PowerPoint Slides - BUS 311: Information Systems for Global ...

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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

1

C
ompanies
have to
plan
and manage
their infrastructure needs
to gain
the
greatest returns on their IS investments

Chapter
3

-

Managing the Information
Systems Infrastructure and
Services

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

2

Chapter
3

Learning Objectives

The IS Infrastructure


Describe how changes in business’ competitive landscape influence changing IS
infrastructure needs.

Issues Associated with Managing the IS Infrastructure


Discuss managerial issues associated with managing an organization’s IS
infrastructure.

Cloud Computing


Describe cloud computing and other current trends that can help an organization
address IS infrastructure

related challenges.


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

3

The IS Infrastructure

The IS Infrastructure


Describe how changes in business’ competitive landscape
influence changing IS infrastructure needs.

Issues Associated with Managing the IS Infrastructure

Discuss managerial issues associated with managing an organization’s IS infrastructure.

Cloud Computing

Describe cloud computing and other current trends that can help an organization address IS
infrastructure

related challenges.

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

4

The Is Infrastructure


Businesses rely on an
information
systems
infrastructure


Hardware


System software


Storage


Networking


Data Centers

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5

Applications and Databases Supporting
Business Processes


Application
Software


Software tools


P
rocess automation


D
ecision
s
upport


F
inancial monument


Other Business & User needs


Databases


Collections of data


Organized to facilitate data searches

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

6

IS Infrastructure Components:

Hardware


Computer Types

Computer Type

Simultaneous
Users

Typical Use

Typical Cost (US$)

Supercomputer

One to Many

Scientific Research

$1m to $20m

Mainframe

1,000+

Transaction Processing,
Enterprise Applications

$500k to $10m

Server


10,000+

Providing

access to
databases, applications, and
files; Web site hosting

300 to $50k

Workstation

Typically one

Engineering,

Medical,
Graphical Design

$750 to $100k

Personal
Computer

One

Personal Productivity

$200 to $5000

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

7

IS Infrastructure Components:

System Software


Controls computer hardware operations


Operating Systems


Examples: Windows, OS X, Linux


Manages hard drives and storage


Manages keyboard, mouse, monitor, & printers


Coordinates application access to computing
resources

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

8

IS Infrastructure Components:

Storage

Storage Type

Purpose

Operational

for processing transactions or for data
analysis

Backup

short
-
term copies of organizational data,
used to recover from system
-
related

disaster. Backup data are frequently
overwritten with newer backups

Archival

long
-
term copies of organizational data,
often used for compliance and

reporting purposes

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

9

IS Infrastructure Components:

Networking

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10

IS Infrastructure Components
:

Servers, Clients, and Peers


Servers


Host (serve up) Data, Databases, Files,
Applications, Web Sites, Video, and other content
for access over the network


Clients


Consume hosted resources


Peers


Serve and Consume resources, both a Server and
a Client interacting with similar computers

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

11

IS Infrastructure Components:

Types of Computer Networks

Type

Usage

Size

Private branch
exchange (PBX)

Telephone system serving a

Particular location

Within a business

Personal area
network (PAN)

Wireless communication between
devices (Bluetooth)

Under 10 meters

Local area
network (LAN)

Sharing of data, software

applications, other resources

Between several users

Typically a building

Campus area
network (CAN)

Connect multiple LANs, used by

single organization

Spanning multiple
buildings

Metropolitan area
network (MAN)

Connect multiple LANs

Larger than LAN or CAN,
such as the area of a city

Wide area
network (WAN)

Connect multiple LANs, distributed

ownership and management

Large physical distance,
up to worldwide

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

12

The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW)


The Internet is one of several Global Networks


The Internet has standard protocols


The Internet is based on Internetworking, or
combining networks to form larger networks


The World Wide Web uses the Internet


The World
W
ide
W
eb is not the Internet


The World Wide Web is


WWW protocols (ex: HTML

& WWW URLs)


WWW Documents (e.g.: Web Pages)


WWW Domain Servers (translate URLs into IP addresses)


WWW Browsers

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

13

The Internet and the World Wide Web:

Web Domain Names and
Addresses


The Internet uses IP Addresses


IPV4: Old style, running out of addresses


IPV6: New style, huge address space


The WWW uses Domain Names


Ex:
www.google.com


Google is the host name


.com is the suffix


The WWW translates Domain Names into IP
Addresses


www.arizona.edu

translates to (IPV4) 128.196.134.37

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

14

The Internet and the World Wide Web:

Web Domain Names
Suffixes


There are a limited set of Suffixes available on
the WWW


Common Suffixes (.com, .
edu
, .
gov
, .info,
.net
)


Country Suffixes (two letter, over 240)


In 2013 entities can apply for their own suffix


.
google


.law


.docs


Etc.

