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Network Technology
Associate
Academic Student Guide
Web Foundations Series

ECL01-CFNTFN-PR-1208 • version 2.0 • rd072312

Network Technology
Associate
Academic Student Guide









President/Chief Certification Architect
James Stanger, Ph.D.
Vice President, Operations
Todd Hopkins
Senior Content Developer
Kenneth A. Kozakis
Managing Editor
Susan M. Lane
Editor
Sarah Skodak
Project Manager/Publisher
Tina Strong

Customer Service Certification Partners, LLC
1230 W. Washington St., Ste. 201
Tempe, AZ 85281
(602) 275-7700

Copyright © 2012, All rights reserved.
Network Technology Associate
Developer
Patrick T. Lane
Contributors
James Stanger, Ph.D., and Kenneth A. Kozakis
Editor
Sarah Skodak
Project Manager/Publisher
Tina Strong

Trademarks
Certification Partners is a trademark of Certification Partners, LLC. All product names and services identified throughout
this book are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. They are used throughout this book in
editorial fashion only. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation
with the book. Copyrights of any screen captures in this book are the property of the software's manufacturer.
Disclaimer
Certification Partners, LLC, makes a genuine attempt to ensure the accuracy and quality of the content described
herein; however, Certification Partners makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the quality, reliability,
accuracy, or freedom from error of this document or the products it describes. Certification Partners makes no
representation or warranty with respect to the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of
fitness for any particular purpose. Certification Partners disclaims all liability for any direct, indirect, incidental or
consequential, special or exemplary damages resulting from the use of the information in this document or from the
use of any products described in this document. Mention of any product or organization does not constitute an
endorsement by Certification Partners of that product or corporation. Data used in examples and labs is intended to be
fictional even if actual data is used or accessed. Any resemblance to, or use of real persons or organizations should be
treated as entirely coincidental. Certification Partners makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of URLs referenced in
all its material, but cannot guarantee that all URLs will be available throughout the life of a course. When this course
was published, all URLs were checked for accuracy and completeness. However, due to the ever-changing nature of the
Internet, some URLs may no longer be available or may have been redirected.
Copyright Information
This training manual is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by Certification Partners, LLC. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system, modified, or translated into any language or computer
language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual or otherwise
without written permission of Certification Partners, 1230 W. Washington Street, Suite 201, Tempe, AZ 85281.

Copyright © 2012 by
Certification Partners, LLC
All Rights Reserved
ISBN: 0-7423-3137-7
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© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0

Table of Contents
Course Description ...................................................................................................................... viii

Courseware ................................................................................................................................... ix

Course Objectives.......................................................................................................................... xi

Classroom Setup ......................................................................................................................... xiii

System Requirements ................................................................................................................. xiii

Conventions and Graphics Used in This Book ............................................................................. xvii

Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking ......................................................................................... 1-1

Pre-Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................ 1-2

Overview of Networks and Protocols................................................................................................... 1-3

Telephony and Convergence Networking ............................................................................................ 1-3

Networking Evolution ........................................................................................................................ 1-5

Client/Server Model .......................................................................................................................... 1-7

Network Operations Center (NOC) ..................................................................................................... 1-9

Networking Categories ..................................................................................................................... 1-10

Network Topologies ......................................................................................................................... 1-16

Network Operating System .............................................................................................................. 1-19

Microsoft Windows Servers .............................................................................................................. 1-19

UNIX/Linux .................................................................................................................................... 1-20

The Need for Protocols ..................................................................................................................... 1-22

OSI Reference Model ....................................................................................................................... 1-22

Data Encapsulation ......................................................................................................................... 1-25

Packets ........................................................................................................................................... 1-27

OSI/RM Protocol Examples ............................................................................................................. 1-28

TCP/IP ............................................................................................................................................ 1-30

Binding Protocols ............................................................................................................................ 1-31

Local Area Network (LAN) ................................................................................................................ 1-32

Wide Area Network (WAN) ................................................................................................................ 1-32

Internet Exchange Point (IXP) .......................................................................................................... 1-33

Case Study ...................................................................................................................................... 1-34

Lesson 1 Review .............................................................................................................................. 1-36

Lesson 2: Networking Components and Standards ....................................................................... 2-1

Pre-Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................ 2-2

Overview of Networking Components ................................................................................................. 2-3

Common Network Components ......................................................................................................... 2-3

Transmission Media .......................................................................................................................... 2-9

Wireless Network Technologies ........................................................................................................ 2-12

Transmission Types......................................................................................................................... 2-19

IEEE LAN Standards ....................................................................................................................... 2-20

Carrier Systems .............................................................................................................................. 2-26

Virtualization .................................................................................................................................. 2-27

Case Study ...................................................................................................................................... 2-33

Lesson 2 Review .............................................................................................................................. 2-36

Lesson 3: Connecting to the Internet .......................................................................................... 3-1

Pre-Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................ 3-2

Introduction to Connecting to the Internet ......................................................................................... 3-3

Mobile Computing ............................................................................................................................. 3-3

Mobile Devices and Cloud Computing .............................................................................................. 3-10

Configuring a Wireless Network ....................................................................................................... 3-10

Fourth-Generation (4G) Wireless ..................................................................................................... 3-12

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) ............................................................... 3-14

Internet Architecture ....................................................................................................................... 3-15

Internet Protocols ............................................................................................................................ 3-17

Demultiplexing ................................................................................................................................ 3-20

Introduction to Routing ................................................................................................................... 3-21

Routing Protocols ............................................................................................................................ 3-23

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Port Numbers .................................................................................................................................. 3-24

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) ..................................................................................................... 3-25

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) ..................................................................................................... 3-26

Configuring TCP/IP ......................................................................................................................... 3-27

Diagnostic Tools for Internet Troubleshooting .................................................................................. 3-33

Case Study ...................................................................................................................................... 3-46

Lesson 3 Review .............................................................................................................................. 3-48

Lesson 4: Internet Services ......................................................................................................... 4-1

Pre-Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................ 4-2

Overview of Internet Services ............................................................................................................. 4-3

Cloud Services .................................................................................................................................. 4-3

Case Study ........................................................................................................................................ 4-4

Internet Services ............................................................................................................................... 4-5

Choosing Web Server Products ........................................................................................................ 4-20

Content Management System (CMS) ................................................................................................ 4-21

Case Study ...................................................................................................................................... 4-31

Lesson 4 Review .............................................................................................................................. 4-33

Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity .............................................................................. 5-1

Pre-Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................ 5-2

Introduction to Hardware and Device Connectivity .............................................................................. 5-3

Motherboard ..................................................................................................................................... 5-3

Storage Devices ................................................................................................................................. 5-8

Network Interface Card (NIC) ........................................................................................................... 5-11

Optical Discs ................................................................................................................................... 5-12

Device Connectivity ......................................................................................................................... 5-16

System Management ....................................................................................................................... 5-20

Preventive Maintenance ................................................................................................................... 5-27

Software Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................ 5-34

Case Study ...................................................................................................................................... 5-39

Lesson 5 Review .............................................................................................................................. 5-42

Lesson 6: Network and Cloud Security Risks ............................................................................... 6-1

Pre-Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................ 6-2

Importance of Network Security ......................................................................................................... 6-3

