8 Grade Technology Education

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8
th

Grade Technology Education

Curriculum


9 Weeks




b
y

Ben Chadwick

April 2012







8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

2

Table of Contents

Unit 1: CO2 Car Design

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..................

3

Lesson 1: Introduction to Technology Education

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................................
.......

4

Lesson 2: Design Process
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4

Lesson 3: Building Phase

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5

Lesson 4:

Aerodynamics

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5

Lesosn 5:
Timed Races

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6

Unit 1
:

Standards and Benchmarks

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................................
.

7

National Standards

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......................

7

Technological Literacy Content Standards from the I
TEA

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....................

7

Mathematics Standards from the
NCTM

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................

9

Science Standards from the
AAAS

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.........................

9

Iowa Core

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..

11

Unit 2:
CO2 Car Solar Panel Modification

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...................

12

Lesson 1: Energy Crisis

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............

13

Lesson 2: Solar Car Design
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.......

1
4

Lesson 3: Solar Car Construction

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.............................

14

Unit
2:

Standards and Benchmarks

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................................
...............................

15

National Standards

................................
................................
................................
....................

15

Technological Literacy Content Standards from the I
TEA

................................
..................

15

Mathematics Standards from the
NCTM

................................
................................
..............

18

Science Standards from the
AAAS

................................
................................
.......................

1
9

Iowa Core

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................................
................................
................................
..

22

Unit 3:
Bridge

Building

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....................


Lesson 1:

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.......


Lesson 2:

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.......


Lesson 3:

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.......


Lesson 4:

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.......


Lesson 5:

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.......


Unit 3: Standards and Benchmarks

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................................
................................
...


National Standards

................................
................................
................................
........................


Technological Literacy Content
Standards from the I
TEA

................................
......................


Mathematics Standards from the
NCTM

................................
................................
..................


Science Standards from the
AAAS

................................
................................
...........................


Iowa Core

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................................
................................
................................
......


Appendix A:
The Deisgn Process

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................................
.....


Appendix
B
:
CO2 DRAGSTER Design Specification

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................................
.....


Appendix
C
:
Common Concerns

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................................
................................
......


Appendix
D
:
CO2 Car Final Layout
Instructions

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................................
.............


8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

3

Appendix
E
:
Glossary of Terms
-

Unit 1 & Unit 2

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................................
...........


Appendix
F
:
Glossary Story Assignment

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................................
.........................


Appendix
G
:
What Your Students Should Know About Solar Energy

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............


Appendix
H
:

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................................
......


Appendix
I
:

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................................
.......


Appendix
I
:

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................................
......


Appendix
J
:

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................................
......


Materials List

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................................
....


Resources

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..........



































8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

4

Unit 1:
C
O
2 Car

Design

Length: 4 Weeks


Objectives and Goals



Student will identify and apply the design process steps.



Students will apply the basic rules of aerodynamics.



Students will apply drafting techniques to create a final
design.



Students will demonstrate knowledge of the metric measuring system.


Design Lesson Supplies & Equipment:



Drafting paper



Ruler



T
-
square



Triangle



Software

o

ArchiCAD

o

Google SketchUp


Car Building Supplies & Equipment:



Balsa/Basswood Blanks



CO2
Cartridge



Axels



Wheels



Sandpaper



Paint



Screw
-
eye's



band saw/scroll saw



drill press



sander



table saw


Racing Supplies & Equipment:



Fishing Line



Finish Gate



Launcher



Track system







8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

5

Lesson Topics

Lesson 1: Introduction to Technology Education

Length: On
e week.



Cover nine week course outline



Cover software and lab tools to be used throughout course

o

Safety coverage and
review
.

o

S
oftware

introduction of basic tools.



ArchiCAD



Google SketchUp



Intro week
software
assessment



Safety test


Lesson 2:
Design Process

Length:
One week



Create and show video displaying CO2 Cars and Top Fuel dragster racing.



Introduction to the design
process, discussion

o

Facilitate a class discussion on the design process.



Appendix A



Web resource:
http://www.slideshare.net/ehelfant/design
-
process
-
overview



The Problem

o

Handout project rules and specifications.



Appendix B



Ask the students to read through the handout.



Answer any q
uestions they might have.

o

The two

activities

below

to be completed at each student's individual
pace. Students should complete their rough sketches either by the
end of class Day 2 or during the begin
ning of the class Day 3 of this
lesson. When
the stude
nt has finished their sketches and design
evaluations, they move onto the final design activity.

The students will
complete the design packet to produce a quality design.



Hand out CO2 Design Forms



PDF Handout



Hand out Sketching FAQ’s



Appendix C



Hand out
CO2 Car Final Layout Instructions



Appendix D



CO2 Car Design Glossary

o

Students can use the included glossary or a computer to look up these
key CO2 Dragster terms.



Appendix
E



Introduction to multiview (
orthorgraphic
) drawings

o

Demonstrate 2D drawings of top
, side, and front views
on the CO2 car
blank.

8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

6

o

Have students draft three possible designs for their CO2.



Blank top, front, and sides views will be provided.



Once completed, will show the teacher for discussion of which
one to continue with.

o

Have students c
reate a 3D render of the selected design.



Blank 3D rendering will be provided in SketchUp.


Lesson 3:
Building Phase

Length: One week



Introduction to the building process.

o

Template Transfer

o

Drilling Axle Holes

o

Rough Shaping

o

Fine Shaping

o

Painting

o

Final
Assembly



http://www.science
-
of
-
speed.com/building.asp?id=33



Walkthrough how tools will be used on the CO2 Car in the lab area.

o

This should just be an overview with tool safety
review
&
operation
details covered during build time.



CO2 Car Design Glossary Cont.

o

Students
then complete the s
tory using the vocabulary words during
down time.



Appendix F



Students take their CO2 car through the building process.


Lesson 4: Aerodynamics

Length: Th
ree days



Create and show video displaying aerodynamics of a race car.

o

Before watching this video, have students’ l
ist 3 design factors you
have control over that can increase or decrease the speed of your CO2
car.



Introduction to Aerodynamics

o

Have
students

take notes as
I

facilitate a class discussion and show
them the included PowerPoint regarding aerodynamics. Through
the

lecture

I would

emphasize that the 3 factors of design that will affect
the speed of the car include: drag, force & mass



Use the wind

tunnel to test how aerodynamics an uncut CO2 car block is.
Then have the students’ test how aerodynamic their car is.

o

Students will use this data to see if it relates to what place the cars
place in.

o

Students are then to reflect on how they could have al
tered / modified
their design in the future to improve how aerodynamic their car is.



8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

7

Lesson 5:
Timed Races

Length: Two days



Each class will have a double elimination race.

o

Students are to record their times for both races.

o

Students will create a plot graph with these times along with their
aerodynamic data from the wind tunnel.



Students will turn
-
in a completed portfolio documenting the design process
of their CO2 car.

o

Vocabulary Story

o

Sketches

o

Design Analysis

o

Final CO2 car

drawing

o

Plot Graph























8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

8

National Standards:


Technological Literacy Content Standards from the
International T
echnology Education Association

Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of
Technology (STL) (ITEA,
2000/2002/2007)


The Nature of Technology


STL Standard 1

Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of
technology.



G.
The development of technology is a human activity and is the result of individual and
collective needs and
the ability to be creative.


STL Standard 2

Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.



R.
Requirements are the parameters placed on the development of a product or system.


STL Standard 3

Students will develop an understandi
ng of the relationships among technologies and
the connections between technology and other fields of study.



F.
Knowledge gained from other fields of study has a direct effect on the development of
technological products and systems.


Technology and Societ
y


STL Standard 5

Students will develop an understanding of the effects of technology on the
environment.



F.
Decisions to develop and use technologies often put environmental and economic
concerns in direct competition with one another.


STL Standard 7

Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on history.



C.
Many inventions and innovations have evolved using slow and methodical processes
of tests and refinements.


Design


STL Standard 8

Students will develop an understanding
of the attributes of design.



E.
Design is a creative planning process that leads to useful products and systems.

8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

9


STL Standard 9

Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.




F. Design involves a set of steps, which can be performed in di
fferent sequences and

repeated as
needed.


STL Standard 10

Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and
development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.



H.
Some technological problems are

best solved through experimentation.


Abilities for a Technological World


STL Standard 11

Students will develop abilities to apply the design process.



J.
Make two
-
dimensional and three
-
dimensional representations of the designed solution.


STL Standard
12

Students will develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and
systems.



H.
Use information provided in manuals, protocols, or by experienced people to see and
understand how things work.



J.

Use computers and calculators in various ap
plications.



H.

Governmental regulations often influence the design and operation of transportation

systems.



I.
Processes, such as receiving, holding, storing, loading, moving, unloading, delivering,
evaluating, marketing, managing, communicating, and using

conventions are necessary for the
entire transportation system to operate efficiently.


The Designed World


STL Standard 18

Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use
transportation technologies.



F.
Transporting people and goo
ds involves a combination of individuals and vehicles.



G.
Transportation vehicles are made up of subsystems, such as structural propulsion, suspension,
guidance, control, and support, that must function together for a system to work effectively.



H.
Governmental regulations often influence the design and operation of transportation



systems.



Processes, such as receiving, holding, storing, loading, moving, unloading, delivering, evaluating,
marketing, managing, communicating, and using conventions are n
ecessary for the entire
transportation system to operate efficiently.





8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

10

Mathematics Standards from the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

(NCTM, 2000
-
2004)


GEOMETRY STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Analyze characteristics and properties of two
-

and three
-
dimensional geometric
shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.



Precisely describe, classify, and understand relationships among types of two
-

and

three
-
dimensional o
bjects using their defining properties.


MEASUREMENT STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and
processes of measurement.



Understand relationships among units and convert from one unit to another within
the

same system.

Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.



Solve simple problems involving rates and derived measurements for such
attributes as

velocity and density.


MEASUREMENT STANDARD, Grades 9

12

Understand
measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and
processes of measurement.



Analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement
situations.


DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Select and use appropriate statistical
methods to analyze data.



Find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread, including mean and inter

quartile range.


PROBLEM SOLVING STANDARD, All Grades



Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate

strategies to solve problems.



Monitor and reflect on
the process of mat
hematical problem solving.








8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

11

Science Standards from the American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993)


3. THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY

3 A. Technology and Science, Grades 6

8



Tech
nology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and
other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data
collection and storage, computation, and communication of information.


4. THE PHYSICAL SETTING

4 F. Mo
tion, Grades 6

8



Something can be “seen” when light waves emitted or reflected by it enter the eye

just as something can be “heard” when sound waves from it enter the ear.



Vibrations in materials set up wavelike disturbances that spread away from the
sour
ce. Sound and earthquake waves are examples. These and other waves move at
different speeds in different materials.


















