Biotechnology Genetic Engineering

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Biotechnology

Genetic
Engineering


Objectives:

1.
Diagram the process of inserting
a gene from one organism into
another


transformation

2.
Define genetic engineering

3.
Diagram and explain the process
of DNA fingerprinting


Genetic Engineering


Fast and reliable way for


Involves cutting or cleaving DNA
from an organism and inserting it
into another

Recombinant DNA
Technology


DNA made by connecting fragments
of other DNA from different sources


Inserted into a host and the host will
use it as its own

How it works

1.
Isolate DNA that contains the gene
you want (glowing gene from
jellyfish).


Use enzymes


2.
Attach the DNA segment to a carrier
or vector


Usually bacteria’s plasmid (DNA)


3.
Transfer into a host organism




Recombinant Process


Transgenic Organisms


Organisms that contain working DNA from
another organism.


Below are natural glowing jellyfish, caused by a
specific gene

Jellyfish gene transferred to
Mice and fish


Whiteboard Check

1.
A piece of DNA that has codes from
two different organisms is called
what?

2.
What is an organism which has
DNA from 2 different organisms in it
called?

3.
Why is it important to cut the DNA
and Plasmid with the same
enzymes?

Types of genetic technology


Agricultural







Environmental








Pharmaceutical



Industrial

Chimeras

A sheep
-
goat chimera
produced by injecting a
goat inner cell mass into
a sheep blastocyst.

The chimera was
carried to term in a
sheep recipient female


Growth
Hormones

corn

Clone
diagram
-
sheep


Egg membrane
from donor sheep
(black face)


Insert DNA (from
utter cell) from true
mother (white face)
into egg


Plant egg in donor
ewe’s uterus


Baby born has
White face mother’s
DNA


Cloning fluffy

Ear Mouse

DNA Fingerprinting

What is it?




Looking at a piece of DNA
and noting differences for
each individual




Used in forensics to
identify bodies, suspects
and other samples


How is it done?



Take a sample of DNA



Cut it at specific spots with

enzyme



These spots are different for each
person


You have spots that match each of
your parents



½ from mom and ½ from dad, and
some of your own too


Dye DNA so that you can see it well


Set up an electrophoresis gel

1.
Place samples into a well of the gel


2.
Run an electric current through the
gel


3.
The DNA piece will be pulled along


4.
Shorter pieces are lighter so they
will go further, longer pieces are
heavier so they lag behind


5.
Looks like this when you are done:





Whiteboard Check

1.
What can DNA fingerprinting be used
for?


1.
Which pieces travel the furthest in a gel
electrophoresis, smaller or bigger?


1.
Where does your DNA come from?