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) ......................................................................................................... 6-3

Case Study ........................................................................................................................................ 6-5

Cloud Security Threats ...................................................................................................................... 6-7

Cloud Disaster Recovery .................................................................................................................... 6-7

Malware (Malicious Software) ............................................................................................................ 6-8

Overview of Network Attack Types ................................................................................................... 6-12

Defeating Network Attacks .............................................................................................................. 6-18

Authentication ................................................................................................................................ 6-19

Encryption ...................................................................................................................................... 6-25

Firewalls ......................................................................................................................................... 6-32

Security Zones ................................................................................................................................ 6-37

Virtual Private Network (VPN) .......................................................................................................... 6-39

Security Audit ................................................................................................................................. 6-40

Case Study ...................................................................................................................................... 6-45

Lesson 6 Review .............................................................................................................................. 6-47

Appendixes ................................................................................................................. Appendixes-1

Glossary ........................................................................................................................... Glossary-1

Index ................................................................................................................................... Index-1

List of Labs
Lab 1-1: Using a BitTorrent client to download files ............................................................................ 1-13

Lab 1-2: Exploring network operating systems .................................................................................... 1-21

Lab 2-1: Identifying, documenting and diagramming network devices (instructor-led) ........................... 2-16

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Lab 2-2: Implementing a network ........................................................................................................ 2-18

Lab 2-3: Viewing the MAC address on your system ............................................................................. 2-21

Lab 2-4: Running multiple operating systems with virtualization ........................................................ 2-28

Lab 3-1: Implementing a wireless network (instructor-led) .................................................................... 3-13

Lab 3-2: Reconfiguring your computer with a reserved IPv4 address ................................................... 3-31

Lab 3-3: Testing connectivity using the ping command ........................................................................ 3-36

Lab 3-4: Identifying IP configuration and MAC address information .................................................... 3-40

Lab 4-1: Creating a file server ............................................................................................................... 4-6

Lab 4-2: Using the nslookup utility ..................................................................................................... 4-16

Lab 4-3: Researching CMS implementations ....................................................................................... 4-30

Lab 5-1: Viewing resource assignments ................................................................................................. 5-6

Lab 5-2: Identifying common peripheral ports ..................................................................................... 5-19

Lab 5-3: Viewing drive partitions using Disk Management .................................................................. 5-24

Lab 5-4: Viewing NTFS permissions .................................................................................................... 5-26

Lab 5-5: Defragmenting hard disks ..................................................................................................... 5-28

Lab 5-6: Deleting temporary files ........................................................................................................ 5-30

Lab 5-7: Backing up data in Windows 7 .............................................................................................. 5-32

Lab 5-8: Restoring data in Windows 7 ................................................................................................. 5-34

Lab 6-1: Using the Netcraft Toolbar..................................................................................................... 6-15

Lab 6-2: Applying symmetric-key encryption ....................................................................................... 6-27

List of Tables
Table 1-1: OSI/RM layers ................................................................................................................... 1-23

Table 1-2: OSI/RM protocol examples ................................................................................................. 1-28

Table 2-1: Widely implemented twisted-pair cable categories ............................................................... 2-10

Table 2-2: Common coaxial cable types ............................................................................................... 2-11

Table 2-3: T-carrier transfer rates ....................................................................................................... 2-26

Table 2-4: E-carrier transfer rates ....................................................................................................... 2-26

Table 3-1: Bluetooth classifications ..................................................................................................... 3-14

Table 3-2: OSI/RM and Internet architecture layer equivalents ........................................................... 3-15

Table 3-3: Private IP addresses ........................................................................................................... 3-28

Table 3-4: TCP/IP services .................................................................................................................. 3-29

Table 4-1: Top-level Internet domains — original ................................................................................. 4-14

Table 5-1: Standard resource assignments ............................................................................................ 5-5

Table 5-2: CD-ROM features ............................................................................................................... 5-13

Table 5-3: Writable DVD standards ..................................................................................................... 5-14

Table 5-4: Standard port use .............................................................................................................. 5-17

Table 5-5: Common port and cabling problems and solutions ............................................................. 5-18

Table 5-6: Computer file systems ........................................................................................................ 5-23

Table 5-7: OS boot problem errors ...................................................................................................... 5-36

Table 5-8: Application installation and loading errors .......................................................................... 5-39

Table 6-1: BYOD policy items ................................................................................................................ 6-4

Table 6-2: Network attack types .......................................................................................................... 6-12

Table 6-3: OSI/RM security services ................................................................................................... 6-18

Table 6-4: Certificate terms ................................................................................................................. 6-24


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Course Description
Network Technology Associate teaches essential networking technologies and skills, including TCP/IP,
stable network creation, wireless networking, mobile devices and network troubleshooting. You will learn
to use various network components and protocols that enable users to share data quickly and easily. You
will explore the different types of transmission media, and you will learn how network architecture and
topologies provide for efficient and secure communication. In addition, you will learn about the OSI
reference model and its relationship to packet creation, and you will compare and contrast the OSI model
with the Internet architecture model.
You will study the functions, features and technologies associated with Internet services, such as cloud
computing. You will learn about the advantages and disadvantages of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), the
growing trend of employees bringing their personal mobile devices to work. BYOD policies and
enforcement strategies will also be covered.
You will learn about the benefits of implementing a Content Management System (CMS). You will also
achieve competency in performing basic hardware and operating system maintenance procedures. In
addition, you will study mobile computing devices and mobile operating systems.
You will also learn about the importance of routing, and you will explore IP addressing, IP address classes
and subnet masks. Finally, you will explore essential network security concepts, Internet-based
challenges facing today's users, and methods you can use to secure networks and network transmissions,
including authentication, encryption and firewalls.
All CIW Web Foundations courses offer Case Studies for class discussion about real-world skills
applications, and job-related topics such as project management, and the relationship between
technology and business operations. Guided, step-by-step labs provide opportunities to practice new
skills. You can challenge yourself and review your skills after each lesson in the Lesson Summary and
Lesson Review sections. Additional skill reinforcement is provided in Activities, Optional Labs, Lesson
Quizzes and a Course Assessment that are available from your instructor.
This coursebook includes supplemental online material containing the lab files used in class. To practice
the skills presented in class or to perform any labs that were not completed, refer to the Classroom Setup
section for information about system requirements and using the lab files.
The CIW Web Foundations courses prepare students to take the CIW Web Foundations Associate
certification exam.
Series
Network Technology Associate is the third course in the CIW Web Foundations series:
• Internet Business Associate
• Site Development Associate
• Network Technology Associate
Prerequisites
No prior experience using the Internet, developing Web pages or configuring networks is necessary.
However, students should be familiar with an operating system such as Microsoft Windows 7 before
taking this course. The CIW Web Foundations courseware does not provide entry-level computer literacy.
Rather, it builds upon computer literacy training and certifications such as Microsoft Office Specialist
(www.microsoft.com).
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Certification
The CIW Web Foundations series of courses prepares students to take the high-stakes CIW Web
Foundations Associate certification exam (1D0-610*). Those who pass the CIW Web Foundations Associate
exam earn the highly respected CIW Web Foundations Associate certification, which is recognized
throughout the industry as validating essential Internet skills for the workplace. The CIW Web Foundations
Associate certification proves that an individual has evolved from being an Internet consumer to an Internet
producer, capable of producing real-world Internet applications. A CIW Web Foundations Associate
certificant can use common Internet-ready applications, can create properly formed HTML documents,
knows database essentials, understands project management concepts and can troubleshoot networks.
Candidates also have the option to take any or all of the three modular CIW Associate exams, each of
which earns the candidate a modular subject certification if passed:
• Internet Business Associate (exam 1D0-61A*)
• Site Development Associate (exam 1D0-61B*)
• Network Technology Associate (exam 1D0-61C*)
Candidates who pass all three modular certification exams also earn the comprehensive CIW Web
Foundations Associate certification.
For information about taking any of the CIW Associate exams, visit www.CIWcertified.com.
* Please note that these updated exams will be live Dec. 1, 2012. Prior to Dec. 1, exams 1D0-510, 1D0-
51A, 1D0-51B and 1D0-51C are available.
Target audience
All students preparing to enter or continue in the workforce can benefit from the CIW Network Technology
Associate course and/or certification:
• High school students
• College students
• Technical/trade school students
Professionals in all industries can benefit from the CIW Network Technology Associate course and/or
certification:
• IT professionals
• Healthcare professionals
• Legal professionals
• Marketing professionals
• Graphic artists
• Business professionals
Courseware
This coursebook was developed for instructor-led training and will assist you during class. Along with
comprehensive instructional text and objectives checklists, this coursebook provides easy-to-follow
hands-on labs and a glossary of course-specific terms. It also provides Internet addresses needed to
complete some labs, although due to the constantly changing nature of the Internet, some addresses may
no longer be valid.
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The student coursebook is organized in the following manner:


