Army Cyber Proponency

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Army Cyber Proponency

Session: 1

Track 3: Army Cyber Command



BG Jeffrey G. Smith
, Jr.

Army Cyber Command / 2nd Army

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Session: 1, Track: Army Cyber Command

2011
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08
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23 // Army Cyber Proponent

2

Cyberspace
Domain

Use of Social Media to
insight riots and thwart
Police security
operations

The annual loss due to computer crime
was estimated to be
$67.2 billion
for U.S.
organizations, according to a 2010 Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI) survey.

FOREIGN
INTELLIGENCE
SERVICES

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2011
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3



Is there a transformational precedence for the Cyberspace
Domain that might guide us?



What is the best DOTMLPF fit for cyber
-
related capabilities?



What is the role of Army Cyber CMD if we move to a Joint
Operating Construct for Cyberspace Operations?



Is Cyberspace an integrating construct broader than signal
and
intel
? If so, why, and how is this best accomplished?



Does cyberspace require modification to existing doctrine, or
does it seek conformation with existing doctrine?



Are we developing concepts, terms, definitions that achieve
consensus among Purple/Blue, but to the advantage of Red?



What must we accomplish soon, in order to accomplish more
later?

Tough questions to provoke thought

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2011
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08
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23 // Army Cyber Proponent

4



Cyberspace Domain and its Related Operations



Superiority at the time and place of our choosing



Forces will operate in environments where land, air,
space, maritime and cyberspace superiority is
increasingly contested

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5

OSI Model (
Open System Interconnection Model
)

Data Unit

Layer

Function

Host layers

Data

7. Application

Network Process to application

6. Presentation

Data representation, encryption
and decryption, convert machine
dependent data to machine
independent data

5. Session

Inter
-
host communication

Segments

4. Transport

End
-
to
-
end

connections and
reliability, flow control

Media layers

Packet /
Datagram

3. Network

Path determination and logical
addressing

Frame

2. Data
-
Link

Physical addressing

Bit

1. Physical

Media signal and binary
transmission

HCI

(Human
-
Computer Interaction) Layers

10

Human Needs (communication, education,
acquisition, security, entertainment….

9

Human Performance (perception,
cognition, memory, motor control, social….

8

Display (keyboard, GUI

/ CLI, vocal
bpp
,
ppi
,
ppm
….

Paper: “A Human Factors Extension to the Seven
-
Layer
OSI Reference Model” Authors Mr. Ben Bauer & Mr.
Andrew S. Patrick, 6 Jan 2004.

Intent

OSI Layers

HCI Layers

Influence Machines

Influence Humans

Cyberspace
-
Related
Operations

Cyber Center

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2011
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23 // Army Cyber Proponent

6

Mission Command (FM 3
-
0, C1, 22 Feb 2011)

(Army) The exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative
within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of full spectrum operations. It is
commander
-
led and blends the art of command and the science of control to integrate the
warfighting

functions to
accomplish the mission.

The Art of Command:

The creative and skillful exercise of
authority through decision making
and leadership

The Science of Control:

Detailed systems and procedures to
improve commander’s understanding
and support execution of missions.

Enabled by
Mission Command
Systems & Networks

Enables: Operational Adaptability

Understand the
Operational
Environment

Adaptive Teams
that anticipate
Transitions

Acceptance of
Risk to Create
Opportunity

Influence friendly, neutrals,
adversaries, enemies, and joint
and inter
-
organizational partners

Result:
Successful Full
Spectrum Operations

COMMANDER’S TASKS

Drives the Operations

Process

Understand, Visualize, Describe, Direct, Lead &
Assess

Lead Development of Teams Among Modular
Formations & joint

and inter
-
organizational Partners

Lead Inform & Influence Activities: Establish Themes
and Messages & Personally Engage Key Players

STAFF TASKS

The

Operation Process: Plan, Prepare, Execute
and Assess

Knowledge Management & Information
Management

Inform / Influence

Activities & Cyber /
Electromagnetic Activities

“Design Pervades
all Tasks”

Cyberspace

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2011
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Cyberspace Concept (and its derived DOTMLPF) must:



Approach the Cyberspace Domain from all perspectives



Shape and Nest with evolving organizational constructs



Link and/or integrate cyber
-
related constructs (Intelligence, Signal,
Inform/Influence/EW/Cyberspace Full Spectrum Operations/Space
Operations, Knowledge Operations/Information Management)



Asses and define authorities (10/40/50/Etc) in support of FSO



Drive
phased

conclusions, insights across DOTMLPF



Support process, timelines, and deliverables within and between
TRADOC, DA, USCC, DoD, Congress, NCA (for starts)

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D
octrine

The way we fight, e.g., emphasizing maneuver warfare combined air
-
ground campaigns


Broaden the terms to enable effective integration, enhancement, and
emergence of a “game
-
changing” cyber capability (the achievement of
code
-
based influence over security
-
related behavior)