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

15

The Internet and the World Wide Web:

World Wide Web Architecture


Components


Interconnected Web Servers


Utilize Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP
)


Communicate over the Internet


Clients request Web page hosted on server


Server break into packets


Packets stream over internet to Client


Client reassembles


Client can request retransmission of any missing packets


Web browser translate Web page into visible output

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

16

The Internet and the World Wide Web:

Extranets and Intranets


Companies have confidential data


This data still needs to be shared on a limited
basis


Intranet: password protected Web site designed
for sharing within the company


Extranet: password protected Web site designed
for sharing with select partners

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

17

IS Infrastructure Components:

Data Centers


Large amounts of Data to be managed


Dedicated space for infrastructure
components such as Data Centers


Data Center centralization facilitates


Management


Repairs


Upgrades


Security

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

18

Issues Associated with Managing the
IS
Infrastructure

The IS Infrastructure

Describe how changes in business’ competitive landscape influence changing IS infrastructure needs.

Issues Associated with Managing the IS
Infrastructure

Discuss managerial issues associated with managing an
organization’s IS infrastructure.

Cloud Computing

Describe cloud computing and other current trends that can help an organization address IS
infrastructure

related challenges.

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

19

Rapid Obsolescence and Shorter IT Cycles

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20

The Dawn of Computing


1936


Zeus Z1 Computer Introduced


Mechanical Computer


Punch card based


Business and Government Information Systems


Paper Based


Huge rooms full of Filing Cabinets


Specific information known by few employees


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21

Five
Generations of Computing

Generation

Time Line

Major Event

Characteristics

1

1946

1958

Vacuum tubes



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2

ㄹ㔸

1964

Transistors



Mainfram攠敲a 數pands



UN䥖AC is upda瑥t wi瑨 瑲ansis瑯rs

3

ㄹ㘴

1990s

Integrated
circuits



Mainfram攠敲a 敮ds



P敲sonal compu瑥t 敲a b敧ins

4

ㄹ㤰1

2000

Multimedia
and low
-
cost
PCs



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䥮瑥tp敲sonal compu瑩ng 敲a b敧ins



䡩gh
-
sp敥d & capaci瑹



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-
cos琠in瑥tra瑥t AV and da瑡

5

㈰〰

present

Widespread
Internet
accessibility



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䥮瑥tn整eorking 敲a b敧ins



Ubiqui瑯us & mobil攠conn散eivi瑹

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

22

Moore’s Law


Dr. Gordon Moore


Co
-
founder of Intel


Hypothesized the number of transistors on a chip
would double every two years


Transistors predicted computing power


Computing power would double every two years


Has been relatively accurate to this date


First CPU has 2200 transistors


Current CPU’s have over 2
-
billion


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

23

IT Cycles & Obsolescence


Powerful computers
enable new applications


New applications drive
efficiencies


New applications often
make old hardware
obsolete


Obsolete hardware
requires replacement

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

24

Big Data and Rapidly Increasing Storage Needs


Firms collect unprecedented levels of data


Business Intelligence (Chapter 6)


Legal Compliance (e.g., Sarbanes Oxley)


Unprecedented levels of data requires
unprecedented infrastructure capabilities


Capturing the data requires more infrastructure


Storing the data requires more infrastructure


Analyzing the data requires more infrastructure

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

25

Demand Fluctuations


Many companies face demand fluctuations


Seasonal Fluctuations (e.g., Christmas)


Monthly
Fluctuations
(Month
-
end spikes)


Demand
f
luctuations create inefficiencies


Some estimate up to 70% of IS capacity only used
20% of the time


IS infrastructure is typically not readily scalable


Changing internal capacity takes time


Cloud computing (next section) may be the answer

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

26

Increasing Energy Needs


Computing can require a lot of power


Hardware draws power, which generates heat


Heat requires cooling, which requires more power


Data Centers can use large amounts of power


15 to 17 kilowatts per rack


Large data centers have hundreds of racks


More power is required for cooling and lost
through other inefficiencies

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

27

Cloud Computing

The IS Infrastructure

Describe how changes in business’ competitive landscape influence changing IS infrastructure needs.

Issues Associated with Managing the IS Infrastructure

Discuss managerial issues associated with managing an organization’s IS infrastructure.

Cloud Computing

Describe cloud computing and other current trends that can
help an organization address IS infrastructure

related
challenges.

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

28

What Is Cloud Computing
?