 Student Coursebook

Table of contents (including lists of labs, figures and tables)

Lessons

Lesson objectives

Pre-assessment questions

Narrative text (including exam objective callouts,
tables and figures, warnings and tech notes)

Online Resources callouts

Labs (including exam objective callouts, tables and
figures, warnings and tech notes)

Case Study

Lesson summary

Lesson review questions

Appendixes

Glossary

Index


 CIW Online

Online Resources


Pre-assessment test

Lesson resources

Movie Clips

CIW Online Exercises

CIW Course Mastery

Lab files

Flashcards


CIW Practice Exams

Supplemental Files

Answers*

Appendixes

Handouts*

Live Labs**

*Not included in Academic Student materials.
**Live Labs are available in Self-Study products.





When you return to your home or office, you will find this coursebook to be a valuable resource for
reviewing labs and applying the skills you have learned. Each lesson concludes with questions that review
the material. Lesson review questions are provided as a study resource only and in no way guarantee a
passing score on the CIW Web Foundations Associate certification exam.
Coursebook versions
The CIW Web Foundations courseware is designed for various classroom environments: academic,
learning center and corporate. These coursebooks are available in both instructor and student versions.
Student versions are available for both the academic environment and the learning center/corporate
environment. Check your book to verify which version you have.
• Instructor (Academic, Learning Center and Corporate) — Example syllabi for 10-week, 16-week
and 32-week instruction periods are included with the instructor supplemental files available on CIW
Online. Learning centers can teach this series at an accelerated pace; consult the implementation
tables that can be found on CIW Online. The supplemental online files also include an appendix
listing the CIW Web Foundations Associate certification exam objectives and locations of
corresponding material in the coursebook. The instructor version of this book includes Instructor
Notes in the margin, which provide additional tips and commentary for the instructor to supplement
course narrative. Margin callouts also direct instructors to material that relates directly to specified
CIW Web Foundations objectives. The instructor book and supplemental online files contain all
answers to Activities (pen-and-paper-based), Optional Labs (computer-based), Lesson Quizzes and the
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Course Assessment. The supplemental online files also include handout versions of all Activities,
Optional Labs, Lesson Quizzes and the Course Assessment, which the instructor can print and assign
during class or as homework. Lesson Quizzes and Course Assessments are provided as study and
course-grading resources only; success on these materials in no way guarantees a passing score on
the CIW Web Foundations Associate certification exam.
• Student (Academic) — The student book and supplemental online files include Pre-Assessment and
Lesson Review questions for each lesson. However, the student book does not provide answers to
these questions. It also does not include any Activities, Optional Labs, Quizzes or the Course
Assessment. Students can obtain these elements and answers only from the instructor. The student
supplemental materials include appendixes and files used to perform many of the labs in the
coursebook. The supplemental files also include an appendix listing the CIW Web Foundations
Associate certification exam objectives and locations of corresponding material in the coursebook.
Lesson Quizzes and Course Assessments are provided as study and course-grading resources only;
success on these materials in no way guarantees a passing score on the CIW Web Foundations
Associate certification exam.
• Student (Learning Center/Corporate) — Designed for the learning center/corporate environment,
this student book includes Pre-Assessment and Lesson Review questions. The student supplemental
online materials include appendixes; files used to perform many of the labs in the coursebook; and
answers to the Pre-Assessment Questions, Lesson Review Questions, Course Assessment, Activities,
Optional Labs and Lesson Quizzes. The supplemental files also include an appendix listing the CIW
Web Foundations Associate certification exam objectives and locations of corresponding material in
the coursebook. Lesson Quizzes and Course Assessments are provided as study and course-grading
resources only; success on these materials in no way guarantees a passing score on the CIW Web
Foundations Associate certification exam.
Online resources
You can visit CIW Online at http://education.certification-partners.com/ciw/ to access supplemental
course materials and to get help in preparing for the CIW Web Foundations Associate certification exam.
CIW Online provides a variety of online tools you can use to supplement the Official CIW Courseware.
CIW courseware supplemental files
This coursebook includes supplemental material that can be accessed from CIW Online. Online materials
are provided for both instructors and students, and include some elements required to complete the
coursework and other optional elements that are provided for your interest or further study. Student
materials include lab files used to complete the course labs, answers to student exercises and quizzes,
and appendixes with related information (including the CIW Web Foundations Objectives And Locations
Appendix). Instructor materials include course syllabi and implementation tables, answers to students
exercises and quizzes, and appendixes with related information (including the CIW Web Foundations
Objectives And Locations Appendix). See the CIW Supplemental Files section under Classroom Setup for
information about accessing these files.
CIW Movies
CIW Web Foundations courses offer movie clips that provide supplementary instruction in a multimedia
format, and enhance the coursebook narrative and labs. However, movie content does not
comprehensively address CIW Web Foundations certification exam objectives and is not intended to
replace coursebook content.
Instructors in a classroom environment are strongly encouraged to present movies to the entire class
using a computer screen projector. Group presentations enable instructors to present and discuss movie
content when appropriate. Controlling the presentation of movies also minimizes distractions from course
material and essential lecture or lab time.
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Students are strongly encouraged to watch the movie clips on their own if they are unable to view them in
class. Each student is provided access to CIW Online to view the movies.
CIW Online Exercises
These interactive activities are instructional supplements to the official print and online books, designed
to offer a blended-learning approach. Mapped directly to the Official CIW Courseware, the CIW Online
Exercises enable you to review important concepts from the Web Foundations courses and measure your
proficiency on content relevant to the CIW Web Foundations Associate certification exam. CIW Online
Exercises challenge you with a wide range of activities, including glossary flashcards, matching exercises,
fill-in-the-blank exercises, crossword puzzles and true/false questions — all providing immediate
feedback.