8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

12

Iowa Core
:


Math



6.RP.1



6.RP.3



6.NS.1



6.NS.5



6.NS.8



6.EE.9



7.RP.1



7.G.1



7.G.3



8.EE.5



8.EE.7



8.EE.8



8.G.1



8.G.2


Science



Science as Inquiry (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Think critically and logically to make
the relationships between evidence and explanations.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Recognize and analyze alternative
explanations and predictions.

o

Essential C
oncept and/or Skill: Use appropriate safety procedures
when conducting investigations.



Physical Science (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand and apply knowledge of
motions and forces.


21
st

Century Skills



Employability Skills (6
-
8)

o

Essential Co
ncept and/or Skill: Communicate and work productively
with others, considering different perspectives, and cultural views t
o
increase the quality of work.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Demonstrate productivity and
accountability while aspiring to meet
high expectations.



Technology Literacy (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand the underlying structure
and application of technology systems.



8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

13

Unit 2: C
O
2 Car Solar Panel Modification

Length: 2 Weeks


Objectives and Goals



Define and classify
renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
.



Describe the impacts of energy use on society
.



Describe the benefits of solar and other renewable energy sources
.



Identify and describe photovoltaic systems and components
.



Students will
design and produce an

inno
vative
solar vehicle
.



Students will demonstrate knowledge of gear ratios.


Design Lesson Supplies & Equipment:



Drafting paper



Ruler



T
-
square



Triangle



Software

o

ArchiCAD

o

Google SketchUp


Car Building Supplies & Equipment:



Completed CO2 Car



Solar Panels



Solar

Panel Blanks



Motor



Alligator Clips



Rubber Bands



Nylon Spacers



Soldering iron



Solder



Cool
-
Melt Gun



Glue for Cool
-
Melt Gun



Needle
-
Nose Pliers



Hobby Knives


Racing Supplies & Equipment:



Fishing Line



Finish Gate



Launcher



Track system



8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

14

Lesson Topics

Lesson 1:
Energy Crisis

Length:
Four days
.



The Problem



Presentation

o

Tell students that the
CO2 cartridge
in their cars represents a fuel
tank on a gas
-
powered vehicle. Oil prices have just sky rocketed and is
no longer a reasonable fuel to us for daily t
ransportation. While solar
powered cars are new on the market, existing automotive owners
aren’t willing to trade in. As an alternative option, modification kits
have been offered to convert gas
-
powered vehicles into solar
powered.

o

Your challenge will be t
o take the solar panels, motor, gears, and other
supplied materials, and design a mounting system on your existing
CO2 car so it can be powered using the energy of the sun.



Show example of CO2 car with solar modifications.



Brainstorm other ideas regarding
placement of
components.

o

Cover schedule.



Introduction to Renewable Energy

o

Discuss types of renewable energies:



Solar



Wind



Geothermal



Biomass



Hydropower

o

Handout “What Students Should Know”



Appendix G

o

Handout “Solar Energy Timeline”

o

New vocabulary terms:



Cur
rent



Voltage



Photovoltaic Cell



Conductor



Electrons

o

Introduction to
Photovoltaics



Explain
:
Photovoltaics is
the direct conversion of light into
electricity at the atomic level. Some materials exhibit a
property known as the photoelectric effect that causes
them to
absorb photons of light and release electrons. When these free
electrons are captured, an electric current results that can be
used as electricity. Systems that Convert Sunlight to Electricity
Can Meet Many Different Needs



Create video of photovolt
aics in action.

o

Handout solar kits



Demonstrate how to assemble the solar panel to the motor.

8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

15



Attach paper fan blade cut out to motor.



Show students how the speed depends on angle to the
sun.



If desired to reverse the spin or the motor, reverse wiring.



PDF
Handout “Solar Activity One”



PDF Handout “Solar Activity Two”



Extra:
Solar cooking experiment if time allows.


Lesson
2
:
Solar Car
Design

Length:
Three

days
.



Review of design process.



Introduction to gear ratios.

o

High Speed



Motor is attached to large gear,

driving the small gear.

o

High Torque



Motor is attached to small gear, driving the large gear.



Drafting assignment

o

Students sketch three possible ways to attach their solar panel and
motor.

o

Teacher d
iscusses drawings with students one on one.

o

With the
selected drawing, student will add

onto the



2D draft of
his/her CO2 by attaching the solar panel, motor,
and gears.



3D rendering of his
/her

CO2 by attaching the solar panel,
motor, and gears.



Teacher approves
both

prior to construction
.


Lesson
3
: Solar C
ar Construction

Length:
Three

Days.



Using

available materials to physically mount solar panel, motor, and gears to
CO2 car.



Using a flat service outside,
we’ll have a multiple car per heat race (one day).











8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

16

National Standards:


Technological
Literacy Content Standards from the
International Technology Education Association

Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of
Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002/2007)


The Nature of Technology


STL Standard 1

Students will develop an und
erstanding of the characteristics and scope of
technology.



F. New products and systems can be developed to solve problems or to help do things
that could not be done without the help of technology.


STL Standard 2

Students will develop an understanding of
the core concepts of technology.



M.
Technological systems include input, processes, output, and at times, feedback.



O. An open
-
loop system has no feedback path and requires human intervention, while a
closed
-
loop system uses feedback.



P. Technological syst
ems can be connected to one another.



T. Different technologies involve different sets of processes.


STL Standard 3

Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and
the connections between technology and other fields of st
udy.