Cloud Computing is a way to allocate
resources much like a utility sells power


Resources are used “on
-
demand”, as needed


Customers only pay for what they consume


Resources can be rapidly allocated and reallocated


Consumption becomes an operating expense


% Utilization and Efficiency increase dramatically


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

29

Why Cloud
Computing
?


The efficiency benefits are tremendous


Different customers have different demand spikes


Large data centers have economies of scale


Purchasing, deploying, and managing technology


Implementing green cooling technologies


Flexibly reallocating resources


Customers can focus on core operations


Infrastructure can be consumed as needed


Scalability no longer a limiting factor


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

30

Cloud Computing

Characteristics


On
-
Demand
Self
-
Service


Rapid
Elasticity


Broad Network
Access


Resource Pooling


Measured Service

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

31

Cloud Computing

Service Models


Infrastructure
as a
Service
(IaaS)


Platform as a
Service
(PaaS)


Software as a
Service
(SaaS)

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32

Public and Private Clouds

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33

Managing the Cloud


Availability/Reliability


Scalability


Viability


Security, Privacy, and
Compliance


Diversity
of
Offerings


Openness


Costs

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

34

Advanced Cloud Applications


Grid Computing


Microprocessors


Networked computers


Large problems that can be decomposed


Edge Computing


Servers at the edges of networks


Close to clients


Enhanced performance

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

35

Convergence of Computing and
Telecommunications

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36

Green Computing


Driving forces


Power Bills


Reputation


Culture


Approaches


Virtualizing servers


Cloud computing


Power management software


Reduced printing


Retiring obsolete hardware responsibly

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

37

END OF CHAPTER CONTENT

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

38

Managing in the Digital World:


I Googled You!”


“Google” is now a verb


While known for search, Google actually has a
wealth of products


Google docs: cloud based productivity software


Other products include
Youtube
, Gmail, Google
maps, Chrome, and Android


Continuously evolving and innovating


Operates on a proprietary infrastructure

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

39

Who’s G
oing
M
obile:

The Cloud Phone


Traditional mobile phones tie one number to
each phone


It costs at least $20
-
$25 to build a phone


In developing countries, phones are often shared


The cloud phone


Users can log into their phone account with their
number and a pin using any phone


Launched in Madagascar, Malawi, and Nigeria


The only problem, shared use drains batteries rapidly,
which can be difficult to recharge in rural Africa

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

40

Ethical
Dilemma:

Putting People’s Lives Online


Google street view captures millions of people
in their everyday lives


Put online for the world to see


Not all pictures are of things people want online


People in places or with people they don’t want public


Can be very intrusive, can even ruin lives


If pictures can be monetized, do companies shave
a shareholder duty to do so, regardless of
consequences to some individuals?

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

41

Coming
Attractions:

Optical WLAN


LED lighting in buildings can be used to
transfer data


Up to 100 megabits per second


Flickering the LEDs at very high frequencies


Requires direct view of the lights


Targeted for an eight fold bandwidth improvement


Particularly useful when wireless devices are not
allowed due to interference with sensitive
instruments

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

42

Brief
Case:

Earthquake
-
Proofing
a Data Center


Data centers are a critical infrastructure
component


Natural disasters need to be considered and
controlled for as much as possible


Power outages are handled by generators


Data centers aren’t located in locations likely to
flood or be hit by tsunamis


Earthquakes can be mitigated by building steel
and rubber ‘shock absorber’ floors

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

43

When
Things
G
o Wrong:

Dirty Data Centers


2011 Greenpeace report on data centers and
the cleanliness of their energy sources


Apple dirtiest of all, closely followed by HP, IBM,
and Oracle


Google came in 5
th


Companies now trying to both become more
efficient, get power from non
-
polluting sources


Use air for cooling, recapture heat for heating


Power from solar, wind, and other non
-
polluting
sources

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

44

Key
Players:

Giants of the Infrastructure


Dell: 41
st

on the fortune 500, 3
rd

largest PC maker in
the world


IBM: Multinational company and consulting firm, most
patents of any US technology company


HP: Originally made electronic test equipment, now
makes printers, personal computing products, servers,
and networking equipment


Cisco: Networking company, unrivaled until 1997, now
branching out in both hardware and software


Rackspace: Cloud hosting company formed in 1996,
public and private hosting on a global basis, over
110,000 customers

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

45

Industry
Analysis:

Movie Industry


Computers allow studio quality digital editing
at an affordable price


Movies released in digital formats


Movie theaters switching to digital projection
systems


Theaters receive movies electronically instead
of on reels of 35mm film

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46