THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

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THE EVOLUTION OF

AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL

TECHNOLOGY

The Four Generation
s

Involving Educational Technology

Jasper Thompson

jasper.thompson@waldenu.edu

A00240846

Specialization: Educational Technology


Paper submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for

EDUC8840:
The Evolution of American Educational Technology


Walden University

February 20, 2011






The Evolution of American Educational Technology


Introduction


The three
decades
of

comp
uter generation chosen for an analysis are the first generation
(1951
-
1958) the second generation (1958
-
1964) and the third gen
eration (1964
-
1974) because
the periods of time are

the more significant area of computer development.


The three decades were ch
osen because the initial three generation of computer
development is regarded as the beginning of the Information Age. The first generation of
computers (1951
-
1958) started with the introduction of UNIVAC. UNIVAC and computer
developed during the second ge
neration used vacuum tubes to control operations. The second
generation of computer (1958
-
1964) was an absolute
result from the creation of the transistor of
Bell Laboratory during 1947. The third generation of computers (1964
-
1974) maintained the
slimmin
g down element trend size of computers. The integrated circuit containing numerous
components fused on a single silicon chip was the major technological advancement of this era.


The key technological advances to occur during the three decade
that will serve as the
basis for the discussion will be development of the UNIVAC computers, the integrated circuit,
microprocessors, and the continuing miniaturization of computers and their components.
UNIVAC I was the
first commercially available comput
er

built in the world. UNIVAC 1
UNIVAC I was release
d

June 14, 1951.
During the time period of 1951to 1958,

46 UNIVAC I
computers were
distributed throughout the world
,

that are now
phased out.
The
name (
UNIVAC
)
Universal

Automatic
Computer

was selected for

the company of John Mauchly
.


The Evolution of American Educational Technology


The Integrated Circuits came to realization with an experimental innovation that showed
the semiconductors devices could possible

achieve the same functions of the vacuum tu
bes. The
merge of large numbers of microscopic transistors into a
little chip was the most significant
achievement involving the manual assembly of circuits using electronic components.


The
innovation

of the transistor in 1947 became an
important
development in the world
of

technology. The transistor
could
perform the function of
large component
s used in
computer
during the early developments
.

Integrated circuits
proved that complex functions could be
integrated on a single chip with a highly deve
loped speed and storage capacity
. The platform of
transistors prearranged on a single
podium became known as the integrated chip developed into a
crucial achievement which created a revolution with the use of computers
.

T
he
beginning

of
microprocessors
wit
h
the

utilization of the

processor
computers
became

available
to the

general
public
. The next processor in line was Intel's 8080 with an 8 bit data bus and a 16 bit address
bus. This was amongst the most popular microprocessors of all time.


Microcomputers

have created additional miniaturization of components, increased speed,
developed more reliability, and have enhanced storage volume. The next generation of
computers will be

distinguishing with the advances of imitation intelligence that could minimize
t
he need for complex programming (
Calfee, 1981).




The Evolution of American Educational Technology

Decade 1


The analysis of computers and UNIVAC for the decade between 1950 and present
involves the Development of Instructional Designs. Systematized models, theories and methods
of instruction can be researched to the era of the Sophists. Maria Montessori develo
ped one of
the first scientifically based instructional systems. Montessori system was the first to develop
graded instructional materials in accordance with a specific instructional design (Seattler, 2004 p.
343). The relationship between psychology and e
ducation show connections between the theorist
and educational practices (Dewey, 1900). The relationship between psychology and education
remained for a time. Later psychology and what is known as educational technology parted.
Educational technology due

to the break became theoretical and focused on media as aids to
teaching than concerned with the development of a science of instructional design. The division
between psychology and educational technology reached their
lowest

point during World War II.
F
ollowing the extended separation the team started to work again developing mass instruction
and the principles and procedures for instructional designs. As late as 1964, the National society
for the study of Education yearbooks focused on the need for theo
ries about instruction of
teaching theories, the connection was regained (Hilgard, 1964). The major instructional design
theories which have evolved during the decades of 1950
-
1980 periods which influenced
instructional design must include three things. (
1) One or more instructional models. (2) A set of
conditions under which each model should be used. (3) The outcome, desired or actual for each
model under each set of conditions.



