Introduction to Biotechnology - Kennesaw Mountain High School ...

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Biotechnology at KSU &
Careers in Biotechnology


Premila Achar, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Biotechnology

Dept. of Biological and Physical Sciences

Kennesaw State
University


Home page: http://science.kennesaw.edu/~pachar/

Introduction


Biotechnology

is essentially


the use of
living

organisms (often
minute

microorganisms) and
their
products



for health, social or economic purposes.


Biotechnology is widely considered to be
the
growth

technology of the
21st
Century

which will lead to huge growth in
the Biotechnology industry and exciting
opportunities

for graduates

Introduction


Through genetic engineering scientists can
combine DNA from different sources and
this process is called
“R
ecombinant DNA
technology”


The secrets of DNA structure and
functions have led to
gene cloning

and
genetic engineering
, manipulating the
DNA of an organism


Introduction




Biotechnology

is an
interdisciplinary

science
including not only
biology
, but also subjects like
mathematics, physics, chemistry and
engineering
.



It is a blend of various technologies applied together
to living cells for
production

of a particular
product

or for
improving

upon it.

Nature of Work



The nature of work of
biotechnologists
, being
interdisciplinary
, requires working
together of people from
different
fields

such as



biology
,
chemistry, biochemistry,



microbiology, molecular biology,



immunology, genetics,



engineering,


food science, agriculture

etc.

Application of Biotechnology


Its use and application ranges from fields
like
agriculture

to
industry

(food,
pharmaceutical, chemical, bioproducts,
textiles etc.),
medicine, nutrition,
environmental conservation, animal
sciences

etc. making it one of the
fastest

growing fields.


The work is generally carried out in the
laboratories, as it is a scientific research
oriented field.

Application of Biotechnology

Applications of biotechnology are
widespread, including the following:


diagnosis and treatment of human
diseases.


improved production of therapeutic
agents.


development of improved crop plant
species.


development of improved pest/pathogen
control processes

Application of Biotechnology


development of biosensors for
environmental pollutants.


development of improved waste treatment
processes and methods for remediation
contaminated sites.


production of transgenic organisms for
production of new drugs, improved
transplantation success and improved
animal and plant.


Areas where Biotech is Applicable

Some of the fields where biotechnology studies
are applicable are as follows:


MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE:



INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT:


AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY:


ENVIRONMENT
:



MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE



Biotechnology's application in this area
has helped in the development of
various medicines, vaccines for
various diseases and diagnostics.


Transplant Organs for Humans




Inadequate supplies of human organs
for transplantation result in more
than 25,000 deaths annually.


Researchers are studying ways to
develop organs in animals suitable to
be transplanted into humans until
human organs become available.


Especially promising are pig organs!!!

Tissue Engineering


Researchers can transfer human body
cells to animal cells to produce cells
capable of forming virtually any cell type,
including tissue (Refer fig below).


This means that patients with life
-
threatening illnesses, such as heart
disease, spinal cord injury, or arthritis,
could have healthy tissue grown from their
own cells in animals to replace their
damaged tissue without their immune
system rejecting the tissue.

Biopharmaceuticals




Scientists are close to finding
ways to mass produce human
proteins, antibiotics, and vaccines
in cow's and goat's milk.


This would be an economical and
reliable way for people worldwide
to receive these beneficial
products.



Wockhardt
launches
indigenous
human
recombinant
insulin




Mr H. Khorakiwala,
Chairman, Wockhardt
Ltd, with


Dr M. Sahib, Director,
Genomics & Biotech
Research, at the
launch of
human
recombinant insulin

`
Wosulin
' in Mumbai

INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT:



Both the government and the private sector
employ biotechnologists. They conduct research
and development work, for increasing
productivity, improving energy production and
conservation, minimizing pollution and industrial
waste etc.


Biotechnologists also find opportunities at places
involving activities like chemical processes,
genetic engineering, textile development,
cosmetic development etc.


AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY:



Over the years, the agricultural output has
been improving, owing to the
improvements in the quality of seeds,
insecticides and fertilizers.


The latest technologies like micro
propagation and tissue culture has further
helped agriculturists to overcome problems
like soil imbalances, genetic breeding and
crop diseases.

Improved Foods



Through biotechnology, researchers are
making meat and dairy products better
to eat.


They are improving milk so that 90
percent of adults who are lactose
-
intolerant can drink it.


They also are identifying genes that will
result in less fat in beef and improved
flavor and tenderness.

Healthier Livestock




Scientists are trying to find genes that
cause or resist certain diseases of
livestock, such as "mad cow disease“.



Once these genes are found in
livestock, scientists can breed
livestock for the resistant gene and
develop vaccines and diagnostic tests
to prevent these diseases
.


Biotechnologists are also encouraging a
shift from chemically prepared fertilizers
and insecticides to biological control.


Numerous kinds of


genetically
engineered, high yielding animal breeds
have come up which has increased the
output of dairy products as well as the
meat products.


India has through Biotechnology has
become the largest milk producer in the
world.

Genetically Modified Food


Can animal genes be jammed into plants?
Would tomatoes with catfish genes taste
fishy? Have you ever eaten a genetically
modified food? The answers are: “yes”,
“no” and almost definitely “yes”


Despite dire warnings about
"
Frankenfoods
“, there have been no
reports of illness from these products of
biotechnology.


Did you know that nearly every product
you consume with a corn or soy
ingredient, and some containing canola or
cottonseed oil, has a GM element,
according to the grocery manufacturers
group!!!























GM potato 'could improve child health'

ENVIRONMENT


Environmental biotechnology has become
another area of extensive work due to the
dangers brought about by increasing
levels of environmental pollution.


