HVACR116 Trade Skills

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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HVACR116


Trade Skills

Structural Drawings

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Structural Drawings

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Objectives


After completing this unit, you will be able to
perform the following tasks:

o
Describe the footings for columns and walls, including
dimensions and reinforcement

o
Interpret the information found on a foundation plan,
including dimensions of foundation walls, reinforcement
of foundations, and the locations of the various elements

4

Objectives (cont’d.)


After completing this unit, you will be able to
perform the following tasks (cont’d.):

o
Describe each column, beam, and lintel shown on the
structural drawings

o
Interpret structural details and sections

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Foundations for Commercial Buildings


Foundation supports load imposed on
superstructure and spreads it over a large area, so
earth supports it uniformly

o
Commercial construction foundation systems include
spread footings, stem walls, and pads

o
Biggest difference is footing thickness and amount of
reinforcing steel

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Foundations (cont’d.)


Drawing consists of a plan showing foundation
layout, major dimensions, and detail drawings

o
Column footing placement is indicated by referencing
structural grid coordinates

o
Structural grid indicates column centerline

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Foundations (cont’d.)

Figure 39

1. The column load must be centered on the footing.

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Structural Steel Framing


Consists of columns (vertical) and beams
(horizontal)

o
Girders (largest beams) attach to columns

o
Joists (intermediate beams) are supported at ends by
girders

o
Lintels are beams that support weight above an opening

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Figure 39

2. Major parts of a building frame.

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Figure 39

3. Structural coordinates are shown on the framing plans and floor plans.

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Figure 39

4. Notations on the drawings indicate the relative elevations of beams
.

Structural Steel Framing (cont’d.)

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Structural Steel Framing (cont’d.)


Joists are frequently open
-
web steel joists

Figure 39

5. Open
-
web steel joists (often called bar joists).
Courtesy of Willis: Blueprint
Reading for Commercial Construction, by Delmar Learning.

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Structural Steel Framing (cont’d.)


Actual lengths of members are not shown on
general contract drawings

o
Shown on shop drawings, drawn by steel fabricator,
after construction drawings are completed

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Structural Steel Framing (cont’d.)

Figure 39
-
6. A lintel may be
considered loose steel if it is not
attached to the frame.

Figure 39
-
7. Lintel schedule.

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Masonry Reinforcement


Mortar in joints is poor at resisting forces

o
Reinforcement is done by embedding welded
-
wire
reinforcement in joints


Building walls with reinforcement bars in unit cores
and filling with concrete (grout) achieves greater
strength

o
Reinforcing steel ties structural elements together

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Masonry Reinforcement (cont’d.)

Figure 39
-
9. A bond beam is used to
strengthen the top of the wall.

Figure 39

8. Masonry joint
reinforcement.