Genetic engineering - Abiblecommentary.com

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Human Engineering

Cloning, Stem
-
Cell Research,
and
In Vitro

Fertilization

Genetic Engineering


Manipulation of genetic material
in an attempt to modify the
structure of an organism or aid in
the transmission of genetic
information


The substance of which
genes are a part is DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid),
a long chainlike
molecule.


DNA is the chemical
record in which
hereditary
information is encoded


Human genes become defective
by mutation and by chromosome
aberration


The term eugenics means “sell
born through the judicious
matching of superior genes”


Negative (altering genetic
endowment by removing or
correcting harmful genes)


Positive (creating new beings).

Genetic Engineering


The motivation behind most
human genetic engineering
research certainly is
commendable


not mad
scientists

Three

Types

of

Genetic

Research

1.
Making minor changes in existing
structure


one of two ways:

a.
By splicing in new genetic
material

b.
By altering the material already
present

Goal
: improving an organism, or
prevention or cure of disease

Few oppose such genetic engineering

Three

Types

of

Genetic

Research

2.
Creating new life forms

a.
Mixing genes to from any two
organism to produce an entirely
new creature

b.
The result is a hybrid plasmid
bearing some characteristics of
both original organisms

Recent benefits: human insulin,
superwheat, organisms that eat oil


Production of disease
-
causing bacterium


Development of creatures
that can reproduce


Disruption of the ecology


New diseases in humans
and plants

Dangers
Do Exist

Three

Types

of

Genetic

Research

3.
Procreation

a.
This field embraces artificial
reproduction

b.
This includes such practices as:

a.
Artificial insemination, (AIH, AID)

b.
Artificial sexual selection

c.
Surrogate parenting

d.
In vitro fertilization

e.
Embryo transfer

The Bible and
Genetic Engineering


Bible is a of complete and perfect
source of moral and spiritual
information (
2 Tim. 3:16
-
17
;
2 Pt. 1:3
)


Difficult to discover how Bible is to
be applied in complex problems of
modern society


Must search for the principles that
are applicable

Biblical Ethics and
Reproduction Technology


Reproductive technologies
-

techniques that deal with male and
female infertility through artificial
reproduction


Two distinctive areas in which
biblical ethics are relevant to human
reproduction technologies: before
conception and at conception

Human Reproduction Technologies
Before Conception

Genetic counseling is a medical
speciality that uses the latest
information on birth defects and
inherited diseases to help people as
they strive to plan their families,
protect their health, and protect the
health of their children.


Counselors have training in genetics


Their goal is to translate up
-
to
-
date
genetic knowledge into practical,
useful information


To date, scientists have isolated over
3,000 genetic defects among
humans


Awareness of these defects may aid
those at risk in their decision making

Those at risk
:


People who have a family
history of inherited disease(s)


Women who have experienced
two or more miscarriages


Workers whose jobs expose
them to a potentially harmful
environment


Those married to first cousins or
other blood relatives


Etc.


Two choices:


Terminate a pregnancy if the fetus
is found to be defective


this is
both unethical and unscriptural


To have or nor have children


either choice is ethical and
scriptural


Birth control is permissible
scripturally


and wise, if there
is evidence that a child might
be diseased or disabled

Human Reproduction Technologies
At Conception


Reproductive technologies at
conception usually include:



Cloning


Artificial insemination


In vitro fertilization.


1952


Briggs and King cloned
tadpoles


1996


The first mammal cloned
from adult cells was Dolly, the
sheep


History of Cloning

July 1998
cloned calves

1998
Cloned
mouse

History of Cloning

December 2001

Five cloned female
piglets, named Noel,
Angel, Star, Joy and
Mary

December 2001

The world's first
cloned kitten,
named Cece

History of Cloning

2004
Bull serial
-
cloned

2003
Cloned
mule

History of Cloning

Reproductive Cloning


The word “clone” derives from the
Greek term
klon,

meaning a “sprout”
or “twig.”


Cloning is an asexual process of
reproduction that results in an exact
genetic duplicate of the original


Thus, it refers to a method of
reproduction apart from the parental,
sexual
-
mating process that is
characteristic of most organisms.

Reproductive Cloning


Suggested benefits:


Children for unmarried


Parents select characteristics


Statistical studies


Harvest “spare parts”


Duplicate likeness of self

!

“Producing people in ‘herds’ in order
to harvest spare parts, for use in
laboratory statistical studies like so
many guinea pigs, or merely to
satisfy personal egos in a vain
attempt to guarantee physical
immortality is abhorrent”

(Bert Thompson, Ft. Wroth Lectures,
2000)

Cloning Humans Is Morally Wrong!


Cloning opposes God’s design for
bringing children into the world in a
family unit [includes both a husband
and wife in the procreation act]


Marriage is to proceed the bearing
of children (
1 Tim. 5:14
;
Gen. 4:1
)


Children are to be reared within the
circle of the family unit (
Gen. 1:28
;
2:24
; cf.
Eph. 6:1
-
4
)

Cloning Humans Is Morally Wrong!


Dolly’s experimenters used 277
cloned embryos to produce one
sheep, meaning 276 failed


In attempt to clone one human,
hundreds of embryos will be
produced and die in the process


embryos are living human beings
(
Gen. 9:6
;
Rom. 13:9
)

Cloning Humans Is Morally Wrong!

