Biotechnology - the Georgia Agriculture Curriculum Resource and

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Biotechnology

To accompany Georgia Middle School Lessons on
Biotechnology


Written by: Christina M. Spears

Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office

July 2003

Objectives


Define Biotechnology


Compare and contrast biotechnology and
genetic engineering


Explain how biotechnology helps increase
production


List uses of biotechnology in plant and
animal science


Explain historical uses of biotechnology

What is

D
N
A
?




Hereditary
information stored in
chromosomes


Stored as sequence of
nucleotides


Five carbon base sugar


Phosphate group


Nitrogenous base

(c)
http://whyfiles.org/075genome/images/
dna.gif

What is Biotechnology?


Management of biological systems for
benefit of humanity


Applied to general sciences

Uses of Biotechnology in Plant
and Animal Science


Cloning


Herbicides


Increasing shelf
life



©
http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/genomics/5_reshap
ing/images/dolly.jpg



Biotechnology

vs
Genetic
Engineering

Biotechnology


All subjects of science


Bigger picture



Genetic Engineering


Genetics


Gene splicing,
replication, and
transfer of genes


More concentrated

How does Biotechnology
increase Production?


Develop new forms of plants and animals


Modify plants and animals to improve their
life processes


Improving the quality of food


Longer shelf life for perishables

Historical Uses of Biotechnology


Earliest techniques were
used to make cheese and
wine


Spoiled milk
fermented to make
cheese


Grape juice
fermented to make
wine


Today…we not only
see wine and cheese
but also yogurt and
bread made from
processes of
biotechnology




Activity


THE OLD RED DOG WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS
BED



Have a deletion that would delete the D in
OLD…sentence look like


THE OLR EDD OGW AST OOB IGF ORH ISB
ED



If mutation caused inversion of word DOG…


THE OLD RED GOD WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS
BED


Intro to Biotechnology

Lab Activity!!


Making Yogurt



Review handout on it



Form groups of three people and work
together to make the yogurt



Two
-
day activity

Biotechnology

Biotechnology in Plant Science

Objectives


Identify biotechnologies in
plant science


Discuss importance of
biotechnology to humans


Explain the impact of
cloning on plant science


Identify how manipulation
of chromosome number
affects plant
characteristics

(c)
http://www.myjanee.com/images/photoalbum/flora/
marigolds.jpg



Assignment


In groups of three research one plant
biotechnology


Hybrids


Herbicides


Genetic engineering


Number of chromosomes

Discussion


What are some biotechnologies used in
plant science?


How will these biotechnologies help plants?


Identify some negative impacts of
biotechnology use in plants


What is the danger of using herbicides?


How can grain be produced more efficiently
with the use of nitrogen?

Number of Chromosomes


What is polyploidy?


Contain more than one
haploid set of
chromosomes (n)


How does polyploidy
affect plants?


About 30
-
70% of
angiosperms are
polyploids


Peanut is 4n, Banana and
apple 2n or 3n, and cotton
is 4n


Deliberate polyploidy in
marigolds, snapdragons,
and watermelons

(c)
http://www.mahyco.com/images/c
otton.jpg



Lab Assignment


Asexual Propagation:


Cuttings


Layerings


For assignment:


Students break up into lab groups


Each group given a plant for stem tip cutting


Biotechnology

Biotechnology

In Animal Science

Objectives


Identify examples of
biotechnology in animal
science



Interpret
magazine/newspaper and
Internet articles about
biotechnology



Describe
how cloning
affects animal science



Explain how the number
of chromosomes
influences animal
characteristics


(c) http://www.advancedcell.com/pg_page1.html



Assignment


In groups of three you will research a topic
on biotechnology in animal science


After your research, your group will present
your topic to the class

Discussion


What are some biotechnologies used in animal
science?


How will these biotechnologies help in the
productivity of animals?


What are the impacts of these biotechnologies on
the environment, consumer health, and animals?


How will these biotechnologies benefit humans?


What is cloning and how will it impact animal
science?


Epistasis


Define epistasis.


Having one or more genes
that mask the effect of the
dominant gene


Example: In Labrador
Retrievers, BB/Bb gives
black, bb gives brown,
EE/Ee gives normal coat
color, and ee gives yellow.

Cross BBEE with
bbEE, what is the
F1 generation?

Now cross the F1
generation, what is
the F2?


©
www.belquest.com/ homelogo02.jpg





Polyploidy


What is polyploidy and what kinds of
animals are polyploids?


Polyploidy means having one or more set of haploid
chromosomes (n).



In animals this phenomenon is rare, but one does see
it in reptiles, amphibians, and insects


In the September 1999 issue of
Nature
, scientists
revealed they found a tetraploid (4n) rat in
Argentina

Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering

Objectives


Explain genetic engineering


Describe a procedure of
genetic engineering


Identify the process of DNA
fingerprinting


Complete the DNA
fingerprinting lab


Explain how genetic
engineering is applied in
agriculture


Cite examples of genetic
engineering uses in
agriculture

©
http://www.sierraclub.org/biotech/report.
asp

Genetic Engineering


What is genetic engineering?


Also called recombinant DNA technology or gene
manipulation. Two major techniques: 1) Genes are
engineered into organisms such as microbes,
bacteria, for mass
-
production and 2) insertion of
select genes into organisms to improve their
genotype


Identify a procedure of genetic engineering.


1) Isolate the genes, 2) Recombination, 3)
Transformation, 4) Screening, and 5) Induction

Gel Electrophoresis


Uses an electric current to
separate various fragments
of DNA to different
lengths on the gel.



DNA fragments are
attracted to the positive
side of the gel


The larger fragments
migrate slower than the
smaller fragments

(c)
http://medlib.med.utah.edu/block2/biochem/Formosa
/Figures/Lecture6/6
-
01%20Agarose%20gel.GIF



Genetic Engineering in Agriculture




How is genetic engineering
applied to agriculture?


Crops have been developed
that resist insect damage and
spoilage. Some species of
plants have the ability to kill
off weeds surrounding them.
Scientists now insert a gene to
prolong the shelf life of fruits
and vegetables.



What are some uses of genetic
engineering in agriculture?


Black walnut has ability to
kill off surrounding weeds in
its area. Once this gene is
isolated, scientists can apply
it to other plants. Tomato has
a gene to increase its shelf
life.


(c) http://www.isu.edu/pics/treewalk/black
-
walnut1.gif