k_ BIOTECHNOLOGY.ppt

deadstructureΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

259 εμφανίσεις





HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
Each cell in our body has
approximately 3,150,000,000
nucleotides.
If you printed out the letters, it
would fill over 150,000 telephone
books
Genetic disorders are often
caused by a single variation in
over 3 billion bases (only 1 letter
in all of those phone books)




Human Genome
Project
One person’s DNA was sequenced and all of the letters were
identified
The base letters from the chromosomes were all ‘mapped’
This project was completed in 2003
Why do this?
If we know the genes, we can figure out which genes code for
each protein
If we know which mutations cause which disorders, we may be
able to ‘fix’ those disorders.
We can also detect disorders in-utero, and predict cancers,
diabetes, parkinsons, huntington’s disease and other diseases.






Biotechnology &
Genetic Engineering
Definition…

use of recombinant DNA methods to alter
living organisms to create, improve, or
modify plants, animals, and microorganisms




1. Cloning

Every cell in an organisms’ body contains the
full set of genes to make a new organism.

Cloning is using one cell from an organism to
make a whole new organism.







Recombinant methods to make new medicines (ie:
insulin, antibiotics, vaccines, hormones)
Cures for disease
2. Medicine
Gene Therapy




WHAT IS GENE THERAPY?
WHAT IS GENE THERAPY?
Inserts Healthy Genes
Inserts Healthy Genes


1.
This includes procedures to give patients healthy
genes to make up for a faulty gene.
2.
Also uses genes to treat genetic disorders and
various human illnesses.
3.
There are ex vivo (outside body) and in vivo (inside
body) methods of gene therapy.


Examples of How Some Genetic Disorders
Examples of How Some Genetic Disorders
May be ‘cured’ with Gene Therapy
May be ‘cured’ with Gene Therapy
1.
Children with
severe combined immunodeficiency
syndrome
(SCD)
underwent ex vivo gene therapy.
a.
They lack the enzyme ADA which helps to mature T and
B cells (white blood cells), and therefore face life-
threatening infections.
b.
Bone marrow stem cells are removed, infected with a
retrovirus that carries a normal gene, and returned.
c.
These bone marrow stem cells divide and produce
blood cells with the normal ADA gene and all new blood
cells will mature properly.






2.
Treatment of
familial hypercholesterolemia
where
liver cells lack a receptor for removing cholesterol from
blood.
a.
High levels of blood cholesterol make patients
subject to fatal heart attacks when young.
b.
A small portion of liver is surgically removed and
infected with retrovirus with normal gene for
receptor.
3.
Chemotherapy in cancer cells

kills
off healthy as well as cancer cells;
we can
give genes to cancer
patients to make the healthy cells

more tolerant
or make tumors more
vulnerable.


4.

Cystic fibrosis
patients lack a gene for trans-
membrane chloride ion carriers; patients die from
respiratory tract infections.
a.
Vesicles, are coated with healthy cystic fibrosis
genes and sprayed into a patient's nostrils.
b.
Due to limited gene transfer, this method is not very
successful.


6. Coating a balloon catheter (used to open up
coronary arteries) with VEGF may
promote growth
of extra blood vessels
.

5. New research
may allow direct correcting of the
base sequence of patients with a genetic disorder.


7. It may be possible to use in vivo therapy to cure
hemophilia, diabetes, Parkinson disease, or AIDS
.
a.
Hemophilia
patients could get regular doses
of cells with normal clotting-factor genes.
b.
Organoids
(artificial organs) could be
implanted in the abdominal cavity.
c.
To cure
Parkinson disease
, dopamine-
producing cells could be grafted directly into the
brain.


3. Transgenic Animals
Inject animal eggs with
BGH
to produce larger fish,
cows, pigs, rabbits, & sheep with more meat.
Gene “pharming”
: use of transgenic animals to
produce drugs in their
milk
(ie: insulin, cancer
drugs, & drugs to prevent blood clots during surgery)
or
urine
(which is easier to isolate).
Altered fat
production (leaner meats)
Creation of human-like organs for transplantation
(
xenotransplantation
)
Glowing

animals




Using organs from animals to replace
diseased ones in humans, instead of
using donated human organs.
Scientists are also trying to change the
genetic code of animals such as pigs so
that their organs are more acceptable to
the human immune system.






ALBA THE GLOWING BUNNY
ALBA THE GLOWING BUNNY
Thanks to genes borrowed from a jellyfish, the albino rabbit
glows green when placed under special lighting. In regular
light, Alba appears like any other furry white rabbit. But place
her under a black light, her eyes, whiskers and fur glow a
otherworldly green.