The Evolution of American Educational Technology

Decade 1


The many oth
er item
implicated with the timeline involve the history of computers
.
In
1938,
the

first binary digital relay computer

was built by Konrad Zuse
. In 1943 the first general
-
purpose digital computer, ENIAC was made. In 1948 the Manchester Baby became the
first
stored program computer. In 1955 MIT built the first real
-
time processing machine. In 1956,
IBM created the disk memory system. The next year brought the integrated circuit chip. In 1959
IBM introduced the f
irst desktop machines, which
in 1965

led
to

Digital Equipment Corporation

introduction of the fir
st real microcomputer. The connection
included herein relate to computer
history, timeline of computer technology and the human experience.


Intel Corporation was founded in July 1
968, and today it is t
he largest
semiconductor
chip manufacturer.

The initial process involved the Intel 4004, a single chip

microprocessor, and
was created by Intel in November 1971. Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin and Stan Mazor are the
people who

created the

amazing chip
that

comb
ined the CPU, the memory, and the input
-

output
ports of a

computer on to one single chip.

This was

the beginnin
g of the revolution for the
decades of history for computers.


The miniaturization of
components started
with
the laptop

that
is
a
portable

per
sonal
computer
.
Laptops
have

the same interior devices used in desktops and they will be a greater
amount lesser in extent. T
he majority of notebooks will have a screen which comes with a led.




The Evolution of American Educational Technology

Decade
2


The development of
technology that influenced other items in the timeline for the decade
of 1958
-
1964 involved the second generation of computers. The Educational Broadcasting and
Educational Technology: 1950 to 1980 educational television

led to an ex
tension of educational
technology. The Carnegie commission report of 1967 revealed that public broadcasting can be
considered as the human interest and significance which is not at the time suitable or accessible
for sponsoring by advertising and not part

of formal instructions (
Carnegie Commission, 1967).


Educational broadcasting represents educational television, educational radio, and other
forms of educational telecommunications variety such as satellite, microwave systems and close
circuit cable syst
ems.
Voice instructional systems like instructional television or radio is the
components of educational broadcasting directly related to the transmitting of formal
instructions. Educational broadcasting is known to display the following central

distincti
veness:

(1)

the programs arranged in series to assist cumulative learning; (2) the programs are
explicitly planned in consultation with external educational advisors;

(3) the programs go
along with other kinds of learning materials, many times textbooks and st
udy guides;
(4)the attempt to evaluate use of the broadcasts by educators and pupils (Hawkridge &
Robinson, 1982).




The Evolution of American Educational Technology

Decade 2


The other items in the time line influenced the development of technology for the decade
of 1958 to 1964 with the second generation of computers. The period of time during
the
miniaturization

of

computers

commence.
The transistors developed for computer a
re

much
smaller than vacuum tubes,
extract

less power, and generate less heat. Discrete transistors are
soldered to circuit boards with interconnections accomplished by stencil
-
screened conductive
patterns on the reverse side.

Transistor
s are
devices comp
osed of semiconductor material that
amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit.
T
ransistors h
ave become the key ingredient
to
all

digital circuits, including computers.

The transistor
was a
better
-
quality

for
the

vacuum
tube.

The
transistor allowed
second generation

computers

to

be developed
smaller
, faster,
cheaper, more

energy
-
efficient and more reliable than their first
-
generation predecessors.
Transistor continued
to
generate

vast amounts of heat causing
damage

to the computer. The change enhance
d the
construction
over the vacuum tube. S
econd
-
generation computers continued to rely

on punched
cards for input and printouts for output.

