The History of the computer 1

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The
History of the computer


1






History of the computer

Jorge Álvarez

Unidad Educativa
Bilingüe

Nuevo Mundo



The History of the computer


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The History of the computer


The history of computer is a continues advance of the technology that had

been
surprise the human with the advance that it has. Since the first computer until today that
we have very sophisticate, fast, easy and small advanced machine than 100 years ago.
The computer and the technology always will advance like us, we advance an
d also de
computers, because when we advance, we need new items and advices to do many
thing, and them we create new technology as the computer, circuits, processors,
microprocessor until today, artificial intelligence.



The History of the computer


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The History of the computer


A co
mputer is
an advice that helps

the human to calculate and make easier the
human life. The first advice that was created with this function was ‘The Abacus’,
it

was a primitive advice and the base of the

future

computers.

The abacus consists in

the
basic co
unt, and was made in china.

Then was created the first mechanical computer
,
the “Pascaline”. Was a kind of calculator without electricity, just the human intervene,
and was just to add and subtract. Then of those primitive3 and mechanical invents, the
huma
n started to create the real computer with electricity. The first generation were the
computers that use “Vacuum Tubes”
, the computers of that generation were enormous,
in some cases the took all the room that were install, also the were very expensive and

they needed a great deal of energy or electricity.

UNIVAC and the ENIAC are very
good examples of first generation computer.

Then existed the second generation, were
the computers that use “Transistors”. The transistors replaced the vacumm tubes, they
wer
e invented in 1947, but they were used in 1950s. The vacumms tubes w
ere replaced
by the transistors, because the transistors made the computer smaller, they need less size
to be use, faster, cheaper, and more efficent energy than the first generation, that

means
that were best option.

The second generation of computers moved the binary machine language of the
computers to the simbolic one, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to
specify intrunctions in words. The better programming languages we
re use to create a
better computer. COBOL and FORTRAN are very good examples to this generation,
they were move from a magnetic drum to magnetic core.

The famous third generation were a complete revolution of the computers, because they
were the first generation that used “integrated circuits” to take advantage of the
computer abilities. And the integrated circuits replaced the transistors, and they were

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place on silicon chips, called “semiconductors”. That was a excellent upgrade of the
computer, because with the integrated circuits the computers increased the speed and
efficiency
.

In this new generation the computers through keyboards and monitors and i
nterfaces
with an operating system, that means that the computer could run many differents
applications at the same time with a central program that monitored the memory. And
also the computer change in the physic, they started to be smaller and cheaper th
at the
second and first generation.

In that generation was create the first ‘mini computer’, was mini for them. And was
based on non
-
microchip transistors, and later versions of wich were hybrids, being
based on both transistors and microchips.

Minicompu
ters could be seen as a bridge between mainframes and microcomputers, that
means that the third generation was a realli good revolution in the area of the
technology advance, specially with the computers.

The fourth generation computers appeared in 1971, i
n this generation of the computer,
appear a new advice that will change the whole story of the computer so far,

the central
processing unit consisted in the united of multiple microchips for differents CPU
components
.

The drive for ever greater integration

and miniaturization led towards single
-
chip CPUs,
where all the CPU components were put into a single microchip called
‘Microprocessor’. The first one was Intel 4004.

The advent of the microprocessor spawned the evolution of the microcomputers, the
kind t
hat would eventually become persona computers that we are familiar with today.

Then of the generations of the computer, was started the generations of Microcomputers

The microcomputers start existed since 1971 to 1976,

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The History of the computer


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References

(n.d.).

Retrieved from http://www.historyofcomputer.org/

Retrieved from http://www.history
-
timelines.org.uk/events
-
timelines/07
-
computer
-
history
-
timeline.htm

(n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2002/FiveGenerations.a
sp

(
Be
llis
)
, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm