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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Synthetic Biology in the Real World:

Taking the Big View

Learning from Others

Preparing for the Inevitable

UCSF
-

SynBerc

1/18/12


Margaret S. Race, Ph.D.

SETI Institute, Mountain View CA


Perspectives of a Natural Biologist?

Ecologist:




Technology Issues (EIS

s & nuclear and fossil fuel power plants)


Technology & Environmental Change (TRR & mudsnails; Man Made Wetlands)


Genetic Engineering
-

UCB (EIS

s, scientific uncertainty, & public concern)


NASA and Astrobiology (EIS

s and Mars Sample Return)



Interest in Synthetic Biology for several reasons
--

Research on


1) Impediments to Missions (within & beyond science/tech community)


2) Emerging Technologies, Decision Making, Risk Communication & the
Public


3) BSL
-
4 labs, biocontainment and public response


4) Space Synthetic Biology Workshop
--

Ethical and Societal Issues


What Can I share?
Recognize A Broader Framework for science beyond the lab


Shaping the Science
-
Industry
-
Policy Interface in Synthetic Biology

S. Gaisser and T. Reiss, Syst Synth Biol (2009) 3:109
-
114


Gaiser & Reiss identified Roadblocks =


Conflicting attitudes to intellectual property


Different expectations re: Benefits of collaboration


Different time frame wrt time horizon


Built on mainly Disciplinary Approaches


Similar to Genetic Engineering but Need focus on
Standardization


But

also new concerns about


unforseen or dangerous functions


Security


Public perception



Suggested NEED for:


Framework

=

Triple Helix


of Science
-
Industry
-
Policy


ID and Define
Common Goals
(standardization, organize, report,
share, registries, patents, international consistency, licenses etc.


Security/screening
(prevent misuse)


Public Communication







My View of their "Triple Helix" Collaborative Framework

to Help Demonstrate Proof of Synbio

Science

Industry


Socioeconomic Issues

Standardization

Intellectual Property

Public Perception

Openness and Dialogue

Science
-

Industry Relations

Government

Government as Moderator
in Dialogue between
Industry and Science

Science

Industry


Socioeconomic Issues

Standardization

Intellectual Property

Public Perception

Openness and Dialogue

Science
-

Industry Relations

Government


AquaBounty's genetically modified salmon is seen swimming behind a much smaller wild
Atlantic salmon of the same age.


AquaBounty has been trying to get government approval to
sell its salmon for more than a decade.

Policy & Review Process for Genetic Engineering still isn't certain

Biotech Firms Caught In Regulatory No Man's Land

by

JOE PALCA NPR, Jan. 5, 2012

Roses are Red, Roses are Bluish


Science 7 October 2011:

vol. 334 no. 6052 22
-
25


"A 25 year struggle to sell genetically
-
engineered

blue


roses in the US took a
big step forward…"



Lessons/Issues for SynBio?

Scientists comfortable with Synbio, but infrastructure is not ready


More than just a dialogue between Scientists & Industry with Government as Moderator


Need Frame the Picture Bigger


Like for Astrobiology (Mars Sample Return )


Identify Impediments to Progress/Adoption


Society is not

outside


of Triple Helix


Engage the Public


(not just one way communication)


Public Perceptions
do not
Equal Ignorance or Misperceptions


Risk Assessment


How ID, Measure, Weigh, Benefits and Pitfalls of Technoscience?


What is Public Benefit? What are Costs? (short and long term?)


Need Gain Support and Engagement of Civic Stakeholders


No Such thing as Societal Informed Consent
--
Scientists/Industry feel they

do good work

;
are

ethical

; (focus behond 'now'
---
Public raise other questions)


Need Consider primary, indirect, cumulative impacts


not just benefits

acknowledge lack of science certainty….or even data); Reversibility?

C
onsider Framing the Story as


Science in the Real World








Context:


Science In The News


Will Hear About It In Media, Not Just Textbooks


Controversy And Debate Likely To Continue


Many Different Perspectives


Different types of science data and info needed









Need To Distinguish




Basic Science Facts (Uncertainties; Data Interpretation)



Vs. Applied Science, Decision Making




Vs. Societal Implications (Short And Long Term)









Like Issues with Climate Change: The Big Picture
Scientists involved in many aspects

I

II

III

IV

Basic Science:


Observe
Patterns

Research

Collect Data
Interpret Results

Implications?


Next Steps:


Cause/Effect

Extrapolate

Models

Complexity


Solutions?


New Problems?


Understanding


Addressing


Where Do Scien
ces

& Scien
tists

Fit?

(don't just focus on near term
--

getting things to market etc.)

I

II

III

IV

Basic Science:

Observe
Patterns

Research

Collect Data
Interpret Results

Implications?

Next Steps:

Cause/Effect

Extrapolate

Models

Complexity

(issues with scale
up
--

new
questions)


Solutions?


large scale uses;

product

'life
cycles' and end of
use? (what does
that mean with a
replicating
'solution'?)


New Problems?

(caused by
implementation
or

applications

intended to solve
other problems)

***

if emerging technologies are used as 'solutions' , what are the scientific, technical,
societal, environmenta,l economic and other implications if new problems arise?
How does this fit into the decision making process?