"Glow in the
"Glow in the
dark" fish.
dark" fish.

These genetically
modified fish were
developed in
Taiwan.
Scientists are
planning to
reproduce these
fish in numbers
and sell them for
pets.


This monkey,
ANDi
(backwards for
inserted DNA), doesn't glow. The gene
for glowing is there, but for some reason
it doesn't produce the protein that
actually glows.
It costs approx. $300,000 to make him.
That's 80 times what some researchers
pay for a new monkey.
It wasn't easy, either; researchers
inserted the glowing gene into 224
monkey eggs to get one ANDi.
Costs should go down in the future.









Insects that cannot be invaded by the parasite are therefore
likely to be fitter and out-compete their disease-carrying
counterparts.

Malaria is passed to humans through the bite of the
Anopheles

mosquito. Each year it makes 300 million people ill and causes a
million deaths worldwide.   Some 90% of cases are in sub-
Saharan Africa, where a child dies of malaria every 30 seconds.

Before you spill all of your quinine out, researchers predict it will
be 10-20 years before GM mosquitoes will be released into the
wild.
The BBC is reporting
that a new
genetically modified mosquito has
been created that is relatively
resistant to malaria. 


4. TRANSGENIC PLANTS

In 2004, 120 million acres were planted to transgenic crops.
BT production (pest resistant)
Crops with added nutrients (3
rd
world)
Crops that grow faster and use less water
Crops with greater yield
Herbicide resistance
Altered flower color
Virus resistance
Fungal resistance
Parasite resistance
Resistance to cold and freezing
Flowers that smell pretty (again!)
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS



Transgenic improvements in wheat and rice will
be needed to avoid food shortages in 2020.

Stomata leaf openings could be altered to
boost CO
2
intake or reduce water loss.

Mouse-eared cress has been engineered to
produce a biodegradable plastic in cell granules.

Plant-produced human
hormones would be cheap and
lack pathogens that could infect
people.




Glow in the
Glow in the
Dark
Dark
Tobacco Plant
Tobacco Plant


AMFLORA POTATOES
Amflora is not a food at all. Although it looks, feels and smells like
any other potato, each one is actually a genetically engineered
factory for amylopectin, a starch used to make glossy paper
coatings, clothing finishes and adhesive cement.
Normal potatoes combine amylopectin and amylose; the gene for
amylose is turned off in Amflora potatoes, which taste terrible, and
will never be turned into French fries or a potato salad.


What are we eating?
Herbicide tolerant
cotton, beet, canola, corn, flax,
and soybean
Insect protected (Bt)
corn, cotton, potato, tomato
Virus protected
papaya, potato, squash
Ripening modified
tomato


5. TRANSGENIC BACTERIA
Bacteria that degrade substances

Degrade oil

Biofilters for airborne pollution

Clean up toxic dumps
Bacteria that process minerals

Use bacteria to obtain metals in mining

Bioleaching bacteria extract copper,
uranium, & gold from low grade ore.
Bacteria that produce products

Synthesize valuable drugs (antibodies, vaccines,
insulin)

Synthesize phenylanaline for
aspartame


6. SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY
FORGET genetic engineering. The new idea is synthetic biology, an
effort by engineers to rewire the genetic circuitry of living organisms.
Synthetic biologists aim to rearrange genes on a much wider scale,
that of a genome, or an organism’s entire genetic code.
Their plans include microbes modified to generate cheap petroleum out
of plant waste, and, further down the line, designing whole organisms
from scratch.

Grow a house” is on the to-do list of synthetic biologists, presumably
meaning that an acorn might be reprogrammed to generate walls, oak
floors and a roof instead of the usual trunk and branches.


Synthetic Biology
Synthetic biologists are well aware that, like any new
technology, theirs can be used for good or ill, and
one possible danger is bioterrorism
Organisms have naturally occurring mutations in their
DNA.
This would not be so welcome to synthetic biologists,
who seek stable systems. But they hope to spot
mutations with error-detection algorithms and then go
back to the original cells.

You can think of it as a re-boot,” said Ron Weiss, a
synthetic biologist at Princeton.


7. Future:
7. Future:
We will probably be able to have designer
genes (to make genes to do whatever we want). So
Should We?
What will this mean to you?



Some Risks from Introducing Foreign
Genes (by Any Process)
1.
New food safety hazards, such as
allergens
2.
Unknown ecological impacts of new
plant-incorporated protectants (PIP’s)
for pest resistance
3.
Gene flow to related species
4.
Outcrossing to neighboring crop fields