Therapeutic Cloning


“Therapeutic” Cloning creates an
embryo for destruction


Therapeutic cloning involves cloning
human embryo cells to get stem
cells
from

them (killing the embryo)


Stem cell
-

a cell that has the ability
to continuously divide and
differentiate (develop) into various
other kinds of cells/tissues

Kinds of Stem Cells

Stem cell
type

Description

Examples

Totipotent

Each cell can
develop into a new
individual

Cells from early
(1
-
3 days)
embryos

Pluripotent

Cells can form any
(over 200) cell types

Some cells of
blastocyst (5 to
14 days)

Multipotent

Cells differentiated,
but can form a
number of other
tissues

Fetal tissue,
cord blood, and
adult stem cells

Stages of Embryogenesis

Day 1

Fertilized egg

Day 2

2
-
cell embryo

Day 3
-
4

Multi
-
cell embryo

Day 5
-
6

Blastocyst

Day 11
-
14

Tissue Differentiation

Derivation and Use of Embryonic
Stem Cell Lines

Isolate inner cell mass

(destroys embryo)

Heart muscle

Kidney

Liver

“Special sauce”

(largely unknown)

Day 5
-
6

Blastocyst

Inner cells

(forms fetus)

Outer cells

(forms placenta)

Heart

repaired

Culture cells

Possible Uses of Stem
Cell Technology


Replaceable tissues/organs


Repair of defective cell types


Delivery of genetic therapies


Delivery chemotherapeutic agents


Adult stem cells (obtained from
adult tissues, cord blood, etc.) do
not pose any ethical controversies,
since they do not destroy complete
human beings


However, embryonic stem cells are
isolated by destroying human
embryos

Embryonic Stem Cell
Engineering Is Morally Wrong

Adult Stem Cells


An alternative source (does not
involve the destruction of human
embryos)


Can come from a donor or individual
needing treatment


Limited differentiation?


Many clinical advantages over ESCs


No tissue rejection


Come from many places in the
body (Placenta, cord blood, bone
marrow, kidneys, hair follicles)

Adult Stem Cells

Currently used to treat over 70
diseases

Leukemia, breast cancer, liver
disease, cornea restoration, brain
tumors, arthritis, and heart disease

Adult Stem Cells

C.J. Chiu, professor of cardiothoracic
surgery injected adult stem cells from
bone marrow into the hearts of rats.
These cells differentiated into new
heart muscle that made the right
connections to nearby cells so they
could all beat together.

Heart Disease

Adult Stem Cells

Adult stem cells can be transformed
into skin cells which can be used for
skin grafts.

Skin Disease

Adult Stem Cells

A team led by University of Florida
permanently cured insulin
-
dependent diabetes in mice, with
adult stem cells.

Diabetes

Adult Stem Cells

“Given the abundance of umbilical
cord stem cells and the fact that
umbilical cord cells are already being
used for other disorders like childhood
leukemia, many researchers expect
that umbilical cord stem cells will start
being used to treat stroke victims
within the next few years.”

About Genetics, “
Umbilical Cord Stem Cells: Hope for
Millions?” Feb 2001, (the annual meeting of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science)

Adult Stem Cells

‘Adult stem
-
cell research … has
already shown itself to be
extremely promising for treating
numerous degenerative diseases
such as heart disease, stroke,
Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and
diabetes.

David Prentice (Ph.D. Genetics),
National Review
,
2001

Adult Stem Cells

“Presently, no one has succeeded
using ESCs for human therapeutic
or reproductive cloning…”

Daniel Criswell (Ph.D. Molecular Biology), “Stem
Cell research: Greasing the ‘Slippery Slope’ to
Godlessness”,
Impact
, February 2005

Adult Stem Cells


Celebrity Parkinson's disease victims
such as Michael J. Fox and Michael
Kinsley regularly tout ESC research
as the best hope for a cure of their
disease


Both have remained strangely silent
about the fact that researchers
treated Parkinson's with the patient's
own adult stem cells

Adult Stem Cells

Human Reproduction Technologies
At Conception


Reproductive technologies at
conception usually include:



Cloning


Artificial insemination


In vitro fertilization.


Artificial insemination (AI) is a
means of assisting reproduction


Process involves concentrated
sperm being injected into the
female reproductive system
artificially


Most couples utilize artificial
insemination because the husband
either is infertile or subfertile


AIH designation given to artificial
insemination performed using only
the husband’s sperm


AID designation given to artificial
insemination performed using only
donor sperm


AIDH designation given to artificial
insemination performed using sperm
from both husband and donor

Sperm Sources


When the sperm of the husband is
used (AIH) the conception of the
couples own child results


no
biblical principle is violated


The use of donor sperm, donor
eggs, or surrogate mothers, stands
in stark contradiction to God’s plan
for the home


The family unit is the avenue by
which children may be brought into
the world legitimately (
Gen. 4:1
)


Parental responsibility begins at
conception and continues to a point
of independent maturity


It is morally wrong for any Christian
to surrender his or her reproductive
powers to another person, thus
ignoring the divine responsibilities
connected therewith


Women could bear children for
unmarried men


Women could bear children for other
couples (surrogate motherhood)


Women could bear children for
homosexual men


Women who are lesbians could have
children without a male partner

Bert Thompson: serious implications
regarding the use of AI

Human Reproduction Technologies
At Conception


Reproductive technologies at
conception usually include:



Cloning


Artificial insemination


In vitro fertilization.


In vitro (IVF) is the procedure
whereby the woman’s egg [removed
by laparoscopy] is fertilized with
sperm in a laboratory Petri dish


the so
-
called “test tube” baby


Multiple eggs are extracted and
fertilized, but only a few (appearing
to be the healthiest) are selected for
implantation


the remaining
embryos are destroyed


Even though these embryos were
fertilized outside the womb in a
Petri dish, they are human


The wholesale production and
subsequent slaughter of innocent
human embryos in search for the
“fittest” that is deemed good
enough to be given a chance at
survival, is immoral (
Isa. 9:6
)