CIW Course Mastery
CIW Course Mastery is designed to assess your knowledge of the concepts, skills and best practices of
Web technology taught in the Official CIW Courseware. The CIW Course Mastery assesses lesson
knowledge, reinforces classroom learning and enhances instruction. This online review program contains
multiple-choice questions that cover CIW Web Foundations courseware content lesson by lesson. The
Course Mastery program is based on a unique method that maximizes knowledge retention.

CIW Certification Practice Exams
After you have mastered the Web Foundations course material, you are ready to prepare for the high-
stakes CIW Web Foundations Associate certification exam. The online CIW Certification Practice Exams
program helps you build confidence with your knowledge of the CIW exam objectives. This program
provides you with:
• Timed practice exams that simulate the high-stakes testing environment and help predict actual
performance on CIW certification exams.
• A feedback review mode that allows you to check answers while taking the practice exam and gain
valuable feedback that relates each question to a CIW exam objective and a lesson in the Official CIW
Courseware.
• Exam results that report on your mastery of each CIW exam objective.
• Personalized performance reports and study plans to track individual progress and view overall class
trends.
Course Objectives
After completing this course, you will be able to:
 Identify convergence networking, the client/server model, network topologies and major network
operating systems.
 Describe the packet creation process and explain the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference
model.
 Discuss local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) and
common network components.
 Compare and contrast the functions of network protocols, and describe network transmission media
and types, including wireless network technologies.
 Describe IEEE LAN standards.
 Discuss the benefits of virtualization.
 Explain how to run multiple operating systems simultaneously on one computer.
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 Describe the Internet architecture model, Internet protocols, the routing process, routing protocols
and port numbers.
 Explain IP addressing, IP address classes, default subnet masks and the use of private IP addresses.
 Use diagnostic tools for troubleshooting TCP/IP networks.
 Explain the challenges of the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) movement, and understand the various
methods for properly managing employee personal mobile devices at work.
 Identify and describe the functions and features of various Internet services and their delivery
methods, such as cloud service providers and in-house IT departments.
 Describe the functions and benefits of implementing a Content Management System (CMS).
 Identify maintenance issues for common system components.
 Identify the benefits and security risks of mobile computing devices.
 Describe the characteristics of file system types and use file system management tools.
 Identify and suggest corrective measures for operating system boot problems and application failures,
and identify methods to remotely manage workstations.
 Identify essential network security concepts and network attack types, and identify various methods
of defeating network attacks and securing network transmissions, including authentication,
encryption, VPNs and digital certificates.
 Describe firewalls and security zones you can set up to protect your internal trusted network from an
outside untrusted network, such as the Internet.
Classroom Setup
Your instructor has probably set up the classroom computers based on the system requirements listed in
the following sections. Most software configurations on your computer are identical to those on your
instructor's computer. However, your instructor may use additional software to demonstrate network
interaction or related technologies.
System Requirements
This section lists the hardware, software and connectivity requirements to implement the CIW Web
Foundations series.
Hardware
Each classroom should be equipped with an individual computer workstation for each student and the
instructor. The following table summarizes the hardware requirements for all courses in the CIW
program.
Note: The CIW hardware requirements are similar to the minimum system requirements for Microsoft
Windows 7 implementation.
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Hardware Specifications
Minimum Requirements
Processor 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor
Hard disk 16 GB available hard disk space (32-bit) or 20 GB available
hard disk space (64-bit) for Windows 7 installation.
16 GB of additional space must be available for course
applications and files.
RAM 1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit)
Network interface card (NIC) Wireless, 10/100 Ethernet, or Gigabit Ethernet
Wireless router (AP) Wireless-G, Wireless-N, or Wireless-AC
router with built-in 4-
port Ethernet switch to connect wired network PCs and devices.
Wireless NICs must support the wireless router (G, N or AC).

Sound card/speakers Required
Video adapter DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 driver
Network connectivity Enough wireless nodes, hubs or switches to allow classroom
computers to communicate and access the Internet.
Monitor 1024 x 768 screen resolution using a VGA, DVI or HDMI
connector
Web camera (Webcam) Any type of Web camera. Some monitors include an internal
Webcam. USB Webcams are a good choice.
Software
The CIW Web Foundations series is intended to be largely operating system- and browser-independent.
Provided you use Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5)-compliant browsers, the labs should
function properly. HTML5-compliant browsers include Windows Internet Explorer 9, Google Chrome (any
version) and Mozilla Firefox (version 10 or higher).
Each school's network is configured differently. You should test each lab to ensure the ports are open on
the firewall before presenting the lab to the class. You may have to talk to your network administrator to
open the ports.
Warning: If you are unable to upgrade to Microsoft Windows 7, you will be unable to use Windows
Internet Explorer 9 (IE9). Unfortunately, IE9 is the only IE browser that supports HTML5 without
modifications. Windows XP and Vista only support up to IE8. If your classroom must use a Windows XP
or Vista installation, please use the latest version of Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox instead of IE8 or
previous for the labs. If you are required to use IE8 or previous, then the Site Development Associate
course will require you to include JavaScript into each Web page for the HTML5 coding to render
properly. Instructions for adding the JavaScript code is included in the Classroom Setup Guide.
If you are teaching all three CIW Web Foundations courses sequentially, there is no need to reformat your
computers for each course. The recommended software configurations for computers used to complete the
labs in this book series are as follows.
Internet Business Associate
To be installed before class:
• Microsoft Windows 7 Professional (typical installation)
• Windows Internet Explorer 9 (typical installation)
To be registered by students during class:
• Google account (www.google.com) — necessary for students to access online cloud services and
resources, such as Google Drive, Google Docs, Gmail, Google+ and Blogger. Students are responsible
for their own account registration.
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© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
• Windows Live account (explore.live.com) — necessary for students to access online cloud services
and resources, such as SkyDrive, Hotmail, Essentials and Messenger. Students are responsible for
their own account registration.
To be installed by students during course labs:
• Firefox 10 or higher (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson04 folder)
• Google Chrome — any version (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson04 folder)
• Ogg Codecs (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson05 folder)
• Thunderbird 2.0 (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson07 folder)
• TightVNC, Bzip2 and Bunzip2 (binaries provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson09 folder)
• Windows Live Messenger (binaries provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson02 folder)
• Ad-Aware (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson08 folder)
• GanttProject (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Internet\Lab Files\Lesson10 folder)
Site Development Associate
To be installed before class:
• Microsoft Windows 7 Professional (typical installation)
• Windows Internet Explorer 9 (typical installation)
• Google Chrome — any version (typical installation)
• Firefox 10 or higher (typical installation)
• Windows Live Movie Maker (typical installation)
To be installed by students during course labs:
• Lynx (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Site_Dev\Lab Files\Lesson01\Lab_1-3\Lynx folder)
• FormMail (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Site_Dev\Lab Files\Lesson06\Lab_6-1\FormMail folder)
• KompoZer (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Site_Dev\Lab Files\Lesson09\Lab_9-1 folder)
• Free Video Converter Factory (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Site_Dev\Lab Files\Lesson07\Lab_7-
2 folder)
To be installed by instructor for instructor-led demonstration in Optional Lab 8-1:
• XAMPP (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Site_Dev\Lab Files\Lesson08\Optional_Lab_8-1\XAMPP
folder)
Network Technology Associate
To be installed before class:
• Microsoft Windows 7 Professional (typical installation)
• Windows Internet Explorer 9 (typical installation)
• Firefox 10 or later (typical installation)
• Chrome — any version (typical installation)
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© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
To be registered by students during class:
• Google account (www.google.com) — necessary for students to access online cloud services and
resources, such as Google Drive, Google Docs, Gmail, Google+ and Blogger. Students are responsible
for their own account registration.
• Windows Live account (explore.live.com) — necessary for students to access online cloud services
and resources, such as SkyDrive, Hotmail, Essentials and Messenger. Students are responsible for
their own account registration.
To be installed by students during course labs:
• uTorrent (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson01 folder)
• FileZilla_v3.0.2.1 (torrent file provided in the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson01 folder)
• 7-Zip (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson01 folder)
• TruCrypt 7 or higher (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson06 folder)
• VirtualBox (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson02 folder)
• Porteus Linux (binary provided in the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson02 folder)
Connectivity
Internet connectivity is required for this course. You will experience optimal performance with a dedicated
Internet connection (e.g., a cable/DSL modem or a T1 line). However, you can teach the course using
slower connections (e.g., 56-Kbps modem).
CIW supplemental files
Each coursebook includes supplemental materials that are referenced and used throughout the course.
These supplemental materials are provided online at http://education.certification-partners.com/ciw/.
You will need to create a directory for all supplemental materials for the course. The default location is
C:\CIW\[Course_Title]. To view or download the materials, go to CIW Online, click the link for each file
and save to this directory. You can then create a shortcut to this directory on your Desktop. As you
conduct the course labs, you can use this shortcut to quickly access your lab files.
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© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
Conventions and Graphics Used in This Book
The following conventions are used in these coursebooks.
Terms Technology terms defined in the margins are indicated in bold type the first time
they appear in the text. However, not every word in bold type is a term requiring
definition.
Lab Text Text that you enter during a lab appears in italic bold type. Names of components
that you access or change in a lab appear in bold type.
Notations Notations or comments regarding screenshots, labs or other text are indicated in italic
type.
Program Code or
Commands
Text used in program code or operating system commands appears in the Lucida
Sans Typewriter font.
The following graphics are used in these coursebooks.