A lot of hard work is being done to protect
our environment. In this field, the job of a
biotechnologist spans from checking
industrial air pollution levels, treatment of
industrial waste to recycling of sewage
sludge.

Bioremediation


Bioremediation

can be defined as any
process that uses
microorganisms

or their
enzymes

to return the
environment

altered by
contaminants

to its original
condition.

WHY CLONE ANIMALS?



The possibility of cloning a valued pet
provides its owner with a degree of hope.
Cloning could provide blind persons with
more of the very best ‘sight’ dogs.


United Kingdom
Dairy producers are
cloning elite dairy cows and bulls to
increase the supply of superior
genetics.

Horse breeders may want to
propagate their horses' athletic and
genetic qualities.


Dolly gave birth
to four lambs

Dolly the sheep, the first mammal
to be cloned from an adult cell

Cloned kitty



The first two cats cloned by chromatin transfer

Human Clone


Britain grants embryo cloning
patent and became the first
country in the world to grant a
patent covering cloned early
-
stage human embryos. The
decision ignited new controversy
among biotechnology critics even
though the Geron Corporation,
the company licensed to use the
patent, has
no intention

of creating cloned humans.


Cloning in the public eye:
myths

and
misconceptions
!!!


Bush says cloning human embryos is
'morally wrong.'



Photo of mouse growing a "human ear"
-

a shape made of cartilage

Biomaterials


Biotechnology is the technology
connected with plant, animal, and human
life.


For example, knowledge about the joints,
muscles, and nerve endings in our bodies
can be combined with engineering to
develop an
artificial hand
.


These human
-
made materials designed to
be placed within the human body are
called biomaterials.


Biohand: knowledge from the joints,



muscles, and nerve



PERPETUATE
,
a privately held
company, was
founded in 1998
by Dr. Heather
Bessoff and Ron
Gillespie


Lucky United Kingdom



Thomas
California


Tye Dye
New York

Personality


As the work is largely related to scientific
research.


It becomes quite important to have a good
academic background in science.


Hard work and high level of intelligence with


a scientific bent of mind,


determination, perseverance, imagination,
innovative attitude,


ability to work for long hours, originality, team
spirit,


are some important essentials for becoming a
successful
biotechnologist
!!

Professional Courses


Candidates having background in science at the
intermediate level can take up

B.Tech
. programme in
Biotechnology
.

P.G. courses available are


M.Sc. Biotechnology
,
Agriculture Biotechnology
,


M.V.Sc. (Animal) Biotechnology
,


M.Tech. Biotechnology, Biomedical Engineering


M.Sc./M.V.Sc.
in
Veterinary Biotechnology
,


M.Sc. (Marine)
Biotechnology
,
Medical Biotechnology
,


M.Tech.
in
Biomedical Engineering /Biotechnology
.

Depending upon the aptitude and necessity, more
advanced courses such


PH.D.

and
Post
-
DoctoralResearch

in
Biotechnology

can also be pursued.

Specialization



Being an
interdisciplinary

subject with
diverse

areas of study, biotechnological procedures
apply themselves to a wide range of fields
allowing students from different backgrounds
and interests to specialize in fields of their
choice.


Some of the fields of specialization are
Molecular Biology
,
Microbiology
,
Biochemistry
,
Biophysics
,
Botany
,
Zoology
,
Pharmacology
,
Physiology
,
Horticulture
,
Tissue Culture
,
Agricultural
Engineering
,
Animal Sciences
,
Dairy
Technology,

Fisheries
,
Medicine, Life
Sciences,


and
Genetics

Career Prospects



In recent times, biotechnology as a
subject has grown rapidly.


And as far as employment is concerned,
it has become the
second fastest
growing

sector after multi
-
media.



Candidates with postgraduate degree in
biotechnology get absorbed in
corporate

and
government

sector,
both
.


Qualified


biotechnologists

are employed in
leading
business

companies,
pharmaceutical

companies,
chemical

industries,
bio
-
processing

industries,
agriculture

related
industries and
pollution control

activities of
the major industries etc.


They can even join government and
corporate run
research and development

organizations.


On the whole making it a
good career

opportunity for the
bright young people

like you.

Jobs in Biotechnology


http://www.vcnetworks.com/images




http://hirebio.com/





http://jobs.arc.nasa.gov/biotech.html





http://sciencecareers.org/




http://www.onescience.com/Advertisi
ng.asp

Biotechnology companies


USA:

http://dir.yahoo.com/business_and_economy
/business_to_business/scientific/biology/bio
technology


Georgia:

http://atlanta.bizjournals.com/atlanta/stories/
2003/02/17/focus7.html


Atlanta:

http://www.atlantabioscience.com/app/comp
anies.asp

More Information on Biotechnology



http://www.bio.org/news/video/greatnewfrontier.asx




http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=2&url=http%3A
//www.pathwaystotechnology.org/videos/Biotech_Stdnt_Agga
rwal.html&ei=I7wnQ8mdL5SeaNOX1coH




http://www.grains.org/grains/page.ww?section=Education+C
enter&name=Web+Video




http://www.ey.com/global/content.nsf/International/Biotechn
ology_Report_2005_Beyond_Borders#




http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/video/vidrequests.htm




http://businessweek.feedroom.com/iframeset.jsp?ord=96714

How cute!!! But….





By MALCOLM RITTER, AP Science Writer

safe to eat…

Cloned animals 'safe
to eat‘

By Richard Black

BBC Science Correspondent

Video on Biotechnology



G
reatnewfrontier.asx




Biotech_Stdnt_Aggarwal