E.
A product, system, or environment developed for one setting may be applied to
another setting.


Technology and Society


STL Standard 5

Students will develop an understanding of the effects of technology on the
environment.



D.
The management of
waste produced by technological systems is an important societal
issue.


STL Standard 6

Students will develop an understanding of the role of society in the development
and use of technology.



F.
Social and cultural priorities and values are reflected in te
chnological devices.



G. Meeting societal expectations is the driving force behind the acceptance and use of
products and systems.


8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

17

STL Standard 7

Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on history.



D.
The specialization of fun
ction has been at the heart of many technological
improvements.


Design


STL Standard 8

Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.



G.
Requirements for design are made up of criteria and constraints.


STL Standard 9

Students will
develop an understanding of engineering design.



G.
Brainstorming is a group problem
-
solving design process in which each person in the

group
presents his or her ideas in an open forum.


STL Standard 10

Students will develop an understanding of the role of
troubleshooting, research and
development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.



G.
Invention is a process of turning ideas and imagination into devices and systems. Innovation is
the process of modifying an existing product or
system to improve it.


Abilities for a Technological World


STL Standard 11

Students will develop abilities to apply the design process.



H.
Apply a design process to solve problems in and beyond the laboratory
-
classroom.


STL Standard 12

Students will deve
lop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and
systems.



J.
Operate and maintain systems in order to achieve a given purpose.


STL Standard 13

Students will develop the abilities to assess the impact of products and systems.



H.
Identify
trends and monitor potential consequences of technological development.



I.
Interpret and evaluate the accuracy of the information obtained and determine if it is

useful.


The Designed World


STL Standard 16

Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to select and use energy and
power technologies.



E.
Energy is the capacity to do work.



F.
Energy can be used to do work, using many processes

8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

18



G.
Power is the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another or transferred from one
place to
another, or the rate at which work is done.



H.
Power systems are used to drive and provide propulsion to other technological products and
systems.



Much of the energy used in our environment is not used efficiently.































8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

19

Mathematics

Standards from the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

(NCTM, 2000
-
2004)


DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect,
organize, and
display relevant data to answer them.



Formulate questions, design studies, and collect data about a characteristic shared
by two populations or different characteristics within one population.



Select, create, and use appropriate graphical rep
resentations of data, including
histo
grams, box plots, and scatterplots.


CONNECTIONS STANDARD, All Grades



Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.






















8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

20

Science Standards from the American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993)


3. THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY

3 B. Design and Systems, Grades 6

8



All technologies have effects other than those intended by the design, some of which

may have been predictable and some not. In either case, these side effects may
turn out to be unacceptable to some of the population and therefore lead to conflict
between groups.



Almost all control systems have inputs, outputs, and feedback. The essence
of
control

is comparing information about what is happening to what people want to
happen and then making appropriate adjustments. This procedure requires sensing
information, processing it, and making changes. In almost all modern machines,
microprocess
ors serve as centers of performance control.



Systems fail because they have faulty or poorly matched parts, are used in ways that

exceed what was intended by the design, or were poorly designed to begin with.
The most common ways to prevent failure are
pretesting parts and procedures,
overde
sign, and redundancy.

3 C. Issues in Technology, Grades 3

5



Any invention is likely to lead to other inventions. Once an invention exists, people
are

likely to think up ways of using it that were never imagined at
first.



Scientific laws, engineering principles, properties of materials, and construction
tech
niques must be taken into account in designing engineering solutions to
problems. Other factors, such as cost, safety, appearance, environmental impact, and
what

will happen if the solution fails also must be considered.

3 C. Issues in Technology, Grades 6

8



Technology has strongly influenced the course of history and continues to do so. It is
largely responsible for the great revolutions in agriculture, manufactu
ring,
sanitation and medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, and
communications that have radically changed how people live.



New technologies increase some risks and decrease others. Some of the same
technologies that have improved the
length and quality of life for many people have
also brought new risks.



Rarely are technology issues simple and one
-
sided. Relevant facts alone, even when

known and available, usually do not settle matters entirely in favor of one side or
another. That i
s because the contending groups may have different values and
priori
ties. They may stand to gain or lose in different degrees, or may make very
different predictions about what the future consequences of the proposed action
will be.



Societies influence w
hat aspects of technology are developed and how these are
used. People control technology (as well as science) and are responsible for its
effects.


4. THE PHYSICAL SETTING

4 E. Energy Transformations, Grades 6

8



Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but
only changed from one form into
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another.



Most of what goes on in the universe

from exploding stars and biological growth
to the operation of machines and the motion of people

involves some form of
energy being transformed into another. Energy in the form o
f heat is almost always
one of the products of an energy transformation.



Heat can be transferred through materials by the collisions of atoms or across space
by radiation. If the material is fluid, currents will be set up in it that aid the transfer
of hea
t.


7. HUMAN SOCIETY

7 A. Cultural Effects on Behavior, Grades 6

8



Technology, especially in transportation and communication, is increasingly
important

in spreading ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society and
among different societies. New
technology can change cultural values and social
behavior.


8. THE DESIGNED WORLD

8 C. Energy Sources and Use, Grades 6

8



In many instances, manufacturing and other technological activities are performed
at a site close to an energy source. Some forms of e
nergy are transported easily,
others are not.


10. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

10 J. Harnessing Power, Grades 6

8



The invention of the steam engine was at the center of the Industrial Revolution. It
converted the chemical energy stored in wood and coal, which were plentiful, into
mechanical work. The steam engine was invented to solve the urgent problem of
pumping wat
er out of coal mines. As improved by James Watt, it was soon used to
move coal, drive manufacturing machinery, and power locomotives, ships, and even
the first automobiles.


11. COMMON THEMES

11 A. Systems, Grades 6

8



A system can include processes as well

as things.



Thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to
others. The output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or
informa
tion) can become the input to other parts. Such feedback can serve to
con
trol what goes on in the system as a whole.



Any system is usually connected to other systems, both internally and externally.
Thus a system may be thought of as containing subsystems and as being a
subsystem of a larger system.


12. HABITS OF MIND

12 C. M
anipulation and Observation, Grades 6

8



Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements
of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature, and choose
appropriate units for reporting various magnitudes.

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Inspect,
disassemble, and reassemble simple mechanical devices and describe what
the various parts are for; estimate what the effect that making a change in one part
of a system is likely to have on the system as a whole.


























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Iowa Core
:


Math



6.EE.2



6.G.1



7.EE.3


Science



Science as Inquiry (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Identify and generate questions that
can be answered through scientific investigations. (pg 8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand that different kinds of
question
s suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Incorporate mathematics in scientific
inquiry.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Communicate and defend procedures
and explanations.



Earth and Space (6
-
8)

o

Essential
Concept and/or Skill: Understand and apply knowledge of
the components of our solar system.



Physical Science (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand and apply knowledge of
forms of energy and energy transfer.



Life Science (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept a
nd/or Skill: Understand and demonstrate
knowledge of the social and personal implications of environmental
issues.


Social Studies



Behavioral Sciences (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand the changing nature of
society.

o

Essential Concept and/or

Skill: Understand how personality and
socialization impact the individual.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand the influences on
individual and group behavior and group decision making.



Economics (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand the

role of scarcity and
economic trade
-
offs and how economic conditions impact people's
lives.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Understand the impact of advancing
technologies on the global economy.

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21
st

Century Skills



Employability Skills (6
-
8)

o

Essential
Concept and/or Skill: Adapt and adjust to various roles and
responsibilities in an environment of change.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Demonstrate initiative, self
-
direction,
creativity, and entrepreneurial thinking while exploring individual
talents an
d skills necessary to be successful.



Technology Literacy (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Demonstrate creative thinking in the
design and development of innovative technology products and
problem solving.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Plan
strategies utilizing digital tools to
gather, evaluate, and use information.
































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Unit 3:
Civil Engineering


Bridge Building

Length: 3 Weeks


Objectives and Goals



Student will


Design Lesson Supplies & Equipment:


































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Lesson Topics

Lesson 1: Introduction to
Bridge Building Concepts

Length: One week.













































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National Standards:


Technological Literacy Content Standards from the
International Technology Education
Association

Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of
Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002/2007)


The Nature of Technology


STL Standard 1

Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of
technology.



H. Technolog
y is closely linked to creativity, which has resulted in innovation.


STL Standard 2

Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.



N.
Systems thinking involves considering how every part relates to others.



Q.
Malfunctions of
any part of a system may affect the function and quality of the system.



S.
Trade
-
off is a decision process recognizing the need for careful compromises among
competing factors.



U.

Maintenance is the process of inspecting and servicing a product or system o
n a
regular basis in order for it to continue functioning properly, to extend its life, or to
upgrade its quality.


Technology and Society


STL Standard 5

Students will develop an understanding of the effects of technology on the
environment.



E.
Technologies can be used to repair damage caused by natural disasters and to break
down waste from the use of various products and systems.


STL Standard 7

Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on history.



E.
The design and
construction of structures for service or convenience have evolved
from the development of techniques for measurement, controlling systems, and the
understanding of spatial relationships.



F.
In the past, an invention or innovation was not usually developed

with the knowledge
of science.


Design


STL Standard 8

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Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.



F.
There is no perfect design.


STL Standard 9

Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.



H.
Modeling, testing,
evaluating, and modifying are used to transform ideas into practical

solutions.


STL Standard 10

Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and
development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solvi
ng.



F.
Troubleshooting is a problem
-
solving method used to identify the cause of a malfunction in a
technological system.


Abilities for a Technological World


STL Standard 11

Students will develop abilities to apply the design process.



I.
Specify criteria

and constraints for the design.



K.
Test and evaluate the design in relation to pre
-
established requirements, such as criteria

and
constraints, and refine as needed.



L.
Make a product or system and document the solution.


STL Standard 12

Students will
develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and
systems.



I.
Use tools, materials, and machines safely to diagnose, adjust, and repair systems.


STL Standard 13

Students will develop the abilities to assess the impact of products and sy
stems.



F.
Design and use instruments to gather data.



G. Use data collected to analyze and interpret trends in order to identify the positive and

negative
effects of a technology.


The Designed World


STL Standard 20

Students will develop an understanding o
f and be able to select and use construction
technologies.



F.
The selection of designs for structures is based on factors such as building laws and codes,
style, convenience, cost, climate, and function.



G.
Structures rest on a foundation.



H.
Some
structures are temporary, while others are permanent.



I.
Buildings generally contain a variety of subsystems.


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Mathematics Standards from the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

(NCTM,
2000
-
2004)


NUMBER AND OPERATIONS STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.



Develop, analyze, and explain methods for solving problems involving proportions,

such as scaling and finding equivalent ratios


ALGEBRA STANDARD, Grad
es 6

8

Understand patterns, relations, and functions.



Represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words,
and, when possible, symbolic rules.



Identify functions as linear or nonlinear and contrast their properties from tabl
es,

graphs, or equations.