This
-
generation computers modified the

cryptic binary
machine language

to symbolic, or assembly, languages
. Allowin
g
programmers

to specify
instructions in words.
The second generation of computers was
the

first computers to

sto
re
instructions in the memory moving
from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

The first
computers of the second
generation were develo
ped

for the atomic energy
industry (
Najmi
,
2004
).



The Evolution of American Educational Technology

Decade
3


The creation of technology influenced the development of the other items in the tim
e line
during the decade of 1974 to 1980
.


The beginning of communication study in America began in
the early 1930s. The first systematic study of communication

transpired in institutions
established for public opinions polling
, radio audience surveys and commer
cial
studies
(Schramm, 1985).
The Bu
reau of Applied social Research at Columbia University was
established for the purpose to accomplish social research. Wilbur Schramm envisions that
communication should an individualized field of study. Schramm

started the first Institute of
communication

research at the University of Illinois during 1947. The University of Illinois is of
historic importance

for two reasons. First, the university reveals the formal beginning of mass
communication research in higher education. Secondly, the actions served a
s the first significant
point of convergence of related disciplines. During the decade of sixties and seventies other
institutes were created. The

composing of curriculum to ingratiates cinema
, radio, television,
journalism, and
speech. The documents supported other subject matters areas of psychology and
educational technology. Research started to be published in
journals and other forms of printed
materials. Near the end of the late 1970s, communication institutes and the commun
ication
science entered into the transition period of uncertainty.
The connection of the curriculum

developed cinematography

as some pictures were viewed in the course of kinescope devised by
Edison.



The Evolution of American Educational Technology

De
cade

3


How the other items in the timeline influenced the development of new technologies for
the decade of 1970 to 1980
with the microcomputers. The fourth generation of computers (1974
-

until
present)

brought new miniaturization of components and other
outstanding development to
technology. The United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment and a report entitled,
Information Technology and Its Impact on American Education defined
information technology
as direct broadcast satellite, two
-
way inter
active cable , low

power broadcasting, computers,
and video technology. The report concluded that the complete extent of technology has not
reached the potential for determination. The ideology is to assume that hardware and software
development will be t
he integrated to form new, unnamed and unspecified types of information
products and services to modify the traditional characteristics between the
mediums.

The generalization concerning information technology offer the new media forms have seldom
replaced

the old media. The more uses of the newer form for specialized purposes and combined
media capabilities with the use of computer and digital encoding.
The relationship among print
and electronic displays how the traditionally wide separation of print medi
a from the electrical
ones joined each other with data or computer networks. The twenty
-
first century believe digital
electronic networks could carry the load of what printed material does today, such as texting.

Broadband digital communication system is
a vehicle to supply data communication for other
kinds of communication including voice and pictures, publishing, broadcasting, and e
-
mail as the
internet (Seattler, 2004 p.455).


Conclusion


The summary of the Evolution of American Educational Technology for the three
decades of computers
from 1950

to
1980 was

researched and conversed for expanded judgments.
The four generations
of computers involving

educational technology
with

the
timeline e
xhibit
growth and progress made by
the invention

of computers during

the span of time.
Starting with
the development of computers in the first generation 1951 to 1958 and the vacuum tubes that
control operations until the fifth generation the objective bec
ame to build smaller machines.


The summary of other strands had on the key technological advances involved the use of
computers in education that started in the 1960s with computer

assisted instruction.
The
common
characteristics for computer
-
assisted in
struction games are

their capacity to provide
practice in the applications of information, skills, and concepts, using a motivating competitive
format.

The introduction of microcomputer in the classroom produced a change of focus with
regular instruction f
rom the products of learning to the cognitive processes of learning and
problem solving. Microcomputers support roles with computer
-
managed instruction. The
instruction include managing students in individualized programs, maintaining grades,
generating
tests or worksheets and performing administrative functions.






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