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晵汬y 敮慢汥猠䙵汬⁓灥捴牵洠䍹扥牳灡捥c佰l牡瑩r湳n



Define Cyberspace Operations as related to EMSO, EW, IO, NETOPS,
Knowledge and Information Management, among others); develop
construct for cyber
-
related operations



In
-
progress update to Army Capstone doctrine (FM 3
-
0, FM 6
-
0, etc) must
reflect this new domain



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-
uu ⡆E 3
-
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-
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摡瑡⁦潲浡瑳

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O
rganization


How we organize to fight; Theater/Army, Corp, Divisions, BCT’s…


Transform current structures to leverage/optimize/enable evolving
Cyberspace Domain that is an enabler for all
warfighting

domains



Establish clear C2 construct to facilitate the wise execution of full spectrum
operations in, through, and from cyberspace



Insure Army constructs fit within an interdependent Joint Force (founded by
the
warfighting

functions, bounded by leadership, and enabled by
information) that supports the Joint, Global, Regional/Theater nature of
operations



Leverage TAA 14
-
18 process to enhance current constructs; prepare
comprehensive cyberspace
conops

in support of next TAA



Insure collaborative force structure development approach with Signal
CoE
, Intel
CoE
, and Mission Command
CoE

(and USCC)

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T
raining

How we prepare to fight tactically; basic training to advanced individual training, various types of unit
training, joint exercises, etc.



Cyberspace training must be dynamic and adaptive in support of the operational
environment.



Strategy is nested with National and DoD Cyberspace policy as well as USCYBERCOM’s
Joint Cyber Training & Certification Standards (JCT&CS).



Leverage technology, 24/7 cyberspace
-
related centers, labs, and simulation centers
to create an inspiring 21st Century home station training architecture that integrates
cyber into a live, virtual, and constructive environment


That contributes to continuous cyber
-
relation operations


Serves as apprenticeship vehicle for the cyber force


Trains in support of ARFORGEN



Inject Cyberspace Ops into Mission Rehearsal and Full Spectrum Exercises
(MRX/FSX); develop and integrate World Class Cyber OPFOR.



Conduct holistic MOS crosswalk and work role analysis in support of prioritized and task
-
oriented way ahead



Validate/vet concepts
Cyberspace Warrior Workforce Working Group
(Nov 2011, Fort
Meade, MD).

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M
ateriel

Correction of a deficiency, satisfaction of a capability gap, or incorporation of new technology that
results in the development, acquisition, procurement, or fielding of a new item necessary to equip,
operate, maintain, and support military activities.



Cyberspace programs require agility, flexibility and responsiveness to address
rapidly changing technology and threats from adversaries.
(NDAA Sec 933)



䍹扥牳灡捥c敦景牴猠牥r畩牥r愠獴牥a浬m湥d

灲p捥獳c景爠杯癥牮慮捥c慮搠
浡m慧敭e湴n潦o牥r畩牥浥湴献n
(Joint Process for Requirements Oversight
--

JPRO)



Rapidly leverage existing and emerging technologies to meet prioritized
operational requirements that mitigate current and future threats.



Facilitate the design of operational and technical architectures that enable
defensive (“see ourselves”) and offensive (“see our enemy”) ops


The Cyberspace Infrastructure



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潰敲e瑩潮猠慮搠瑲慩湩湧.


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L
eadership

and Education

How we prepare our leaders to lead the fight from squad leader to 4
-
star
general/admiral; professional development


Cyberspace operations training must be integrated into all
Professional Military Education Schools at all levels



Leaders at all levels must understand the

risks and opportunities of the
cyberspace domain


We must be innovative in how we train leaders for these skill
sets/organizations


Knowledge, skills and abilities must be based on operational requirements


Utilize academia and institutional knowledge to train and educate our leaders
(Advanced Civil Schooling, Training With Industry, etc.)


Create training systems capable of reacting to changes in technology and
methodology at the speed of cyberspace



Capability

gaps in
cyberspace
-
related planning, integration, and
integration at all echelons



s慬楤慴支a整e捯湣数瑳e慴a
Cyberspace Warrior Workforce Working Group
(Nov 11)

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13

P
ersonnel

Availability of qualified people for peacetime, wartime, and various contingency operations


Training and leadership development must be linked for the individual, collective
and institutional levels.



Develop a creative, talent
-
focused strategy to recruit, assess, select,
develop, manage, and retain the cyber warrior in an era of persistent
competition for talent
.



Dynamic,

adaptive career maps with education, p
rofessional certification criteria, and
standards of application (e.g. evaluation and promotion

system with “teeth.”)



Increase planners, analysts and knowledge managers with technical degrees.