GEOMETRY STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Analyze characteristics and properties of two
-

and three
-
dimensional geometric
shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.



Understand relationships among the angles, si
de lengths, perimeters, areas, and

volumes of similar objects.


MEASUREMENT STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and
processes of measurement.



Understand, select, and use units of appropriate size and type to measure angles,

perimeter, area, surface area, and volume.

Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.



Select and apply techniques and tools to accurately
find length, area, volume, and
angle

measures to appropriate levels of precision.


DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY STANDARD, Grades 6

8

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.



Discuss and understand the correspondence between data s
ets and their graphical

representations, especially histograms, stem
-
and
-
leaf plots, box plots, and
scatterplots.


COMMUNICATION STANDARD, All Grades



Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.


REPRESENTATION STANDARD, All
Grades

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Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical

phenomena.

































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Science Standards from the American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS,
1993)


1. THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

1 C. The Scientific Enterprise, Grades 6

8



Computers have become invaluable in science because they speed up and extend

people’s ability to collect, store, compile, and analyze data, prepare research reports,
and share dat
a and ideas with investigators all over the world.


4. THE PHYSICAL SETTING

4 G. Forces of Nature, Grades 6

8



The sun’s gravitational pull holds the earth and other planets

in their orbits,
just as the
planets’ gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit

around them.


9. THE MATHEMATICAL WORLD

9 B. Symbolic Relationships, Grades 6

8



Mathematical statements can be used to describe how one quantity changes when
another changes. Rates of change can be computed from differences in magnitudes
and vice versa.



Graphs can show a variety of possible relationships between two variables. As one
vari
able increases uniformly, the other may do one of the following: increase or
decrease steadily, increase or decrease faster and faster, get closer and closer to
some lim
iting value, reach some intermediate maximum or minimum, alternately
increase and decrease indefinitely, increase or decrease in steps, or do something
different from any of these.














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Iowa Core
:


Math



6.G.3



6.G.4



6.SP.1



6.SP.2



6.SP.3



6.SP.4



6.SP.5



7.G.2



8.G.7



8.G.8



8.SP.1



8.SP.4


Science



Science as Inquiry (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Design and conduct different kinds of
scientific investigations. (pg 8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Select and use appropriate tools and
techniques

to gather, analyze and interpret data.

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Use evidence to develop descriptions,
explanations, predictions, and models.


21
st

Century Skills



Employability Skills (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Demonstrate leadership, int
egrity,
ethical behavior, and social responsibility in all environments.



Technology LIteracy (6
-
8)

o

Essential Concept and/or Skill: Use critical thinking skills to conduct
research, solve problems, and make informed decisions using
appropriate technological

tools and resources.










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Appendix A

The Design Process



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Define the Problem

You can't find a solution, until you can spell out what the problem is.


Engineers, inventors, designers
and a
rchitects work with the client to define the project.


The problem may be something like "A new
school kitchen with cafeteria that seats 300 students" or "A
car that gets over 100 mpg
."

Collect Information

Onc
e the problem is defined,
the designers

will spend time gathering information to help them
understand the neighborhood, the
construction
site,
existing technologies, emerging technologies
etc.


Typically this means interviewing people in the industry, aski
ng questions of the client and
researching
.



Brainstorm/Analyze

During this stage of the process,
designers

may begin sketching or making diagrams to help them
understand how all the data and information they
've collected may impact the
ir

design
.

These early
drawings
-

which may include
thumb sketches
, for example, will help the
designer

document their
ideas, because it's likely the solution will

change as they go along.

This is the time to get any and all
id
eas out on to paper for discussion.

Develop Solutions

At this stage in the design process,
designers
will create drawings with specific solutions

to be shown
to the client.


½ size

drawings, as these are typically called,

help illustrate the big ideas and space
requirements of the project.


1/2

drawings

usually do not include dimensions or other construction
-
related notes.





Feedback

No solution is perfect the first time around, so it's critical that the
designer
s continue the discussion
with the client to receive feedback.


Improve

With feedback in hand, the architects will go back and co
ntinue to revise and improve the final
solution.


T
he
designer

will work with the

client to refine the original design.


Based on an analysis of
cost vs. needs, together the firm and the client will closely review

the solutions and make balanced
decisions
on which features will stay, which will be redesigned, and which may be
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eliminated.


Through out this process the designers will consult experts in the field to clarify any
questions they have.

Build It

The pr
ecise details of the
project
will
be
determined
by this point in the process. Final drawings will
be produced. The project will be built to plan. Any changes from the final plans will result in a restart
of this process.





































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Appendix
B

CO2 DRAGSTER Design Specification

CO2 DRAGSTER







SITUATION

Each
beginning of the
quarter our class has a competiti
on to design and produce a race
vehicle powered by


a standard CO2 cartridge. Specifications of wheel size, body length,
axle

size and cartridge position have been determined by the race organizers.


The vehicles
will be raced against each other over a 20m distance with tensioned

fishing line to act



as a guide. A ‘firing’ device
may

be used to

start the vehicles
simultaneously.

If any car does not meet the specified requirements it will be disqualified from the competition.

The fastest vehicle wins.













BRIEF

Design a vehicle (to specs) to travel a distance of 20m in the fastest time

possible

using the power provided by a single standard CO2 cartridge.