Tech Notes point out exceptions or special circumstances that you may find when
working with a particular procedure. Tech Notes that occur within a lab are
displayed without the graphic.

Tech Tips offer special-interest information about the current subject.

Warnings alert you about cautions to observe or actions to avoid.

This graphic signals the start of a lab or other hands-on activity.
®

The CIW Online graphic signals appropriate points in the course at which to view
additional online resources, available at http://education.certification-
partners.com/ciw/.

Each lesson summary includes an Application Project. This project is designed to
provoke interest and apply the skills taught in the lesson to your daily activities.

Each lesson concludes with a summary of the skills and objectives taught in that
lesson. You can use the Skills Review checklist to evaluate what you have learned.

This graphic indicates a line of code that is completed on the following line.


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1Lesson 1:
Introduction to
Networking
Objectives
By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:
 3.1.1: Define basic data and telephony network concepts, including convergence,
Voice over IP (VoIP), AC/DC requirements for telephony and data equipment.
 3.1.3: Identify basic network topologies.
 3.1.4: Define the Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI/RM) in terms
of packet creation.
 3.1.5: Define the nature, purpose and operation essentials of Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
 3.1.6: Define local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN).
 3.1.8: Identify the components of a Network Operations Center (NOC).
 3.1.9: Compare and contrast server-based networks and peer-to-peer (P2P) networks,
and provide examples of each.
 3.1.10: Distinguish between distributed architectures and database models, such as
Hadoop and SQL.
1-2 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
Pre-Assessment Questions
1. Which network topology provides multiple communication paths so that an
alternative path may be used if a connection fails?
a. Ring
b. Bus
c. Star
d. Mesh
2. What type of network is typically implemented at a given location for internal
communication and data storage?
a. WAN
b. Ethernet
c. LAN
d. VoIP
3. A packet consists of what three elements?

Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking 1-3
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
Overview of Networks and Protocols
A network can be defined as two or more connected computers that share data by way of
a transport medium. This configuration can include a small business network in one
room, two smartphones that communicate by means of a wireless network, or a global
network such as the Internet that connects millions of users.
Networks have become extremely popular because they allow users to share data quickly.
In the past, users had to place files on a floppy disk or print them, and deliver them to
the destination in person or by mail. Networks allow information to be distributed easily
and quickly through a system of protocols, cables and other hardware.
Local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) are the basis of networking
and internetworking. The two systems can work together to allow companies to transmit
data internally and externally.
In this lesson, you will learn about networking basics, network protocols, and LANs and
WANs.
CIW Online Resources – Movie Clips
Visit CIW Online at http://education.Certification-Partners.com/CIW to
watch a movie clip about this topic.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking
Telephony and Convergence Networking
Before examining specific types of computer networks, we will turn our attention to one of
the oldest existing networks — the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The PSTN
has connected millions of users for decades, and remains a cornerstone in
internetworking today. In the following sections, we will discuss how the PSTN and data
networks have been combined to create convergence networks that enable unified
communications.
Traditional telephone network
Since the inception of the telephone, voice has been carried over circuit-switched
connections of the PSTN. Originally, all phone service was analog. Today, however, the
network is entirely digital except for the portion that extends from the central office of the
local telephone company to the user.
Typically, to exchange data over the public telephone network using a dial-up connection,
a modem is necessary. A modem (modulator/demodulator) is a device that translates, or
modulates, a digital signal coming from your computer into an analog signal that can be
carried over the phone line. A modem attached to the receiving computer demodulates
the analog signal back into a digital one.
Today, the PSTN is a hybrid network. A telephone user initiates a call from a land line
using analog technology. The signal is then converted into a digital signal at the central
office, and this digital signal is sent across a major portion of the telephone network. As
necessary, signals are converted back into analog at the central office, to which the
destination telephone is linked.
OBJECTIVE
3.1.1: Convergence
networks
®
1-4 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
The PSTN is still an integral part of the Internet infrastructure because it furnishes most
of the long-distance connections. Most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) pay long-
distance providers for access to telephone lines.
IP telephony and Voice over IP (VoIP)
Internet Protocol (IP) telephony is a technology that uses packet-switched connections to
exchange voice, fax and other forms of data that were previously carried on circuit-
switched connections. (You will learn about packets later in this lesson.) IP telephony
uses an Internet connection and hardware (e.g., IP phones) or software installed on
personal computers (e.g., soft phones) to transmit the voice data as data packets over
shared lines. IP telephony enables users to avoid the tolls charged on telephone company
lines because most ISPs absorb this cost.
Voice over IP (VoIP) involves the use of a data network to deliver voice information,
instead of the traditional circuit-switched lines of the PSTN. Most local and long-distance
providers, cable TV companies and ISPs now offer IP telephony services. Many companies
also use VoIP solutions rather than traditional voice services in order to provide more
services. The term convergence technology is often used to describe the combination of
voice, video and data all on one data network.
Power requirements
Computer equipment runs on direct current (DC) power, whereas the voltage coming out
of a wall socket is an alternating current (AC). An AC signal consists of a series of pulses
(voltage changes) at a fixed frequency. A DC signal encounters no voltage changes;
current is either on or off.
At some point, the AC line voltage must be converted into appropriate DC voltages. This
conversion from AC to DC is accomplished by the computer's power supply. Electronic
devices must be supplied the correct voltage in order to operate. If the correct voltage is
not present, the device will not operate properly and may be physically damaged. Each
device will also have an associated power requirement. The computer's power supply is
designed to provide sufficient power for the system. However, it is important to remember
that extra devices you add to the computer — such as extra hard drives or an additional
optical drive, upgraded CPU or advanced video adapter — will require additional power.
Today, many devices that are connected to a PC are designed to tap into the PC for power
requirements, including smartphones, tablets, digital cameras, USB drives, VoIP phones
and a host of others devices. It is important to understand the maximum load that the
PC's power supply can handle and determine when it may be time to upgrade the power
supply to avoid any issues. A typical guideline when investigating a new power supply is
to calculate the total power requirements in watts for the devices in the computer, then
add 30 percent. That should cover all power requirements needed for the computer.
It is also important that some emergency power source, such as an uninterruptible
power supply (UPS), be available in case of an emergency. Without the availability of an
emergency power source, an IP telephone's components (and those of any other device
that relies on a computer's power supply) will cease to function during a power outage.
Traditional phones connected to the PSTN do not experience this problem because they
are powered by the telephone company's battery supply, which will continue to function
during a power outage.
Internet Service
Provider (ISP)
An or
g
anization that
maintains a
gateway to the
Internet and rents
access to customers
on a per-use or
subscription basis.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
A technology that
converts voice into
data packets for
transmission over a
packet-switched IP
network. Allows the
use of the Internet
for real-time voice
and video traffic.
uninterruptible
power supply (UPS)
A device that
contains a battery
to provide power
during a power
outage.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking 1-5
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
Unified communications (UC)
Convergence has given rise to unified communications (UC), in which voice can be
converted into text and vice versa. Your e-mail inbox is capable of receiving faxes, even if
they are sent via a traditional fax machine. Your e-mail inbox can also receive voice mail
recordings. Unified communications technology seeks to eliminate communication
latency (the amount of time between the moments when any form of communication is
sent and received) as much as possible to make communication more efficient.
Presencing and mobile communication
Presencing is the ability for devices to automatically track and report your location and
availability. For example, when a user signs in to an instant messaging (IM) service, his
status (e.g., online) is advertised (or published) to the people on his contacts list. A user's
presence information, or presence state, is provided to a presence service via a network
connection. Presencing requires collaboration among a number of devices (for example,
mobile phone, electronic calendar, IM client, GPS) and the presence services with which
each of them is connected. Google Messenger and Facebook have presencing functions,
for example.
Mobile communication (or mobile computing) refers to a person's ability to use technology
while "on the go." Devices that enable a user to engage in mobile communication include:
• Laptop computers.
• Smartphones (e.g., Androids, BlackBerrys, iPhones, etc.).
• Tablets, such as iPad, etc.
These devices are useful because they are portable, can connect to each other via the
Internet, allow data storage, and contain enough processing power to perform tasks that
you can also perform using your computer. You will study mobile computing and devices
in more detail in a later lesson.
Networking Evolution
Originally, networks were operated on a centralized, or mainframe, model, which usually
limited networks to large, well-funded institutions such as universities and Fortune 500
companies. By the late 1980s, however, many business networks adopted the
client/server model, which uses a more modular approach and allowed small to medium-
sized businesses to create powerful networking solutions. The advent of the Internet led
to another shift to Web-based, increasingly decentralized and more affordable
networking.
Mainframe
Mainframe (or centralized) computing provided the first practical network solution. This
centralized approach used central servers, or mainframes, and remote terminals. Usually,
these terminals were diskless, or "dumb," stations that could only request information.
Most information processing occurred on the "back end" (the server), not on the "front
end" (the client).
Retrieving information from mainframes
Obtaining information from a mainframe traditionally involves a great deal of processing
by the mainframe. A terminal sends an information request to the mainframe, which in
turn processes the query and obtains the desired information from a database or other
source. After this processing is finished, the mainframe structures the information and
unified
communications
(UC)
A business trend
that seeks to simplify
and integrate all
forms of
communication.
Also, a set of
technologies that
enable voice to be
converted into text,
and vice versa.
presencing
The ability for a
device to
automatically track
and report the user's
location and
availability.
1-6 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
returns it to the terminal. You will see how the client/server model differs somewhat from
this model. Figure 1-1 shows a mainframe model.

Figure 1-1: Mainframe model
Mainframe liabilities
The mainframe-computing model has two main liabilities. The first is that the mainframe
must handle all the processing work. The second is that the request and response
packets sent between the terminal and the mainframe occupy a relatively large amount of
the network's bandwidth. In large, heavily used networks, these two liabilities create
unacceptable network congestion.
The future of mainframes
Owing to the overwhelming investment in mainframes over the decades by universities,
businesses and other institutions, the mainframe model is still quite prevalent and will
not disappear soon. However, with the advent of the Web and more sophisticated
computing technologies, Web-based interfaces and other bridging technologies will
replace, or at least greatly modify, the traditional "dumb terminal" and mainframe
environment. Furthermore, fewer institutions are investing in the traditional mainframe
model, opting instead for client/server and Web-based solutions. Often, mainframes
remain in use, but users will not interact with them directly. In many cases, you will be
using client/server technologies on the front end to gain access to information, but will
in fact be accessing mainframes that perform some of the work on the back end.
Cloud computing: Have we come full circle?
The term cloud computing (also known as Software as a Service [SaaS]) refers to the use
of Web browsers to access sophisticated applications and stored data that reside on a
remote series of servers. In many ways, cloud computing is a modern implementation of
mainframes. The primary differences, though, are that today's server systems and clients
are far more robust, there is more bandwidth available, and the Web browser is capable
of doing far more work than a standard dumb terminal. Nevertheless, it is somewhat
accurate to see today's cloud computing and SaaS model as a modern revamp of the
mainframe model.
front end
A client that acts as
an interface to a
collection of servers
(for example,
mainframes or PC-
based servers). A
Web browser is a
typical front-end
client.

