don’t bother


Needs to be integrated with other existing
approaches, part of overall toolkit, not new big thing


All about Change Management


Speak English

What’s Happening Now


Early Adopter Study published:


Doing Enterprise Architecture: Enabling the agile institution

http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/services/techwatch/reports/earlyadopters.aspx



JISC Flexible Services Delivery Programme launched


http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/flexibleservicedelivery.aspx


Will include EA in HE Practice Group, including existing
early adopters, the Open Group, and colleagues from the
Netherlands


Join
ENTERPRISE
-
ARCHITECTURES@JISCMAIL.AC.UK



Finally


Governance is an activity not a committee structure


EA is an activity not an artefact


They both form part of a vehicle that can help get you
where you want to go


If you don’t want to go anywhere, you don’t need a
vehicle


If you don’t know where you’re going, a vehicle won’t
help

& again



Focus on making full & effective use of the systems we’ve
already got:


Useful, Usable &
Used


Means focus on people:


See VPEC
-
T:


Lost in Translation. Green & Bate, 2007 Evolved Media
LLC


www.LIThandbook.com


“In the current economic climate, an effective enterprise
architecture (EA) program is a necessity, not a luxury...”




Gartner May 2009
http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=995712