DRAGSTER DETAILS

MIN

MAX

PASSED

REMED Y

a

Axles (diameter)

2mm

4.5mm



b

Axles (length)

35mm

88mm



c

Axles bearing (diameter)

3.5mm

4.5mm



d

Axle hole (diameter)

3mm

4.5mm



e

Axle hole (position above body bottom)

5mm

10mm



f

Axle hole (position from either end of body)

9mm

100mm



g

Spacer bearing (diameter) (optional)

7mm

9mm



h

Dragster body (length)

200mm

305mm



i

Dragster body (height at rear with wheels)


75mm



j

Dragster body (mass with wheels)

45g

170g



k

Dragster body (width at axles
-

front & back)

35mm

42mm



l

Power plant depth of hole

52mm

52mm



m

Power plant housing thickness (around entire housing)

3mm




n

Power plant housing (diameter) {Please use a 3/4” drill}

19.5mm

3/4”



o

Power plant centre line (from body bottom)

31mm

35mm



p

Screw eye (eyelet inside diameter)

4mm

8mm



q

Screw eyes (2) or centre line of bottom, distance apart

155mm

270mm



r

Wheels, front (diameter)

32mm

37mm



s

Wheels, front (width at greatest diameter)

2mm

5mm



t

Wheels, rear (diameter)

30mm

40mm



u

Wheels, rear (width at greatest diameter)

15mm

18mm



v

wheelbase

105mm

270mm



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Appendix
C


Common Concerns

There are some common questions or concerns that you may share with others.
See if there are any on this list that are of concern to you.

What are thumbnail sketches?

Thumbnail sketches are small, quick idea sketches that help designers tap into
their cre
ativity to generate their best solutions to problems.

Why 10 or more thumbnail sketches?

Several reasons. Generally people can only see one idea at a time in their mind s
eye. Lots of sketches let you see more than one at a time. Designers have found
that

the process of drawing small, quick sketches makes it possible to work out
details. When you work out the details for one idea, other possibilities pop up.
Trying to do this all in your head, where it is hard to see more than one idea at a
time, is imposs
ible for most people. Those who can do it often make good
designers. However, these good designers draw on paper because they come up
with more ideas and therefore better ideas that way.

But I already know what I want.

It is great to have a concept to sta
rt with. However, without drawing lots of
thumbnails for that idea you cannot know how great of a design you can create.

I cannot come up with more ideas.

The hardest part is putting the pencil on the paper, perhaps because people fear
being laughed at. T
he trick is to just draw something, anything, and then draw it
again and again making slight changes each time. Try curving something that is
straight, or changing the angle of a line or making it shorter or longer or fatter or
who knows. Just put the penc
il down and sketch. Making changes as you go will
allow you to improve on your ideas.

But I cannot draw.

No problem, do not draw, sketch. It is not art work, and it does not have to be
hung on the refrigerator.





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Appendix D



CO2 Car Final Layout Ins
tructions

After choosing your final design it is time to layout your final CO2 Car layout. IT
essential to precisely layout all parts of the car on this drawing EXACTLY as you will
want them on the car because you will be tracing the drawing onto your woo
d to cut
and drill the design for your car.

Supplies & Paper placement

1.

Locate a piece of 11” x 17” graph paper, a drafting board, a T
-
square, a
triangle, a pencil and 4 SMALL pieces of masking tape.

2.

Place T
-
square horizontally

across the drafting board. Make sure
the T is tight against the board.

3.

Place bottom edge of paper tight against the T.










4.

Holding the paper tight against the T
-
square, tape the bottom
-
left
corner.

5.

Slide your hand diagonally towards the upper
-
left corner of the paper to
remove all wrinkles. Tape the upper
-
right corner.

6.

Continue with the bottom right corner and then slide to the upper
-
left
corner.

Layout Wood Blank

Bottom View



1
” up from the b
ottom and 1” from the left side of the paper
d
raw the bottom line
of the wood
305 mm long
. Measure and
mark the distance with you ruler and then slide the
t
-
square

into place and make the straight ling
.



On the left side of the first line draw a line up 7
5
m
m. Use the
ruler to measure then slide the T
-

square and
triangle to create
a straight line
. This will be point A.





1

3

2

Pape
r

Tap
e

Boar
d

T
-

Square

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On the right side

of the first line

draw a line up 10mm


Point
B
. Use the triangle and T
-

square to draw all vertical (up &
down) lines.



Using your triangle connect Point A & Point B to create a
triangle.

Power Plant



43 mm up from the bottom line and starting at the back of
the car draw a dotted line 52mm long.


Point C. Use the T
-
square for all horizontal (across) lines



23 mm up from the bottom line and starting at the back of
the car draw a dotted line 52mm long
-

Point D




Draw vertical line

dotted line

connecting

the ends of points

C & D.

Power Plant Housing



46

mm up from the bottom line and starting at the back of
the

car draw
a dotted line 55
mm long.


Point
E
.



20
mm up from the bottom line and starting at the back of
the car draw
a dotted line 55
mm long
-

Point F




Draw vertical line
dotted line
connecting the ends of points
E & F

Axel Holes



5mm up from bottom of woo
d draw light dotted line



10mm up from bottom of wood draw light dotted line.



All axels have to be between or on these two lines.



9mm from
left

side of wood draw dotted vertical line



100mm from
right
side of wood draw dotted vertical line



All back axles mu
st be between or on these two lines

Top View


Wood Blank



Draw a rectangle that is 42mm tall and the same length as
the side view. Make sure the drawing are in line with each
other.

Power Plant



31 mm from bottom line

draw a dotted line 52mm long



11 mm fro
m bottom line dr
aw a dotted line 52 mm long.



Draw
a vertical line connecting.

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Power Plant Housing



34mm from bottom line
draw a dotted line 55mm long.



8 mm from bottom line

draw a dotted line 55mm long.



Draw a vertical dotted line c
onnecting points.


PLEASE STOP here and have the instructor check your work


CO2 Dragster
-

Main Body Layout


Now start designing your car. Be sure to:



NOT Draw ANYTHING through the power plant area



Include all of the power plant area into your

car



Keep everything (car size, axels, etc.) lined up on the top and bottom
views.



Keep checking design brief specifications to make sure the car
matches the required dimension.



Most important…Do a quality job drawing because

This is what your car will l
ook like!!!

HAVE FUN!!!!!!



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A
ppendix
E


A



Aerodynamics

How air moves around an
object.




Aesthetic

How nice something looks


Ugly



Pretty






Axle

A bar
that connects the wheels




B



Band Saw

A power tool used to make curved cuts and is ideal for rough
shaping CO
2

car bodies.


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CO
2

Cartridge

A small, sealed, metal tube that contains compressed carbon dioxide.
CO
2

cartridges

are used to propel racecars down the track.




D

Back to top



Drag

Force that slows an object down because the air cannot
move around it. Like when you stick your
hand out the
window of a moving car.


Dragster

A racecar that races a short distance on a straight
track. CO
2

racecars are often referred to as
dragsters.


Drill Press

A power tool used for drilling precise holes.

Particularly useful for drilling properly aligned axle holes in the car
body.



Friction

Force caused by 2 objects rubbing together that slows them down and
causes heat.



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I

Back
to
top



Inertia

Tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest unless acted upon by a force.



P

Back
to
top



Power Plant

The CO
2

cartridge onboard a racecar. The
power plant
housing

is the body material that surrounds the cartridge.



Back
to
top



R


Rail Car

A CO
2

racecar design in which wheels are mounted on the
outside of the car body.



S

Back
to
top



Screw Eyes

Small screws with an enclosed ring on one end. Two screw
eyes are mounted on the bottom of CO
2

racecars to hold
the car on the track.

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Shell Car

A

CO
2

racecar design in which all four wheels are housed inside the body of the car.

Specifications

Set of very specific requirements for a project or competition, often including
a set of measurements.



Stationary

Not moving, sitting still.


Symmetry

To have balance, or to have the same shape or size on opposite
sides.



T


Thrust

Force that pushes an object, sets it into motion, or keeps it
moving.


Thumbnail Sketch



A small, quick sketch used to rapidly communicate ideas.

8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

46


Tolerances

An acceptable variance from a specified measurement. Used to determine the
minimum and maximum measurements.




W


Wedge Car

A racecar with external wheels that has a
triangular wedge body shape.

Wheelbase


The measurement from the center of the front
wheels to the center of the back wheels.












8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

47

Appendix
F


Write a story
using Microsoft Word
. The story should be
about designing, building
& racing a CO2 dragster. Use all 20 of the vocabulary words. Underline the
vocabulary words. Use your best spelling, punctuation & grammar.
























8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

48

Appendix
G


What Your Students Should Know About Solar Energy

According to the National Energy Education Development Project (NEED), your students should
know the following.


All students show know:

1.

Solar

energy

provides

the

world

directly and indirectly

with almost all of its energy. As
well as providing the light
and heat energy that sustain the world, solar energy is stored in
fossil fuels and biomass, and is responsible for hydropower and wind energy.

2.

Radiant energy is produced as a result of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core.

3.

Solar energy is a renewable energy so
urce. Its potential as an energy source is vast.

4.

Using solar energy produces no air pollution.

5.

Solar energy is abundant, but it is diffuse and not available at all hours. It is not yet
economical to harness on a large scale to produce electricity.

6.

Most of
the solar energy we use for heat and light cannot be measured. Harnessed solar
energy provides a small amount (0.1%) of the nation’s total energy consumption.

7.

Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight directly into electrical energy. Today, they are mainly
used
in remote areas and for special applications.

8.

Solar energy is used directly to light and heat buildings and heat water.

9.

Back
-
up energy systems are usually needed when using solar energy.


Advanced students also should know:

1.

Photovoltaic

produced
electricity costs more than conventionally produced power;
however, PV manufacturing costs are decreasing and cell efficiencies are increasing.

2.

Concentrating solar energy and directing it toward a receiver can produce high
temperatures capable of producing

electricity.

3.

Using proven construction techniques, solar heated and lighted buildings decrease the need
for conventional energy sources.

4.

Solar resources are affected by time of day, season, and location. Using solar energy for
heating and lighting is a fe
asible choice in many areas of the country with current
technologies.

5.

The environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy.

6.

How photovoltaic cells and concentrated solar power systems transform sunlight into
electricity.

7.

How pa
ssive and active solar systems operate.













8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

49

Materials List


Estimated First Year
Equipment
Cost:

$15,040.92

Current does not include tools.


Estimated Yearly
Student Supply
Cost:
$8502


$25.45 per student.





































8
th

Grade Technology Education


9 Weeks


Dallas Center


Grimes Meadows, Ben Chadwick

50

Resources


CTE Online,
http://www.cteonline.org


Iowa Core,
http://www.educateiowa.gov


ITEEA,
http://www.iteaconnect.org/


Midwest Technology,
http://www.midwesttechnology.com


NOVA Online,
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/
nova


PLTW,
http://www.pltw.org/



Teach Engineering,
http://www.teachengineering.org/