Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology

What do you think it is?

All You Need to Know about
Chapter 15


Look over sheet of notes and know
vocabulary words


Read 15.1 (pages 418


420)


Refer to pages 426


427 in 15.2


Read 15.3 (pages 428


434)


Optional


read 15.4 (Ethics and Impacts of
Biotechnology)


…Think of 4 different types of
apples you’ve seen/eaten

1.
Describe them in
your notebook (color,
size, shape)

2.
What is the BEST
characteristic for
each type of apple?

3.
Hypothesis: How
could you produce
one

apple that has
the best traits of all
these four types?

Genetic engineering



The process of manipulating genes



in zebrafish and mice



…and many other organisms

Selective Breeding


Method of improving a species by allowing
only those individuals with desired
characteristics to reproduce.



Used to pass the desired traits onto the next
generation.


Increases variation!!



2 strategies: hybridization and inbreeding

Hybridization or Inbreeding?


Breeding a female Tiger and a male Lion?



X




Hybridization


Result: Liger

It's pretty much my
favorite animal. It's like a
lion and a tiger mixed...
bred for its skills in magic


Breeding two Pomeranians?







Inbreeding


Result: A purebred Pomeranian


Breeding a female horse and a male donkey?




X




Hybridization


Result: Mule

Also Produces New Kinds of…


Bacteria


Scientists have been able to develop hundred of
useful bacterial strains.


Plants


Drugs can prevent chromosomal separation in
cells…causing polyploidy (having many sets of
chromosomes)


Can produce new species of plants that are often
larger or stronger than the usual diploid.


which crosses

consists of

Selective
Breeding

for example

Inbreeding

Hybridization

Similar
organisms

Dissimilar
organisms

for example

Organism
breed A

Organism
breed A

Organism
breed B

Retains desired
characteristics

Combines desired
characteristics

which

which crosses

which

Section 13
-
1

What happens in modern
biotechnology?


Often involves procedures using proteins or DNA


Main processes

-
DNA extraction

-
Cutting DNA with
restriction enzymes

-
Separating with
gel electrophoresis

-
Sequencing

-
Recombinant DNA


Uses for Biotechnology today


Creation of new organisms (like the colored
mice)


Make medicines for patients (like insulin)


Paternity tests


Cloning and stem cell research


Genetically Modified Foods


Forensics


A donor cell is taken from a
sheep’s udder.

Donor
Nucleus

These two cells are fused using an
electric shock.

Fused Cell

The fused cell begins
dividing normally.

Embryo

The embryo is placed in the
uterus of a foster mother.

Foster Mother

The embryo develops
normally into a lamb

Dolly

Cloned Lamb

Egg Cell

An egg cell is taken from
an adult female sheep.

The nucleus of the egg cell
is removed.

A little about cloning

Gel Electrophoresis



Separation of DNA
molecules based on
their sizes



Send an electric
current through the gel
and the smaller
particles move farther
along the gel

Plasmids


Recombining DNA


Human Cell

Gene for human
growth hormone

Recombinant DNA

Gene for human growth
hormone

Sticky
ends

DNA
recombination

DNA
insertion

Bacterial Cell

Plasmid

Bacterial
chromosome

Bacterial cell for
containing gene for human
growth hormone