Critical to assign experienced master cyberspace practitioners to generating force for
training design, development, and execution



Profession that holds all together through a sense of belonging, underpinned by
values and a commitment to serve.
(Profession

of Arms 2011)



s慬楤慴a⽶整/捯c捥c瑳t
Cyberspace Warrior Workforce Working Group
(Nov 2011)

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F
acility

Real property; installations and industrial facilities (e.g. government owned ammunition
production facilities) that support our forces



Facilities must be located in locations which enable responsiveness to
Geographic Combatant Command requirements while simultaneously supporting
global integration of cyberspace operations



Initial facility requirements addressed through use of existing ACOIC and
AGNOSC facilities; and existing TNOSC and RCERT facilities


Must facilitate integration with USCC, INSCOM, Agencies, and Allies


Must inspire similar integration as part of contingency and
expeditionary operations


Challenges:


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q䅁⽐位 ㄵ
-
ㄹ 䙄唠慮慬y獩s



Facilities must provide lodging, transport, IT infrastructure, and support the
logistical needs of a significant cyber force. Must also include SCIF level security

LANDWARNET 2011

TRANSFORMING CYBER WHILE AT WAR

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Session: 1, Track: Army Cyber Command

2011
-
08
-
23 // Army Cyber Proponent

15



D: Army Capstone doctrine (FM 3
-
0, FM 6
-
0, etc) update in
-
progress (address
cyberspace operational domain implications)



D: Army Cyberspace Command and TRADOC working to develop FM 3
-
XX (FM 3
-
12),
Cyberspace
-
EM Activities within the Doctrine 2015 concept and underpinning data
formats (leverage goodness of completed Cyber EM capability
-
based assessment)



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-
ㄸNc潮o数琠e慰慢ali瑩敳⁰ 慮ain
-
灲潧p敳s



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䍯C

i湴敬

䍯C
Ⱐ慮搠浩ssi潮o
c潭o慮搠
䍯C

⡰慲瑮敲獨t瀠☠瑥C浩湧n



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慮搠瑡ak
-
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the vehicle). (crosses multiple functional lanes; harvest best of breed)



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Cyber Warrior Workforce Working Group enabling integrated view of DOTLP way
-
ahead

(Nov 2011, Fort Meade, MD)

What must we accomplish soon, in order to accomplish more later?

LANDWARNET 2011

TRANSFORMING CYBER WHILE AT WAR

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2011
-
08
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23 // Army Cyber Proponent

16

Joint/Army View of Cyberspace


Technical (Internet, Telecommunications,


Computer Systems, Embedded


Processors and Controllers (JP 1.02)


A domain within the Info Environment,


itself a subset of the Operational


Environment


This is true…

It is also more, at least according to our adversaries



Characterized by the nexus of its human and


electro
-
magnetic

nature



䵥M瑡氠污湤獣慰攠景牭敤 批 瑨t⁣潤e
-
扡獥s



楮瑥牡捴楯c 潦o桵浡m猠慮搠瑨t楲⁰牯x楥s



卡瑩獦楥猠
桵浡m 畲u攠瑯t楮瑥牡捴c潮⁧汯扡氠獣慬攠



剥灲p獥s瑳t牡r来 潦⁨o浡m 浯瑩癥猠慮搠楮瑥tt



Is
,

in fact, a cybernetic construct


If the pace of technical advances holds true, greater technological change will occur over
the next twenty years than occurred in the whole of the twentieth century. In many ways
the world of 2030 will be nearly as strange as the world of 2000 would have been to an
observer from 1900. “

(The Joint Operating Environment 2010, dated 18 Feb 2010)

LANDWARNET 2011

TRANSFORMING CYBER WHILE AT WAR

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Session: 1, Track: Army Cyber Command

2011
-
08
-
23 // Army Cyber Proponent

17



Approach the domain from all perspectives



Shape and nest with evolving organizational constructs



Link and/or integrate (Intelligence, Signal, Inform/Influence/EW/Space
Operations, Knowledge Operations/Information Management) enabling
mission command & the commander



Asses and define authorities (10/40/50/Etc) in support of FSO



Drive
phased

conclusions, insights across DOTMLPF



Support process, timelines, and deliverables within and between
TRADOC, DA, USCC, DoD, Congress, NCA (for starts)

Cyberspace Operational Domain Concept (and its derived DOTMLPF impacts) requires:

Cooperative Army and joint efforts imperative in
response to a changing security environment.

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Vision: Professional team of


Elite, trusted, disciplined warriors


Defending Army networks


Providing dominant full
-
spectrum cyber


Enabling Mission Command


Ensuring a decisive global advantage

The Key to Cyberspace Operations is People, not Technology

2011
-
08
-
22// Army Cyber Command Strategic Vision

CoC

Session: Army Cyber Command

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Session: 1, Track: Army Cyber Command

2011
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08
-
23 // Army Cyber Proponent

19



If this is a game
-
changer, it is not because we
have added defense to networks; or full spectrum
capabilities to the
warfighter




It is because we have unified that which has
remained non
-
integrated; separate; dark;
unleveraged; unharnessed; undeveloped




Either cyberspace is more than electrical
infrastructure, or we will need to develop a term that
is…

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