back end
A series of systems
that fulfill requests
made by a client.
Back-end systems
can include
mainframes and
servers containing
information
databases.
cloud computing
Software,
infrastructure and
platform services
that are hosted by a
remote data center
and provided to
organizations or
individuals over the
Internet.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking 1-7
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
Client/Server Model
The client/server model, also called distributed computing, attempts to reduce network
slowdown by dividing processing tasks between the client (the front end) and the server
(the back end). The back-end computer is generally more powerful than the front end,
and is responsible for storing and presenting information. A client/server example is
illustrated in Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-2: Client/server model
Client/server model databases and SQL
The client/server model contains two types of databases:
• Single database servers — information storage on one central computer system.
• Distributed databases — information storage across several computers, while still
allowing searches and transactions to occur as if the information were stored centrally.
The primary advantage of the distributed database approach is that it divides the task
among several powerful computers and network connections. Such distribution tends to
decrease the number of network bottlenecks.
Databases store information in an organized, tabular format. They can also store data in
an unstructured format. To enable transactions between these databases and users, the
client/server model must translate human-readable language into machine-readable
code. Two ways to accomplish this task are by using Structured Query Language (SQL;
pronounced "sequel") or Hadoop.
SQL allows users to phrase queries on the front end that can be understood by the back
end. Requesting data from a server in SQL involves the following process:
1. The user requests data.
2. The client computer translates the request into SQL.
3. The client sends the request to the server.
4. The server processes the request, which might involve communicating with a remote
database or server.
5. The server delivers the response to the client.
6. The client delivers the response to the computer screen.
client
An individual
computer
connected to a
network. Also, a
system or
application
(
such as
a Web browser or
user agent) that
requests a service
from another
computer (the
server) and is used
to access files or
documents.

server
A computer in a
network that
manages the
network resources
and provides, or
serves, information
to clients.
bottleneck
A point in network
communication at
which information is
processed more
slowly. Also, any
element (a hard
drive, I/O card or
network interface
card) that slows
network
connectivity rates.
data
Information being
stored, usually in a
database.
1-8 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
The key difference between this retrieval model and the one used by mainframes is that
the client processes much of this request.
Hadoop
Hadoop is an open-source software platform that allows companies to store, process and
analyze extremely large amounts of data using inexpensive servers. Hadoop allows
computing on a massive scale in a virtual storage network that can span thousands of
servers.
Before Hadoop, enterprises stored data using traditional relational databases, such as
SQL databases. If a company wanted to scale up, it would cost a small fortune to
structure the data and configure the systems. If data did not fit into the database
schema, it was usually discarded because it was too difficult and expensive to process.
Companies would lose data that may have provided benefits if properly analyzed.
Hadoop allows data nodes from various sources to join the platform at any time and be
stored, even if the company does not know what to do with the data. This allows semi-
structured and completely unstructured data to join the virtual storage network.
Hadoop includes a native fault-tolerance system. If a node fails, the system redirects
tasks to other nodes that contain redundant data.
Hadoop is used by the largest Internet companies in the world with massive storage
needs. Hadoop users include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Yahoo! and eBay. Yahoo! runs
its distributed applications across 42,000 nodes with thousands of exabytes of data using
Hadoop. As these companies enjoy success, other companies are taking notice and
adding Hadoop.
Client/server advantages
In addition to shared task processing, client/server benefits include a modular approach
to computing. Because the client/server model allows you to add new system
components, you are not limited to one solution. At one time, network administrators had
to choose between one system and another. However, with the advent of open standards
such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Open Database
Connectivity (ODBC), heterogeneous systems can work together more efficiently. For
example, UNIX and Windows servers that use TCP/IP can work together, allowing
businesses to scale solutions according to customer demand. The client/server model is
scalable because it gives you the ability to adjust to new demands. The client/server
model also allows users more control over their own files.
Two-tier, three-tier and n-tier computing
Traditional client/server relationships are similar to two-tier computing in that both
computers are responsible for part of the processing task. In two-tier computing, one
computer is responsible only for formatting the information on the screen. The other
computer is responsible for both the process logic and the data storage. Client/server
relationships distribute the task more evenly between the two computers. Client/server
and two-tier computing are often considered legacy models.
OBJECTIVE
3.1.10: SQL vs.
Hadoop
Hadoop
An open-source
software platform
that allows the
storage, processing
and analysis of
massive amounts of
unstructured data;
used primarily for
cloud applications.
legacy model
A model that,
because of its age,
may not support
modern
technologies
without
manipulation or
upgrades.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking 1-9
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
Developers and networking professionals have cooperated further to create more efficient
models, which separate business logic, presentation responsibilities and data into at
least three separate levels, called tiers:
• Three-tier — In a common three-tier model, a Web server contains the business
logic, a Web browser is responsible for presentation, and a database server contains
the data.
• N-tier — An n-tier model uses multiple systems to divide responsibilities further. It is
a more sophisticated version of three-tier computing in which many different
individual systems help process information.
Whenever you perform a transaction on a site such as eBay or Amazon.com, you are using
either the three-tier or the n-tier model. Cloud computing is an example of n-tier computing.
Advantages of three-tier and n-tier computing
Separating these responsibilities into at least three different tiers provides the following
benefits:
• Flexibility — It is possible to upgrade or change components in one tier without
necessarily having to change components in the other two (or more).
• Increased speed — Because responsibilities are divided among at least three tiers,
each tier can concentrate on only certain data to speed information processing. This
division of responsibilities can reduce network latency.
Sometimes, three-tier/n-tier networking is referred to as Web-based networking because
clients often use a Web browser to access network services.
CIW Online Resources – Online Exercise
Visit CIW Online at http://education.Certification-Partners.com/CIW to
complete an interactive exercise that will reinforce what you have learned
about this topic.
Exercise 1-1: Client/server, two-tier and three-tier computing
Network Operations Center (NOC)
A Network Operations Center (NOC) is a specific location, usually a dedicated room, from
which a network is managed, monitored and maintained. The term originally was used in
relation to telecommunications networks, but is now used widely in relation to data
networks. As data and telephony networks continue to converge, distinctions among
equipment types will probably disappear as they relate to NOCs.
The NOC is the central point for network maintenance and troubleshooting. It contains
workstations that are configured to display all activities and functions of the networks
being monitored. For example, workstations are configured with packet sniffers and
monitoring software that allow NOC administrators to quickly identify anomalous traffic
(for example, worms, viruses, traffic spikes and downed networks). These workstations
also contain management software, including firewall and router configuration software,
and ways to control workstations remotely.
business logic
The coding
necessary to create
relationships in the
data stored in a
database.

presentation
responsibilities
The forms in which
the data and
business logic are
presented on your
screen. Presentation
responsibilities
include HTML forms,
and application-
specific interfaces
such as Web
browsers.
OBJECTIVE
3.1.8: Network
Operations Centers
(NOCs)
®
1-10 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
NOCs also generally include multiple, redundant network connections and redundant
power supplies to help ensure communication and power. Most NOCs for larger
companies also have dedicated telephones from a separate provider, as well as mobile
phones, to ensure that they can communicate with the company and all ISPs and cloud
service providers in an emergency or in case the company's standard telephone provider
experiences problems.
Networking Categories
All networks consist of the same three basic elements:
• Protocols — communication rules on which all network elements must agree. You
will learn about networking protocols later in this lesson.
• Transmission media — media that enable all networking elements to interconnect.
You will learn about transmission media later in this lesson.
• Network services — resources (such as printers) that are shared with all network
users. You will learn about network services later in this course.
Aside from these similarities, two basic types of networks exist:
• Peer-to-peer networks
• Server-based networks
Peer-to-peer network types
Peer-to-peer networks are subdivided into the following two types:
• Microsoft peer-to-peer — a legacy model in which Microsoft-based systems
communicate with one another without using a centralized system to control
authentication and access.
• P2P (peer-to-peer) — a modern model that supports many thousands of
simultaneous users who can download and upload files on a worldwide network.
Microsoft peer-to-peer network
Microsoft peer-to-peer networks tend to be less expensive and easier to work with than
server-based networks. However, they are less secure, support fewer users (no more than
10) and experience more problems with file system management. Figure 1-3 illustrates a
Microsoft peer-to-peer network.

Figure 1-3: Peer-to-peer network model
Various Microsoft operating systems support peer-to-peer networking, including
Windows 7.
cloud service
provider
A company that
provides
applications and
services (over the
Internet) to
individual or
enterprise
subscribers who
would otherwise
need to provide
those applications
and services on thei
r

own servers.
OBJECTIVE
3.1.9: Server-based
vs. peer-to-peer
network
Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking 1-11
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
P2P network
A modern P2P network is created when a workstation uses add-on software to participate
in large, decentralized networks that are usually located on the Internet. First popularized
by the now-defunct free version of the Napster network, P2P networks include:
• BitTorrent (www.bittorrent.com)
• Gnucleus (www.gnucleus.com/Gnucleus/).
• Freenet (http://freenetproject.org/).
• KaZaA (www.kazaa.com).

Do not download files (for example, MP3s or unauthorized software) from these
networks. Doing so may be illegal and can result in punitive action against you,
your instructor and your training organization. Discussion of P2P networks should
never be misconstrued as support for them or as an encouragement to use
them.
These networks are often used to illicitly share copyrighted information (for example,
audio files and software). However, these networks can be used for legitimate purposes.
Following are the two types of P2P networks:
• Centralized — This type of network requires logging on to a central server, which
maintains a database of all attached peer clients. Because logging on to a central
server is required, this type of network is not a true peer-to-peer network. Napster,
which was absorbed by Rhapsody, was an example of this type of network. The fact
that a group of central servers was used to maintain the database of remote clients
allowed the service to be shut down easily.
• Decentralized — This type of network consists of groups of clients/servers that
communicate with one another to create a network that has no single central
database. The KaZaA network is an example.
Downloading Files with BitTorrent
BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol that you can use to download large files
quickly. BitTorrent allows a file provider to make his or her file (or files) available to the
network via a central server, called a tracker. The initial file is called a seed. Other users,
called peers, can then connect to the tracker and download the file. Each peer who
downloads a seed makes it available to other peers to download. After the file is
successfully downloaded by a peer, he or she can continue to make the data available to
others, thereby creating additional seeds.
BitTorrent's strength lies in the fact that peers can download a seed from another peer,
and, at the same time, upload parts or all of the seed for other peers to access. In other
words, different parts of seeds can be distributed in chunks and then reassembled on the
receiving machine. This ability allows a large number of peers to be supported
simultaneously and the tracker bandwidth to be utilized as efficiently as possible.
Relative to standard Internet hosting, the use of BitTorrent significantly reduces the
original provider's hardware and bandwidth resource costs.
Peers often use BitTorrent to distribute large files, such as video games, movies or
software applications, because it is much cheaper, faster and more efficient to distribute
files using BitTorrent than via a regular download. In contrast to other file transfer
protocols, BitTorrent works better as the number of peers downloading and uploading a
particular file increases.
BitTorrent
A peer-to-peer file
sharing protocol
used for distributing
large amounts of
data.
1-12 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
In order to download files from BitTorrent, you must install a BitTorrent client on your
computer. A BitTorrent client manages file downloads and uploads using the BitTorrent
protocol. Popular BitTorrent clients include the following:
• BitTorrent (the original client) (www.bittorrent.com)
• uTorrent (www.utorrent.com)
• BitLord (www.bitlord.com)
• BitComet (www.bitcomet.com)
• Vuze (www.vuze.com)
• Transmission (for OS X) (www.transmissionbt.com)
• ABC (http://pingpong-abc.sourceforge.net/)
In addition to a BitTorrent client, you also need a "torrent" file to download content. A
torrent file is a small file that contains the necessary information to download the content
you want. This is generally obtained from a torrent Web site. Many sites offer torrents as
one method of downloading files.
Following are some sites you can explore to find torrents:
• www.clearbits.net
• www.legittorrents.info
• http://linuxtracker.org
• www.tuxdistro.com
When using BitTorrent, you should be careful that you are not illicitly copying and
distributing copyrighted material. Some unscrupulous users use BitTorrent for this
purpose in an attempt to obtain something for free that they should otherwise pay for.
This is particularly true for music and movie files. BitTorrent users generally use the
protocol to obtain files because:
• The data is free.
• They are unable to purchase the data elsewhere.
• They want to "try before they buy."
• They want to download content that was intended to be freely distributed by the
creator.
To learn more about BitTorrent, visit www.bittorrent.com.
In the following lab, you will use a BitTorrent client to download files. Suppose you are a
freelance technical writer and you need a way to exchange large files with your editor.
Your editor suggests you install the FileZilla FTP client so you can access the company's
FTP site to download the files. You can use a BitTorrent client to download the FileZilla
FTP client so you can complete your tasks.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking 1-13
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0

Lab 1-1: Using a BitTorrent client to download files
In this lab, you will use a BitTorrent client to download a torrent. BitTorrent is an
excellent example of a P2P network. A file made available on the BitTorrent network is
called a torrent. For this lab, the torrent is a compressed version of the FileZilla FTP
client. At the end of the lab, you will have a new compression utility, 7-Zip, and a new
FTP client, FileZilla, at your disposal.
Note: The firewall in your particular facility may block BitTorrent traffic, in which case you
will not be able to complete this lab.
1. Open Windows Explorer, navigate to the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson01
folder, then double-click utorrent.exe. Click Run in the Security Warning dialog box
that appears, then follow the instructions to install uTorrent. When the installation is
finished, the uTorrent window will appear.
Note: You can visit the uTorrent home page (www.utorrent.com) for tips, instructions
and user guides about using uTorrent.
2. uTorrent: In the uTorrent window, select File | Add Torrent to display the Select A
Torrent To Open dialog box.
3. Navigate to the C:\CIW\Network\Lab Files\Lesson01 folder, double-click
FileZilla_v3.0.2.1.torrent, then click OK. The torrent file contains all of the
information necessary for the BitTorrent protocol to download the FileZilla FTP client.
4. The uTorrent window should reappear containing the FileZilla_v3.0.2.1.torrent file.
The torrent file should start downloading automatically. If no activity occurs after a
few seconds, click the Start button on the toolbar.
Note: The torrent file may take a considerable amount of time to begin downloading.
5. When the download operation commences, the uTorrent window will display
information about its progress. Click the torrent file to select it. Notice that additional
information about the download appears in the bottom pane of the window, as shown
in Figure 1-4.

Figure 1-4: uTorrent download — in progress

1-14 Network Technology Associate
© 2012 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved. Version 2.0
6. Explorer: While you are waiting for the torrent file to download, double-click
7z465.exe in the Lab Files\Lesson01 folder and perform the necessary steps to
install the 7-Zip application. 7-Zip is an open-source compression utility that you will
use to unzip the compressed FileZilla application later in this lab.
7. Browser: If the torrent file is still downloading, you can browse the following Web
sites to learn more about BitTorrent while you wait:

• http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bittorrent.htm
• www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bittorrent.htm
• www.explainthatstuff.com/howbittorrentworks.html